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Quaternary Glaciations - Extent and Chronology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444534477, 9780444535375

Quaternary Glaciations - Extent and Chronology, Volume 15

1st Edition

A Closer Look

Editors: J. Ehlers P.L. Gibbard P.D. Hughes
Hardcover ISBN: 9780444534477
eBook ISBN: 9780444535375
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 20th July 2011
Page Count: 1126
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Table of Contents



1.1. Introduction

1.2. The Digital Maps

1.3. The Geology

1.4. Summary

Quaternary Glaciations in Austria

2.1. Introduction

2.2. The Course of the Quaternary

2.3. The Four Alpine Glaciations

2.4. Tectonic Activity

2.5. Development of Glaciers

2.6. Overdeepened Valleys

2.7. Last Interglacial-Glacial Cycle

2.8. Chronology

2.9. Phase of Ice Decay

2.10. The Bühl Phase

2.11. The Steinach Phase

2.12. The Gschnitz Phase

2.13. Chronology

2.14. The Daun Phase

2.15. The Egesen Phase

The Pleistocene Glaciations in Belarus

3.1. Introduction

3.2. Varyazh Glaciation

3.3. Narev Glaciation

3.4. Berezina Glaciation

3.5. Pripyat’ Glaciation

3.6. Poozerian Glaciation

3.7. Conclusions

Pleistocene Glaciations of Czechia

4.1. Introduction

4.2. Continental Glaciation

4.3. Elsterian Glaciations

4.4. Saalian Glaciation

4.5. Mountain Glaciations

4.6. Pre-Weichselian Glaciation

4.7. Weichselian Glaciation

4.8. Conclusions

Pleistocene Glaciations in Denmark: A Closer Look at Chronology, Ice Dynamics and Landforms

5.1. Introduction

5.2. The Pleistocene of Denmark

5.3. Middle Pleistocene Glaciations

5.4. The Saalian Glaciation

5.5. Late Pleistocene Glaciations

5.6. Conclusions

The Glacial History of the British Isles during the Early and Middle Pleistocene: Implications for the long-term development of the British Ice Sheet

6.1. Introduction

6.2. Early and Middle Pleistocene Glacial History of the British Isles

6.3. Discussion

6.4. Conclusions


Pleistocene Glaciation Limits in Great Britain

7.1. Introduction

7.2. Evidence for glaciations

7.3. The British Pleistocene succession

7.4. The ‘traditional model’ of East Anglian glacial stratigraphy


Pleistocene Glaciations in Estonia

8.1. Introduction

8.2. Early Pleistocene

8.3. Middle Pleistocene

8.4. Late Pleistocene

8.5. Conclusions

The Glaciation of Finland

9.1. Introduction

9.2. Middle Pleistocene Glaciations

9.3. Late Pleistocene Glaciations (ca. 110–11.7ka)

Quaternary Glaciations in the French Alps and Jura

10.1. Introduction

10.2. Middle Pleistocene Glaciations, the External Moraine Complex

10.3. Late Pleistocene Glaciations, the Internal Moraine Complex

10.4. Conclusions

Recent Advances in Research on Quaternary Glaciations in the Pyrenees

11.1. Introduction

11.2. Middle Pleistocene Glaciations

11.3. The Last Pleistocene Glacial Cycle (Würmian Stage)

11.4. Conclusions

Late Pleistocene (Würmian) Glaciations of the Caucasus

12.1. Introduction

12.2. Methods of Investigation

12.3. Results

12.4. The Western Caucasus

12.5. The Central Caucasus

12.6. The Eastern Caucasus

12.7. The Minor Caucasus

12.8. Conclusions

Pleistocene Glaciations of North Germany—New Results

13.1. Introduction

13.2. Traces of Early glaciation

13.3. The Elsterian glaciation

13.4. The Holsteinian Interglacial

13.5. The Saalian Complex

13.6. The Dömnitz Interglacial

13.7. The Saalian glaciation

13.8. The Eemian Stage Interglacial

13.9. The Weichselian glaciation

Pleistocene Glaciations of Southern Germany

14.1. Introduction

14.2. Stratigraphical results and concepts

14.3. Regional description

14.4. Arguable Early Pleistocene glaciations derived from oldest gravel spreads

14.5. Stratigraphical implications from sediments overlying the Zusamplatte gravel (Uhlenberg site and others)

14.6. Ältere Deckenschotter and possibly equivalent glaciation

14.7. Mittlere Deckenschotter and possibly equivalent glaciation

14.8. Jüngere Deckenschotter and equivalent glaciation

14.9. Incision between Jüngere Deckenschotter and Hochterrasse, ‘third from last’ glaciation and the Samerberg site

14.10. The belt of morainic amphitheatres correlated with the penultimate glaciation

14.11. Eemian stage interglacial

14.12. Last glaciation (Würmian)

14.13. Glaciations of low mountain ranges


Glaciation in Greece

15.1. Introduction

15.2. The Glacial Record on Mount Olympus, Northeast Greece

15.3. The Glacial Record on Mount Tymphi, Northwest Greece

15.4. The First Uranium-Series Ages for the Glacial Record in Greece

15.5. Towards a Formal Stratigraphical Framework for the Glacial Record in Greece

15.6. Secondary Carbonate Formation and Environmental Change

15.7. Palaeoclimate Reconstructions from Glacial Geomorphological Data

15.8. River Response to Glaciation and the Last Glacial-to-Interglacial Transition

15.9. The Mount Tymphi and Mount Olympus records

15.10. Pleistocene ELAs Across Greece

15.11. Conclusions and Future Research Needs


Pliocene and Pleistocene Glaciations of Iceland

16.1. Introduction

16.2. Tertiary Glaciations—Earliest Signs of Glaciation in South-East and East Iceland (>3–2.59Ma)

16.3. Early- to Mid-Pleistocene Glaciation (2.59–0.78Ma)—An Icelandic Ice Sheet is Established

16.4. Middle to Late Pleistocene Glaciations in Iceland (0.78–0.126Ma)

16.5. From the Last Glacial Maximum Through to the Last Deglaciation (<0.126Ma)

16.6. Early Holocene Thermal Maximum and the Onset of Neoglaciation

16.7. Glacial Limits and Quality of Data

16.8. Dating of Glacial Limits—Reliability of Dates

16.9. Conclusions

Middle Pleistocene to Holocene Glaciations in the Italian Apennines

17.1. Introduction

17.2. Middle Pleistocene glaciations

17.3. Late Pleistocene glaciation

17.4. Holocene neoglaciation

17.5. Conclusions


Pleistocene Glaciations in Latvia

18.1. Introduction

18.2. Early Pleistocene Glaciation

18.3. Middle Pleistocene Glaciations

18.4. Late Pleistocene Glaciations

18.5. Glacial Limits

18.6. Conclusions


Pleistocene Glaciations in Lithuania

19.1. Introduction

19.2. Early Pleistocene Glaciation

19.3. Middle Pleistocene

19.4. Late Pleistocene. Lower and Middle Weichselian Substage Glaciations (Nemunas)

19.5. Conclusions


Pleistocene Glaciation in The Netherlands

20.1. Pre-Elsterian glaciations

20.2. The Elsterian glaciation

20.3. The Saalian glaciation in the Netherlands

20.4. The Weichselian glaciation in the North Sea

20.5. Conclusions


The Pleistocene Glaciations of the North Sea Basin

21.1. Introduction

21.2. Early Pleistocene glaciation(s)

21.3. Middle Pleistocene/pre-Elsterian glaciations

21.4. The Elsterian (MIS 12)

21.5. The Saalian (MIS 6–10)

21.6. The Weichselian (MIS 5d–2)

21.7. Summary

21.8. Note on the Maps


Glacial History of Norway

22.1. Introduction

22.2. Early and Middle Quaternary Glaciations

22.3. The Late Quaternary Glaciations—The Weichselian

22.4. The Early and Middle Weichselian

22.5. The Late Weichselian

Quaternary Glaciations in Poland

23.1. Introduction

23.2. Early Pleistocene Glaciations

23.3. Middle Pleistocene Glaciations

23.4. Late Pleistocene Glaciation

23.5. Conclusions

New Evidence on the Quaternary Glaciation in the Romanian Carpathians

24.1. Introduction

24.2. The setting

24.3. Methodological aspects

24.4. The arguments

24.5. Eastern Carpathians

24.6. The Southern Carpathians

24.7. The Apuseni Mountains

24.8. Glacier orientations

24.9. Problems of age assignment

24.10. Reconstructed Pleistocene ELAs

24.11. Conclusions and open questions

Ice Margins of Northern Russia Revisited

25.1. Introduction

25.2. Middle Pleistocene Glaciations

25.3. Late Pleistocene Glaciations

25.4. New Solutions

25.5. Conclusion


Glaciations of the East European Plain

26.1. Introduction

26.2. Likovo Glaciation

26.3. Akulovo Interglacial

26.4. Krasikovo Interglacial

26.5. Setun’ Glaciation

26.6. Okatovo Interglacial

26.7. Don Glaciation

26.8. Muchkap Interglacial

26.9. Ikorets Interglacial

26.10. Oka Glaciation

26.11. Likhvin Interglacial

26.12. Pechora Glaciation

26.13. Kamenka Interglacial

26.14. Dnieper Glacial Epoch

26.15. Mikulino Interglacial

26.16. Valdai Glaciation

Glacial History of the Barents Sea Region

27.1. Introduction

27.2. Physiography and Quaternary Sediments

27.3. Palaeogene and Neogene

27.4. Early Pleistocene (~2.6 to ~0.7Ma)

27.5. Middle Pleistocene Glaciations (0.78–0.12Ma)

27.6. Late Pleistocene Glaciations

27.7. The Early and Middle Weichselian Glacial History

27.8. The Late Weichselian Ice Sheet


Glacial History of the Taymyr Peninsula and the Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago, Arctic Russia

28.1. Introduction

28.2. The Middle Pleistocene Pre-Saalian History

28.3. The Middle/Late Pleistocene Transition: The Saalian and Eemian Stages

28.4. The Build-Up of KSIS: Changing Paradigms

28.5. The Early Weichselian—The Weichselian Glaciation Maximum on Taymyr

28.6. Deglaciation from the Early Weichselian Maximal Position to the Byrranga Mountains

28.7. The North Taymyr Ice-Marginal Zone

28.8. The Early Weichselian NTZ Stage

28.9. The Middle Weichselian NTZ Stage

28.10. The Late Weichselian NTZ Stage

28.11. The Severnaya Zemlya Islands During the Weichselian Stage

28.12. Summary of Results

Glacial History of Slovenia

29.1. Introduction

29.2. Early/Middle Pleistocene Glaciations

29.3. Late Pleistocene Glaciations

29.4. Conclusions

Quaternary Glaciations of Turkey

30.1. Introduction

30.2. Quaternary Glacial Landforms

30.3. The Taurus Mountains

30.4. Mountain Ranges Along the Eastern Black Sea

30.5. Volcanoes and Individual Mountains on the Anatolian Plateau

30.6. Conclusions


Limits of the Pleistocene Glaciations in the Ukraine

31.1. Introduction

31.2. The Interpretation of the Primary Data

31.3. The Oka Glaciation in the Western and Northern Parts of the Ukraine and in the Eastern and Southern Parts of Belarus

31.4. The Dnieper Glaciation in the Central and Northern Ukraine and Adjacent Regions of Russia

31.5. Mountain Glaciation in the Ukrainian Carpathians

31.6. Conclusion


Chronology and Extent of Late Cenozoic Ice Sheets in North America

Alaska Palaeo-Glacier Atlas (Version 2)

33.1. Introduction

33.2. GIS Procedures

33.3. Palaeo-Glacier Limits

33.4. Regional Updates for APG Atlas v2

33.5. Discussion

Full Citation

Glaciations of the Sierra Nevada, California, USA

34.1. Introduction

34.2. Glacial Advances

34.3. Discussion

34.4. Summary


Pleistocene Glaciation of Hawaii

Quaternary Glaciations in Illinois

36.1. Introduction

36.2. Pre-Illinois Episode

36.3. Illinois Episode

Ice-Margin Fluctuations at the End of the Wisconsin Episode, Michigan, USA

37.1. Introduction

37.2. Structure of the Diachronic Classification

37.3. Major Glacial Phases in Michigan

37.4. Discussion

37.5. Summary

The Quaternary of Minnesota

38.1. General Character and Age of Quaternary Deposits in Minnesota

38.2. Lithostratigraphy of Quaternary Deposits in Minnesota

Pleistocene Glaciation of Ohio, USA

39.1. Introduction

39.2. Tertiary Period

39.3. Early Pleistocene Glaciations

39.4. Middle Pleistocene Glaciations

39.5. Late Pleistocene Glaciations

39.6. Conclusions

The Glaciation of Pennsylvania, USA

40.1. Introduction

40.2. Discussion of the Glacial Limits

40.3. Discussion of the Dating of the Age of the Glacial Limits

40.4. Early Pleistocene Pseudo-Moraine at Selinsgrove and Allentown Pennsylvania

40.5. Late Wisconsinan Till Knobs Forming ‘Beaded Valleys’ in North-Eastern Pennsylvania

40.6. Open Questions

Glaciation of Western Washington, USA

41.1. Cordilleran Ice Sheet in Western Washington

41.2. Glaciation of the Cascade Range

41.3. Glaciation of the Olympic Mountains

The Quaternary of Wisconsin

42.1. Introduction

42.2. Early Pleistocene Glaciations

42.3. Middle Pleistocene (Illinoian Glaciation)

42.4. Late Pleistocene (Wisconsinan Glaciation)

42.5. Driftless Area

42.6. Future Work


Summary of Early and Middle Pleistocene Glaciations in Northern Missouri, USA

43.1. Introduction

43.2. Early Work in Missouri

43.3. Stratigraphy and Lithologies

43.4. Chronology

43.5. Glacial Boundaries

43.6. Correlation and Future Work

43.7. Summary and Conclusions

Pleistocene Glaciation of British Columbia

44.1. Introduction

44.2. Character and Extent of Cordilleran Ice Sheet

44.3. Growth and Decay of Cordilleran Ice Sheet

44.4. Glacial Erosion and Deposition

44.5. Crustal Deformation

44.6. Stratigraphical Record and Chronology

Limits of Successive Middle and Late Pleistocene Continental Ice Sheets, Interior Plains of Southern and Central Alberta and Adjacent Areas

45.1. Introduction

45.2. Cosmogenic exposure dating of glacial erratics in southern Alberta and northern Montana

45.3. Testing the Barendregt–Irving hypothesis: Stratigraphy in Alberta's buried valleys

45.4. Discussion and conclusions


Appendix A. Methods in the cosmogenic 36Cl dating of glacial erratics around Del Bonita upland

Appendix B. Basal gravel predating continental glaciation and its time-transgressive nature

Appendix C. Elimination of ‘Labuma Till’ and related allostratigraphic units outside of the Red Deer–Stettler area

Magnetostratigraphy of Quaternary Sections in Eastern Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba

Chapter 46.1. Introduction

46.2. Study Sites

46.3. Discussion

46.4. Conclusions

Late Pleistocene–Early Holocene Decay of the Laurentide Ice Sheet in Québec–Labrador

47.1. Introduction

47.2. Overview of the Glacial History of Québec–Labrador

47.3. The Late Wisconsinan (Late Weichselian)–Holocene Deglaciation of Québec–Labrador: Overview

47.4. The Deglaciation in Southern Québec During Late Wisconsinan: From the St. Lawrence Ice Stream to the Early Phase of Younger Dryas

47.5. The Younger Dryas

47.6. Deglaciation of the Canadian Shield Area (Québec and Labrador) During the Early Holocene

47.7. Ice Retreat in the Southern Margin of the New Québec–Labrador Dome: The Laurentians

47.8. Deglaciation of Central and Southern Labrador

47.9. Deglaciation on the Western Side of the New Québec Dome

47.10. Deglaciation in the Northern Areas of Québec–Labrador

47.11. The Latest Deglaciated Areas in Nunavik, Central New Québec and Western Labrador

47.12. Pending Questions on the Deglaciation of Québec–Labrador

47.13. Conclusions


The Appalachian Glacier Complex in Maritime Canada

48.1. Introduction

48.2. Pre-Illinoian Record

48.3. Northumberland Phase (MIS 6; ~190–130ka)

48.4. Sangamonian Interglacial (MIS 5; 128–75ka)

48.5. Early–Middle Wisconsinan Caledonia Phase (75–50?ka)

48.6. Mid-Wisconsinan Retreat Phase (MIS 3; ~50–25ka)

48.7. Late Wisconsinan Escuminac Phase (MIS 2; 25–20ka)

48.8. Late Wisconsinan Scotian Phase (20–17ka)

48.9. Chignecto Phase (15.9–14.7ka)

48.10. Shulie Lake Phase (~13.8ka)

48.11. Collins Pond Phase (Younger Dryas Chronozone—12.9–11.7ka)

48.12. Discussion: Problems of the Quaternary in Maritime Canada

48.13. Conclusions

Stratigraphical Record of Glacials/Interglacials in Northwest Canada

49.1. Introduction

49.2. West-Central Yukon (Tintina Trench, Klondike Plateau, Fort Selkirk)

49.3. Northwest Territories

49.4. Northern British Columbia

49.5. Southern British Columbia

49.6. Regional Correlations

49.7. Late Pliocene preglacial sediments and the first glaciation (MIS G6)

49.8. Earliest Matuyama glaciations (2.2–2.6Ma, MIS 100 or 98 or 96)

49.9. Early Matuyama glaciation (1.98–2.15Ma, MIS 78)

49.10. Olduvai glaciation (1.75–1.98Ma, MIS 70?)

49.11. Late Matuyama glaciations (1.06–1.78Ma, MIS 58, 34)

49.12. Jaramillo Subchron glaciation (0.99–1.05Ma, MIS 30)

49.13. Latest Matuyama glaciation (0.99–0.78Ma, MIS 20 or 22)

49.14. Early Brunhes glaciations (0.78–0.40Ma, MIS 18, 16 and 12?)

49.15. Late Brunhes glaciations (0.40–0.015Ma, MIS 10–2)

49.16. Latest Brunhes glaciations (32–12ka, MIS 2)

49.17. Conclusions


The Greenland Ice Sheet During the Past 300,000 Years: A Review

50.1. Introduction

50.2. Saalian Stage (Fig. 50.2, MIS≥6, ca. 300–130ka BP)

50.3. The Eemian Stage (Fig. 50.2, MIS 5e, 135–115ka BP)

50.4. The Weichselian Stage (MIS 5d-1, ca. 115–11.7ka BP)

50.5. Deglaciation

50.6. Summary

Pleistocene Glaciations in Southern Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego

51.1. Introduction

51.2. The Southern Patagonian palaeo-ice-Lobes

51.3. The Fuegian palaeo-ice-lobes

51.4. Final comments


Pleistocene Glaciations in Northern Patagonia, Argentina: An Updated Review

52.1. Introduction

52.2. The Río Malleo Valley (latitude 39°37′30″S; longitude 71°17′W)

52.3. Heads of the Río Limay and Lago Nahuel Huapi (latitude 41°8′S; longitude 71°8′W)

52.4. The pre-Andean valley of El Maitén (latitude 42°10′S; –longitude 71°10′S)

52.5. Valley of Esquel and Río Corintos (latitude 43°S; longitude 71°W)

52.6. The Río Huemul Valley (latitude 43°30′S; longitude 71°10′W)

52.7. The Río Corcovado Valley (latitude 43°45′S; longitude 71°20′W) and Lago General Vintter (latitude 43°55′S; longitude 71°25′W)

52.8. The Río Pico Valley (latitude 44°10′S; longitude 71°20′W)

52.9. The Río Apeleg Valley (latitude 44°30′S; longitude 71°20′W)

52.10. The sequence of the La Plata and Fontana lakes (latitude 45°S; longitude 71°10′W)

52.11. The El Coyte (latitude 45°15′S; longitude 71°15′W), heads of the Río Mayo (latitude 45°30′S; longitude 71°15′W) and Lago Blanco (latitude 45°55′S; longitude 71°15′W) regions

The High-Glacial (Last Glacial Maximum) Glacier Cover of the Aconcagua Group and Adjacent Massifs in the Mendoza Andes (South America) with a Closer Look at Further Empirical Evidence

53.1. Introduction

53.2. Results


The Pleistocene Glaciations of Chile

54.1. Introduction

54.2. The Andes

54.3. Methods

54.4. The Maximum Glaciations

54.5. The Early/Middle Weichselian/Wisconsinan Glaciation

54.6. The Last Glacial Maximum and Late-Glacial

54.7. Glaciation During the Younger Dryas Chronozone and Antarctic Cold Reversal

54.8. Discussion

54.9. Conclusions


Late Quaternary Glaciations in Bolivia: Comments on Some New Approaches to Dating Morainic Sequences

55.1. Introduction

55.2. Glacial Geomorphological Sequences of the Cordillera Real

55.3. Pre-Weichselian Glaciation

55.4. The Last Glacial Maximum

55.5. Deglaciation

55.6. The Holocene

55.7. Mapping Glacial Limits

55.8. Remaining Questions


Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia

56.1. Introduction

56.2. Geographical setting

56.3. Tertiary and Early Pleistocene glaciations (>MIS 19; >790ka)

56.4. Middle Pleistocene glaciations (MIS 19–6; 790–132ka)

56.5. Late Pleistocene glaciations (MIS 5–2; 132–11.7ka)

56.6. MIS 1 (Holocene) glaciations (11.7ka–present)

56.7. Conclusions

Late Quaternary Glaciations of Ecuador

57.1. Introduction

57.2. Bedded (Stratified) Slope Deposits on Moraines in Ecuador

57.3. Pre-LGM Glaciation (Older than 30ka)

57.4. The Last Glacial Maximum

57.5. Deglaciation

57.6. The Holocene

57.7. Mapping Glacial Limits

57.8. Open Questions


Quaternary Glaciations of Colombia

58.1. Introduction

58.2. Early and Middle Pleistocene Glaciations Recorded by Glaciofluvial Sediment in the Bogotá Basin

58.3. Late Pleistocene and Holocene Glaciations Recorded by Moraines in the Eastern Cordillera

58.4. Mountain Ranges Near Bogotá

58.5. Sierra Nevada del Cocuy

58.6. Comparison with the Glacial Record of the Central Cordillera

58.7. Summary


Late Quaternary Glaciations in the Venezuelan (Mérida) Andes

59.1. Introduction

59.2. Early and Middle Pleistocene

59.3. Late Pleistocene

59.4. Holocene Glacier Fluctuations

Costa Rica and Guatemala

60.1. Introduction

60.2. Glacial Geology

60.3. Ice Cap and Valley Glacier Reconstruction

60.4. Equilibrium Line Altitudes

60.5. Discussion


Late Quaternary Glaciation in Mexico

61.1. Introduction

61.2. Iztaccíhuatl

61.3. Nevado de Toluca

61.4. La Malinche volcano

61.5. Ajusco volcano

61.6. Citlaltépetl

61.7. Cofre de Perote

61.8. Tancítaro

61.9. Nevado de Colima

61.10. Cerro Potosí

61.11. Pre-Weichselian (pre-Wisconsinan)

61.12. Weichselian/Wisconsinan glacial maximum (LLGM) and Holocene

61.13. Open questions

61.14. Summary


Late Pleistocene Glaciation of the Hindu Kush, Afghanistan

Late Pleistocene Glaciations in North-East Asia

63.1. Introduction

63.2. Relief and climate

63.3. Late Pleistocene glaciations

63.4. Conclusion


Extent and Timing of Quaternary Glaciations in the Verkhoyansk Mountains

64.1. Introduction

64.2. Verkhoyansk Mountains

64.3. Regional comparison

64.4. Conclusion

Glaciation in the High Mountains of Siberia

65.1. Introduction

65.2. Methods

65.3. Characteristics controlling the development of glaciation

65.4. Function and structure of the CGS

65.5. Types and occurrence of the CGS

65.6. Timing of glaciation and results of the dating

65.7. Palaeogeographical interpretation

65.8. Conclusions

Late Quaternary Glaciation of Northern Pakistan

66.1. Introduction

66.2. Hindu Kush

66.3. Karakoram

66.4. Western Himalaya

66.5. Indus Valley

66.6. Conclusions


Quaternary Glaciation of Northern India

67.1. Introduction

67.2. Regional Setting

67.3. Kashmir

67.4. Lahul Himalaya

67.5. Zanskar

67.6. Ladakh Range

67.7. Garhwal

67.8. Conclusions


The High Glacial (Last Ice Age and Last Glacial Maximum) Ice Cover of High and Central Asia, with a Critical Review of Some Recent OSL and TCN Dates

68.1. Preface

68.2. Introduction: The state of research to 1973 in relation to the author's observations

68.3. Glacial limits: References to the new empirical glacial map database since 2002

68.4. Dating methods and empirical evidence for the general overestimation by numerical dating in High Asia

68.5. The methodological consequences of the comparisons

68.6. Problems: Magnetic field excursions—On the astrophysical sources of error of the TCN technique

68.7. The Question of Aridity

68.8. Conclusions


The Extent and Timing of Late Pleistocene Glaciations in the Altai and Neighbouring Mountain Systems

69.1. Introduction

69.2. Extent of present and Late Pleistocene glaciations

69.3. Present and Late Pleistocene ELA reconstructions

69.4. Timing of Pleistocene glaciations in the Russian Altai and Western Mongolia

69.5. Summary

Quaternary Glaciations

70.1. Distribution of Quaternary glacial remnants on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

70.2. Other mountains

70.3. The sequence of Pleistocene glaciations in China

70.4. ELAS Distributions on the Plateau and the Bordering Mountains

70.5. The Glaciations and the Uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

70.6. The problem of ice cover

70.7. Conclusions

Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene Glaciations in the Taiwanese High Mountain Ranges

71.1. Introduction

71.2. Late Pleistocene Glaciations

71.3. Late Glacial and Early Holocene Glaciations

71.4. Equilibrium Line Altitudes and Palaeoclimatic Correlations

71.5. Conclusions

Late Quaternary Glaciations in Japan

72.1. Introduction

72.2. Middle Pleistocene Glaciations

72.3. Late Pleistocene Glaciations

72.4. Holocene Glaciation

The Glaciation of the South-East Asian Equatorial Region

73.1. Introduction

73.2. Western New Guinea (Papua, Indonesia)

73.3. Eastern New Guinea (Papua New Guinea)

73.4. Middle Pleistocene Glaciations

73.5. Late Pleistocene Glaciations

73.6. Conclusions


The Glaciation of Australia

74.1. Introduction

74.2. Snowy Mountains

74.3. Tasmania

74.4. Climate

74.5. Conclusions


Quaternary Glaciers of New Zealand

75.1. Introduction

75.2. Early Pleistocene Glaciers

75.3. Gaps in the Early Pleistocene Glacial Record

75.4. Middle and Late Pleistocene (and Holocene) Glaciers

75.5. Conclusions


Quaternary Glaciations of the Atlas Mountains, North Africa

76.1. Introduction

76.2. The High Atlas

76.3. The Middle Atlas and the Rif

76.4. Algerian Atlas

76.5. Palaeoglaciers in North Africa: Their Importance for Understanding Palaeoclimates

76.6. Conclusions


Quaternary Glacial Chronology of Mount Kenya Massif

Glaciation in Southern Africa and in the Sub-Antarctic

78.1. Introduction

78.2. Glaciation in Southern Africa

78.3. The Sub-Antarctic


The book presents an up-to-date, detailed overview of the Quaternary glaciations all over the world, not only with regard to stratigraphy but also with regard to major glacial landforms and the extent of the respective ice sheets. The locations of key sites are included. The information is presented in digital, uniformly prepared maps which can be used in a Geographical Information System (GIS) such as ArcView or ArcGIS. The accompanying text supplies the information on how the data were obtained (geomorphology, geological mapping, air photograph evaluation, satellite imagery), how the features were dated (14C, TL, relative stratigraphy) and how reliable they are supposed to be. All references to the underlying basic publications are included. Where controversial interpretations are possible e.g. in Siberia or Tibet, this is pointed out. As a result, the information on Quaternary glaciations worldwide will be much improved and supplied in a uniform digital format.

The information on the glacial limits is compiled in digital form by the coordinators of the project, and is available for download at:

Key Features

  • Completely updated detailed coverage of worldwide Quaternary glaciations
  • Information in digital, uniformly prepared maps which can be used in a GIS such as ArcView or ArcGis
  • Step-by-step guideline how to open and use ArcGis files
  • Possibility to convert the shapefiles into GoogleEarth kmz-files
  • Availability of chronological controls


Postgraduates and researchers who work with glaciations, climate modelling (same group as volumes 1-3), libraries, and academic and goverment instutions


No. of pages:
© Elsevier 2011
20th July 2011
Hardcover ISBN:
eBook ISBN:


"This book is part of a four-volume series (Part 1: Europe CH, Mar'05, 42-4043) reporting the work of an international commission on world glaciation; it summarizes and updates the previous volumes. Following an editors' introduction, 77 chapters discuss Europe, Greenland, western Russia, Ukraine, and Turkey (31 chapters); Canada and the US (18); Mexico through Tierra del Fuego (11); eastern Asia (12); Australia and New Zealand (2); and Africa (3). Improved digital maps are available online… rather than on CD-ROM as in prior volumes. The dating of glacial stages has also improved greatly here…. Summing Up: Recommended. Upper-division undergraduates through researchers/faculty." --CHOICE

Ratings and Reviews

About the Editors

J. Ehlers

Affiliations and Expertise

Geologisches Landesamt, Hamburg, Germany

P.L. Gibbard

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Cambridge, UK

P.D. Hughes

Philip Hughes is Professor of Physical Geography at the University of Manchester, United Kingdom. He obtained his first degree in geography at the University of Exeter graduating in 1999. This was followed by a Masters in Quaternary Science, then a PhD in Geography (2004), both at the University of Cambridge (Darwin College). His PhD was on the glacial history of the Pindus Mountains, Greece. This was then followed by a postdoctoral research project examining the glacial history of Montenegro at the University of Manchester (2004-2006). He has since worked on glaciation across the Mediterranean mountains in Greece, Albania, Montenegro, Croatia, Spain and with recent research activities focusing on the Atlas Mountains, Morocco. His research has utilised U-series dating and cosmogenic nuclides to date moraines in a variety of different lithologies, from limestones to basalts. In addition to studies of Mediterranean mountain glaciations he has also published on global glaciations and stratigraphy in Quaternary science. In addition to several edited scientific volumes on glaciation, in 2016 he published the textbook The Ice Age with co-authors Jürgen Ehlers and Philip Gibbard. In 2011 Philip also edited with these co-authors the highly successful Elsevier volume Quaternary Glaciation: Extent and Chronology – A Closer Look.

Affiliations and Expertise

Philip Hughes is Professor of Physical Geography at the University of Manchester, United Kingdom.