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Summary. Preface. Biographic summary of the author. Glossary of definitions and units.
1. Nuclide fractionation in atmospheric nuclear explosions. Radionuclide composition of radioactive aerosol particles. 1.1 Major processes influencing the character of radioactive contamination after a tropospheric nuclear explosion. 1.2 Temperature regime in the fireball of a tropospheric nuclear explosion. 1.3 Formation of particle-camiers of radioactivity. Role of thermodynamic conditions in the fireball. 1.4 Radioactive products from nuclear explosions. 1.5 Thermophysical properties and radioactive transformations of major explosion products. 1.6 Activation of particles. 1.7 Characteristic features of fractionation of radioactive products from tropospheric nuclear explosions.
2. Basic features of radioactive particle formation and radionuclide fractionation in underground nuclear explosions. 2.1 Development of an underground nuclear explosion. 2.2 Release of radioactivity into the atmosphere and formation of a cloud and base surge in an underground nuclear explosion. 2.3 Characteristic featues of radioactive particles from an underground nuclear explosion. 2.4 Fractionation of nuclides in the radioactive particles produced by underground nuclear explosions. 2.5 Interpretation of data on fractionation. Scheme of particle activation in underground explosions.
3. Radionuclide composition of radioactive fallout from atmospheric nuclear explosions. Meteorological aspects of fractionation. 3.1 Meteorological aspects of fractionation. 3.2 Radionuclide composition of fallout near ground zero following atmospheric and ground/surface nuclear explosions. 3.3 Global and long-distance fallout.
4. Radioactive fallout from underground nuclear explosions. 4.1 Characteristics of major cratering explosions. 4.2 Radioactive cloud. 4.3 Radioactive contamination in the rubble zone and the cloud pattern. 4.4 Radionuclide composition of the fallout from an underground explosion. 4.5 Prediction of the radioactive contamination of surrounding land after an underground nuclear explosion.
5. Terrestrial contamination from Chernobyl and other power plant accidents and its radionuclide composition. 5.1 Dynamics of radioactivity release and the condition of radioactive aerosol particle formation from the Chernobyl accident. 5.2 Characteristic features of radioactive aerosol particles produced by the Chernobyl accident and their radionuclide composition. 5.3 Terrestrial contamination from the Chernobyl accident. 5.4 Radionuclide composition of the terrestrial contamination from the Chernobyl accident. 5.5 Analysis and reconstruction of the source of radioactivity release from the Chernobyl accident. 5.6 Modeling of close-in radioactive deposition (fallout) from the Chernobyl NPP accident. 5.7 Characteristic features of radioactive contamination from various nuclear accidents.
6. Reconstruction of contamination patterns from nuclear explosions and accidents. 6.1 The problems associated with the reconstruction of terrestrial contamination. 6.2 Terrestrial contamination after the Chernobyl and other NPP accidents. 6.3 Reconstruction of terrestrial contamination from nuclear explosions.
7. Radiation field from the radioactive clouds of a nuclear explosion. 7.1 Calculation of the surface radiation dose. 7.2 Influence of natural environmental conditions on the surface field. 7.3 Aerial survey. Determination of the total surface density of the terrestrial contamination from the measured dose rate. 7.4 Aerial survey. Estimation of the surface density of the terrestrial contamination by individual nuclides.
8. Remediation of contaminated areas. Rehabilitation of territories subjected to radioactive contamination and mobility of radionuclides. 8.1 Fractionation. 8.2 Radionuclide mobility after nuclear explosions and accidents. 8.3 Solubility and biological accessibility. 8.4 Radioactive contamination of vegetation and experimental data on the uptake of radionuclides by humans and animals. 8.5 Problem of rehabilitation of contaminated areas. Agricultural radioecology. 8.6 Practical measures for the restoration of contaminated territories. Conclusions. References.
To achieve successful solutions to the problems resulting from local, distant and global radioactive fallout after nuclear explosions and accidents and to achieve successful retrospective analyses of the radiation conditions from recent observations, certain information is needed: the distribution of the exposure dose rate in the atmosphere and in a country; the distribution of radionuclides in natural environments and the nuclide composition of the radioactive fallout; the features of formation of the aerosol particle-carriers of the radioactivity and of the nuclide distribution of the particles of different sizes formed under different conditions; the processes involved in the migration of radioactive products in different zones and environments; the external and internal effects of nuclear radiation on human beings.
This monograph is devoted to a number of these problems, namely, to studies of the radioactive fallout composition, the formation of the aerosol particles that transport the radioactive products and to the analysis of the external radiation doses resulting from nuclear explosions and/or accidents. Problems of restoration and rehabilitation of contaminated land areas are also touched upon in the monograph. To solve such problems one requires knowledge of the mobility of radionuclides, an understanding of their uptake by plants, their transportation within the food chain and finally their uptake by animal and/or human organisms.
The results of many years of study of radioactive fallout from atmospheric and underground nuclear explosions and accidents are summarized in this book. It is intended for various specialists - geophysicists, ecologists, health experts and inspectors, as well as those who are concerned with radioactive contamination of natural environments.
- No. of pages:
- © Elsevier Science 2002
- 20th June 2002
- Elsevier Science
- eBook ISBN:
Academician Professor Yuri A. Izrael is one of Russia's and indeed the world's top names in the environmental and nuclear sciences. As the most senior scientist involved in the monitoring, behavioural and assessment studies at and around the previously secret nuclear weapon tests of the former Soviet Union and at the Chernobyl and other nuclear accidents, Professor Izrael has a wealth of unique knowledge and experience of the science of these sites of special scientific interest. Indeed, he has himself pioneered much of that science.
The scientific career of Yuri A. lzrael, Doctor of Sciences (Physics and Mathematics), Professor and Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences as well as a number of other academies, has been devoted to nuclear and environmental sciences, meteorology and climatology. Born in 1930, he worked at first in the Geophysical Institute and then in the Institute of Applied Geophysics of the USSR Academy of Sciences, where he progressed from junior scientist to Institute Director (1969). He defended his PhD. (1963) and D.Se. (1969) theses (in the fields of physical and mathematical sciences).
Since the beginning of his scientific career, Professor Izrael specialized particularly on the meteorological aspects of both radioactive contamination and chemical pollution of the natural environment. He became one of the first scientists to personally obtain and analyze extensive experimental data on the dispersal and behaviour of radioactive products after nuclear weapon tests (1954-1974), after accidents at nuclear power installations (1957-1967), after the Chernobyl nuclear accident (1986-1996), and on transport of chemical products during operations of different enterprises (1970-1996). This experience permitted Professor Izrael to encourage and play his own part in the development, and then improvement, of transport models for both conservative and chemically active admixtures in the atmosphere and thus to develop methods of predicting the po
Russian Academy of Sciences, Department of Oceanology, Atmosphere Physics and Geography, Leninsky Pr. 32A, 117993 Moscow, Russia