This book is dedicated to studying the ocean with radar tools, in particular, with space radars. Being intended mainly for the scientists preoccupied with the problem (as well as senior course students), it concentrates and generalizes the knowledge scattered over specialized journals. The significant part of the book contains the results obtained by the author.

Key Features

* Systematically collects and describes the approaches used by different laboratories and institutions * Deals with the physics of radar imagery and specifically with ocean surface imagery. * Useful for students and researchers specializing in the area of ocean remote sensing using airborne or space-borne radars, both SAR and RAR


Senior undergraduates, post-graduates and researchers in environmental physics, environmental science, oceanography, and geophysics

Table of Contents

Introduction 1. Preliminary notes on radar imaging 2. Description of the sea surface 2.1. Sea wave spectra. General relationships 2.2. Gravity wave spectra 2.3. Gravity-capillary wave spectra 2.4. Realistic ocean surface and its features 3. Sea scattering of radio waves 3.1. Sea water dielectric constant and electromagnetic penetration depth 3.2. Resonant scattering 3.2.1. HF scattering and HF radars 3.2.2. Microwave scattering. Two-scale model of the sea surface 3.3. Backscattering at small incidence angles 3.3.1. Radar cross section at small incidence angles 3.3.2. Doppler spectrum at small incidence angle 3.4. Backscattering at low grazing angles 4. Microwave Doppler spectrum at moderate incidence angles 5. Real aperture side-looking radar 5.1. Correlation function of backscattered signal intensity 5.2. Spatial spectrum of signal intensity slow fluctuations 5.3. Fast fluctuations of the signal (speckle noise) 5.4. Inhomogeneous roughness imaging 6. Synthetic aperture radar 6.1. Preliminary estimates 6.2. SAR image correlation function. General relationships 6.3. Intensity of the SAR signal forming the "image-itself" 6.4. Spectrum of the SAR image of the ocean 6.5. SAR imaging mechanisms 6.5.1. Influence of subresolution velocities 6.5.2. Velocity bunching mechanism. Linear and quasi-linear approximations 6.5.3. Nonlinear velocity bunching mechanism 6.5.4. SAR imaging of the mixed sea 6.6. Speckle noise in the SAR image of the ocean surface 6.7. Modified spectral estimate for the SAR image of the ocean 6.8. Peculiarities of the


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© 2009
Elsevier Science
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About the author

Mikhail Kanevsky

Affiliations and Expertise

Institute of Applied Physics, RAS