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Quaternary Glaciations - Extent and Chronology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444534477, 9780444535375

Quaternary Glaciations - Extent and Chronology, Volume 15

1st Edition

A Closer Look

Editors: J. Ehlers P.L. Gibbard P.D. Hughes
Hardcover ISBN: 9780444534477
eBook ISBN: 9780444535375
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 29th June 2011
Page Count: 1126
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Table of Contents



1.1. Introduction

1.2. The Digital Maps

1.3. The Geology

1.4. Summary

Quaternary Glaciations in Austria

2.1. Introduction

2.2. The Course of the Quaternary

2.3. The Four Alpine Glaciations

2.4. Tectonic Activity

2.5. Development of Glaciers

2.6. Overdeepened Valleys

2.7. Last Interglacial-Glacial Cycle

2.8. Chronology

2.9. Phase of Ice Decay

2.10. The Bühl Phase

2.11. The Steinach Phase

2.12. The Gschnitz Phase

2.13. Chronology

2.14. The Daun Phase

2.15. The Egesen Phase

The Pleistocene Glaciations in Belarus

3.1. Introduction

3.2. Varyazh Glaciation

3.3. Narev Glaciation

3.4. Berezina Glaciation

3.5. Pripyat’ Glaciation

3.6. Poozerian Glaciation

3.7. Conclusions

Pleistocene Glaciations of Czechia

4.1. Introduction

4.2. Continental Glaciation

4.3. Elsterian Glaciations

4.4. Saalian Glaciation

4.5. Mountain Glaciations

4.6. Pre-Weichselian Glaciation

4.7. Weichselian Glaciation

4.8. Conclusions

Pleistocene Glaciations in Denmark: A Closer Look at Chronology, Ice Dynamics and Landforms

5.1. Introduction

5.2. The Pleistocene of Denmark

5.3. Middle Pleistocene Glaciations

5.4. The Saalian Glaciation

5.5. Late Pleistocene Glaciations

5.6. Conclusions

The Glacial History of the British Isles during the Early and Middle Pleistocene: Implications for the long-term development of the British Ice Sheet

6.1. Introduction

6.2. Early and Middle Pleistocene Glacial History of the British Isles

6.3. Discussion

6.4. Conclusions


Pleistocene Glaciation Limits in Great Britain

7.1. Introduction

7.2. Evidence for glaciations

7.3. The British Pleistocene succession

7.4. The ‘traditional model’ of East Anglian glacial stratigraphy


Pleistocene Glaciations in Estonia

8.1. Introduction

8.2. Early Pleistocene

8.3. Middle Pleistocene

8.4. Late Pleistocene

8.5. Conclusions

The Glaciation of Finland

9.1. Introduction

9.2. Middle Pleistocene Glaciations

9.3. Late Pleistocene Glaciations (ca. 110–11.7ka)

Quaternary Glaciations in the French Alps and Jura

10.1. Introduction

10.2. Middle Pleistocene Glaciations, the External Moraine Complex

10.3. Late Pleistocene Glaciations, the Internal Moraine Complex

10.4. Conclusions

Recent Advances in Research on Quaternary Glaciations in the Pyrenees

11.1. Introduction

11.2. Middle Pleistocene Glaciations

11.3. The Last Pleistocene Glacial Cycle (Würmian Stage)

11.4. Conclusions

Late Pleistocene (Würmian) Glaciations of the Caucasus

12.1. Introduction

12.2. Methods of Investigation

12.3. Results

12.4. The Western Caucasus

12.5. The Central Caucasus

12.6. The Eastern Caucasus

12.7. The Minor Caucasus

12.8. Conclusions

Pleistocene Glaciations of North Germany—New Results

13.1. Introduction

13.2. Traces of Early glaciation

13.3. The Elsterian glaciation

13.4. The Holsteinian Interglacial

13.5. The Saalian Complex

13.6. The Dömnitz Interglacial

13.7. The Saalian glaciation

13.8. The Eemian Stage Interglacial

13.9. The Weichselian glaciation

Pleistocene Glaciations of Southern Germany

14.1. Introduction

14.2. Stratigraphical results and concepts

14.3. Regional description

14.4. Arguable Early Pleistocene glaciations derived from oldest gravel spreads

14.5. Stratigraphical implications from sediments overlying the Zusamplatte gravel (Uhlenberg site and others)

14.6. Ältere Deckenschotter and possibly equivalent glaciation

14.7. Mittlere Deckenschotter and possibly equivalent glaciation

14.8. Jüngere Deckenschotter and equivalent glaciation

14.9. Incision between Jüngere Deckenschotter and Hochterrasse, ‘third from last’ glaciation and the Samerberg site

14.10. The belt of morainic amphitheatres correlated with the penultimate glaciation

14.11. Eemian stage interglacial

14.12. Last glaciation (Würmian)

14.13. Glaciations of low mountain ranges


Glaciation in Greece

15.1. Introduction

15.2. The Glacial Record on Mount Olympus, Northeast Greece

15.3. The Glacial Record on Mount Tymphi, Northwest Greece

15.4. The First Uranium-Series Ages for the Glacial Record in Greece

15.5. Towards a Formal Stratigraphical Framework for the Glacial Record in Greece

15.6. Secondary Carbonate Formation and Environmental Change

15.7. Palaeoclimate Reconstructions from Glacial Geomorphological Data

15.8. River Response to Glaciation and the Last Glacial-to-Interglacial Transition

15.9. The Mount Tymphi and Mount Olympus records

15.10. Pleistocene ELAs Across Greece

15.11. Conclusions and Future Research Needs


Pliocene and Pleistocene Glaciations of Iceland

16.1. Introduction

16.2. Tertiary Glaciations—Earliest Signs of Glaciation in South-East and East Iceland (>3–2.59Ma)

16.3. Early- to Mid-Pleistocene Glaciation (2.59–0.78Ma)—An Icelandic Ice Sheet is Established

16.4. Middle to Late Pleistocene Glaciations in Iceland (0.78–0.126Ma)

16.5. From the Last Glacial Maximum Through to the Last Deglaciation (


The book presents an up-to-date, detailed overview of the Quaternary glaciations all over the world, not only with regard to stratigraphy but also with regard to major glacial landforms and the extent of the respective ice sheets. The locations of key sites are included. The information is presented in digital, uniformly prepared maps which can be used in a Geographical Information System (GIS) such as ArcView or ArcGIS. The accompanying text supplies the information on how the data were obtained (geomorphology, geological mapping, air photograph evaluation, satellite imagery), how the features were dated (14C, TL, relative stratigraphy) and how reliable they are supposed to be. All references to the underlying basic publications are included. Where controversial interpretations are possible e.g. in Siberia or Tibet, this is pointed out. As a result, the information on Quaternary glaciations worldwide will be much improved and supplied in a uniform digital format.

The information on the glacial limits is compiled in digital form by the coordinators of the project, and is available for download at:

Key Features

  • Completely updated detailed coverage of worldwide Quaternary glaciations
  • Information in digital, uniformly prepared maps which can be used in a GIS such as ArcView or ArcGis
  • Step-by-step guideline how to open and use ArcGis files
  • Possibility to convert the shapefiles into GoogleEarth kmz-files
  • Availability of chronological controls


Postgraduates and researchers who work with glaciations, climate modelling (same group as volumes 1-3), libraries, and academic and goverment instutions


No. of pages:
© Elsevier 2011
29th June 2011
Hardcover ISBN:
eBook ISBN:


"This book is part of a four-volume series (Part 1: Europe CH, Mar'05, 42-4043) reporting the work of an international commission on world glaciation; it summarizes and updates the previous volumes. Following an editors' introduction, 77 chapters discuss Europe, Greenland, western Russia, Ukraine, and Turkey (31 chapters); Canada and the US (18); Mexico through Tierra del Fuego (11); eastern Asia (12); Australia and New Zealand (2); and Africa (3). Improved digital maps are available online… rather than on CD-ROM as in prior volumes. The dating of glacial stages has also improved greatly here…. Summing Up: Recommended. Upper-division undergraduates through researchers/faculty." --CHOICE

Ratings and Reviews

About the Editors

J. Ehlers

J. Ehlers

Affiliations and Expertise

Geologisches Landesamt, Hamburg, Germany

P.L. Gibbard

P.L. Gibbard

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Cambridge, UK

P.D. Hughes

P.D. Hughes

Philip Hughes is Professor of Physical Geography at the University of Manchester, United Kingdom. He obtained his first degree in geography at the University of Exeter graduating in 1999. This was followed by a Masters in Quaternary Science, then a PhD in Geography (2004), both at the University of Cambridge (Darwin College). His PhD was on the glacial history of the Pindus Mountains, Greece. This was then followed by a postdoctoral research project examining the glacial history of Montenegro at the University of Manchester (2004-2006). He has since worked on glaciation across the Mediterranean mountains in Greece, Albania, Montenegro, Croatia, Spain and with recent research activities focusing on the Atlas Mountains, Morocco. His research has utilised U-series dating and cosmogenic nuclides to date moraines in a variety of different lithologies, from limestones to basalts. In addition to studies of Mediterranean mountain glaciations he has also published on global glaciations and stratigraphy in Quaternary science. In addition to several edited scientific volumes on glaciation, in 2016 he published the textbook The Ice Age with co-authors Jürgen Ehlers and Philip Gibbard. In 2011 Philip also edited with these co-authors the highly successful Elsevier volume Quaternary Glaciation: Extent and Chronology – A Closer Look.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Physical Geography, University of Manchester, UK