Radiation and Reentry

Radiation and Reentry

1st Edition - January 1, 1968

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  • Author: S Penner
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323147750

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Radiation and Reentry is an integrated review of a series of publications dealing with radiative transfer theory, applied spectroscopy, radiation gas dynamics, and ablation phenomena. This book contains seven chapters and begins with a presentation of opacity calculations under conditions for which detailed considerations of spectral line structures and widths are not required. The discussion then shifts to the basic methods involved in the formulation of radiative transfer problems; origin and definition of the Planck and Rosseland mean free paths; the conservation equations for reacting, multicomponent gas mixtures with proper allowance for radiative energy flux; and similarity parameters in radiation gas dynamics. These topics are followed by a summary of data relevant to the optically thick, optically thin, and isothermal cases for air in local thermodynamic equilibrium. A chapter describes the radiative properties of spherical particles and their particle size distributions. Another chapter considers the estimation of radiant-energy transmission through atmosphere. The concluding chapters explore the radiation transfer effects on the flow about a re-entry body and the specific problems of the effect of radiant-energy transfer on acoustic waves, shock wave structure, and shock and boundary layers. These chapters also examine the theoretical and experimental studies on the ablation of re-entry vehicles. This book is of great value to educated nonspecialists who are interested in the application of radiation field to high-speed atmospheric entry.

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    Chapter 1. Simplified Procedures for Opacity Calculations

    1-1 Basic Physical Laws for Equilibrium Line Radiation

    1-2 Measurement Principles Involved in Relative and Absolute Intensity Determinations for Discrete Transitions

    1-3 Bound-Free and Free-Free Transitions (Continuum Radiation)

    1-4 Approximate Theoretical Procedures for Calculating Line and Band Radiation on Diatomic Molecules

    1-5 Approximate Band and Total Emissivity Calculations for CO2

    1-6 Approximate Band and Total Emissivity Calculations for H2O

    1-7 Approximate Band Absorption Calculations for Methane

    1-8 Effect of (Partial) Overlapping of Spectral Lines on the Total Emissivity of H2O-CO2 Mixtures

    1 -9 Approximate Theoretical Calculations of Radiant-Energy Emission and Absorption in Transitions from Stable to Unstable Energy Levels

    1-10 Relation between Emissivities and Absorptivities

    1-11 Procedures for Approximate Calculations of Radiant-Energy Emission from Nonisothermal Emitters

    Appendix 1-1 Temperature Variation of Integrated Intensities for Vibration-Rotation Bands Belonging to Polyatomic Molecules

    Appendix 1-2 Derivation of the Basic Transfer Equation for Nonisothermal Gases

    Appendix 1-3 Evaluation of F(Ki)


    Chapter 2. Radiative Transfer Theory, Radiation Mean Free Paths, Conservation Equations, and Similarity Parameters

    2-1 The Formulation of Radiative Transfer Problems

    2-2 Planck and Rosseland Mean Free Paths

    2-3 The Conservation Equations with Radiant-Energy Transport and the Coupling of Radiative and Convective Energy Transfer

    2-4 Similarity Parameters for Radiative-Energy Transfer in Isothermal and Nonisothermal Gas Mixtures

    2-5 Radiative-Energy Transfer at the Steady State between Two Infinite, Parallel, Isothermal Plates, Separated by a Gray Absorbing Gas

    2-6 Radiative Transfer for Non-Gray Gases


    Chapter 3. Radiative Heat Transfer in Heated Air

    3-1 Limiting Radiative Transfer Cases

    3-2 Existing Absorption-Coefficient Data for Heated Air

    3-3 Thermal Conduction

    3-4 Examples of Nonequilibrium Radiation in Heated Air

    3-5 Neglected Band Systems


    Chapter 4. Radiative Properties of (Spherical) Particles and of Particle-Size Distributions

    4-1 Diffraction of a Plane Wave by a Spherical Particle

    4-2 Limiting Cases of the Mie Theory for Scattering by Spherical Particles

    4-3 Emission and Scattering of Radiation from Distributions of Carbon Particles

    4-4 Scattering and Emission from Distributions of Alumina and Magnesia Particles

    Appendix 4-1 Scattering by Nonabsorbing Spheres for N > 1 or N < 1


    Chapter 5. Transmission of Radiation through the Atmosphere

    5-1 Composition of the Atmosphere

    5-2 Spectral Transmission through the Atmosphere at 10,468 A

    5-3 Transmission along a Slant Path through the Atmosphere

    5-4 Spectral Distribution of the Intensity of Radiation Emerging from a Planetary Atmosphere

    5-5 Atmospheric Seeing and Visibility

    Appendix 5-1 Summary of Measured Band Intensities Used in the Atmospheric Transmission Calculations


    Chapter 6. Radiation Gas Dynamics

    6-1 Radiative Transfer during Reentry

    6-2 Approximations for the Radiative Transfer Term

    6-3 The Propagation of Acoustic Waves in a Radiating Gas

    6-4 The Structure of Shock Waves in a Radiating Gas

    6-5 Radiating Inviscid Shock Layers

    6-6 Radiating Viscous Flows


    Chapter 7. Ablation during Atmospheric Entry

    7-1 Introduction

    7-2 Steady-State Ablation Rates and Ablation with Radiant Heating

    7-3 Surface Melting of Opaque Materials

    7-4 Energy Absorption at the Ablator Surface with the Regression Rate Controlled by a Rate Law

    7-5 Surface Melting and Evaporation with Coupled Motion between the Liquid Layer and the External Gas Flow—the Treatment of Bethe and Adams

    7-6 Other Treatments of Surface Melting and the Coupled Motion of the Liquid Layer and External Gas Flow

    7-7 Ablation with Combustion of Gasification Products, Depolymerization, and Liquid-Phase Reactions

    7-8 Unsteady Ablation Coupled to a Steady, Laminar Boundary-Layer Flow

    Appendix 7-1 The Mass Fraction of Ablator at the Interface, Where Evaporation Occurs, for a Boundary-Layer Flow

    Appendix 7-2 Heuristic Transformation of Flat-Plate Results to the Stagnation Region of a Sphere


    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 506
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1968
  • Published: January 1, 1968
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323147750

About the Author

S Penner

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