Quaternary Glaciations - Extent and Chronology

Quaternary Glaciations - Extent and Chronology

A Closer Look

1st Edition - June 29, 2011
  • Editors: J. Ehlers, P.L. Gibbard, P.D. Hughes
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780444534477
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444535375

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Description

The book presents an up-to-date, detailed overview of the Quaternary glaciations all over the world, not only with regard to stratigraphy but also with regard to major glacial landforms and the extent of the respective ice sheets. The locations of key sites are included. The information is presented in digital, uniformly prepared maps which can be used in a Geographical Information System (GIS) such as ArcView or ArcGIS. The accompanying text supplies the information on how the data were obtained (geomorphology, geological mapping, air photograph evaluation, satellite imagery), how the features were dated (14C, TL, relative stratigraphy) and how reliable they are supposed to be. All references to the underlying basic publications are included. Where controversial interpretations are possible e.g. in Siberia or Tibet, this is pointed out. As a result, the information on Quaternary glaciations worldwide will be much improved and supplied in a uniform digital format.The information on the glacial limits is compiled in digital form by the coordinators of the project, and is available for download at: http://booksite.elsevier.com/9780444534477/

Key Features

  • Completely updated detailed coverage of worldwide Quaternary glaciations
  • Information in digital, uniformly prepared maps which can be used in a GIS such as ArcView or ArcGis
  • Step-by-step guideline how to open and use ArcGis files
  • Possibility to convert the shapefiles into GoogleEarth kmz-files
  • Availability of chronological controls

Readership

Postgraduates and researchers who work with glaciations, climate modelling (same group as volumes 1-3), libraries, and academic and goverment instutions

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    Introduction

    1.1. Introduction

    1.2. The Digital Maps

    1.3. The Geology

    1.4. Summary

    Quaternary Glaciations in Austria

    2.1. Introduction

    2.2. The Course of the Quaternary

    2.3. The Four Alpine Glaciations

    2.4. Tectonic Activity

    2.5. Development of Glaciers

    2.6. Overdeepened Valleys

    2.7. Last Interglacial-Glacial Cycle

    2.8. Chronology

    2.9. Phase of Ice Decay

    2.10. The Bühl Phase

    2.11. The Steinach Phase

    2.12. The Gschnitz Phase

    2.13. Chronology

    2.14. The Daun Phase

    2.15. The Egesen Phase

    The Pleistocene Glaciations in Belarus

    3.1. Introduction

    3.2. Varyazh Glaciation

    3.3. Narev Glaciation

    3.4. Berezina Glaciation

    3.5. Pripyat’ Glaciation

    3.6. Poozerian Glaciation

    3.7. Conclusions

    Pleistocene Glaciations of Czechia

    4.1. Introduction

    4.2. Continental Glaciation

    4.3. Elsterian Glaciations

    4.4. Saalian Glaciation

    4.5. Mountain Glaciations

    4.6. Pre-Weichselian Glaciation

    4.7. Weichselian Glaciation

    4.8. Conclusions

    Pleistocene Glaciations in Denmark: A Closer Look at Chronology, Ice Dynamics and Landforms

    5.1. Introduction

    5.2. The Pleistocene of Denmark

    5.3. Middle Pleistocene Glaciations

    5.4. The Saalian Glaciation

    5.5. Late Pleistocene Glaciations

    5.6. Conclusions

    The Glacial History of the British Isles during the Early and Middle Pleistocene: Implications for the long-term development of the British Ice Sheet

    6.1. Introduction

    6.2. Early and Middle Pleistocene Glacial History of the British Isles

    6.3. Discussion

    6.4. Conclusions

    Acknowledgements

    Pleistocene Glaciation Limits in Great Britain

    7.1. Introduction

    7.2. Evidence for glaciations

    7.3. The British Pleistocene succession

    7.4. The ‘traditional model’ of East Anglian glacial stratigraphy

    Acknowledgement

    Pleistocene Glaciations in Estonia

    8.1. Introduction

    8.2. Early Pleistocene

    8.3. Middle Pleistocene

    8.4. Late Pleistocene

    8.5. Conclusions

    The Glaciation of Finland

    9.1. Introduction

    9.2. Middle Pleistocene Glaciations

    9.3. Late Pleistocene Glaciations (ca. 110–11.7ka)

    Quaternary Glaciations in the French Alps and Jura

    10.1. Introduction

    10.2. Middle Pleistocene Glaciations, the External Moraine Complex

    10.3. Late Pleistocene Glaciations, the Internal Moraine Complex

    10.4. Conclusions

    Recent Advances in Research on Quaternary Glaciations in the Pyrenees

    11.1. Introduction

    11.2. Middle Pleistocene Glaciations

    11.3. The Last Pleistocene Glacial Cycle (Würmian Stage)

    11.4. Conclusions

    Late Pleistocene (Würmian) Glaciations of the Caucasus

    12.1. Introduction

    12.2. Methods of Investigation

    12.3. Results

    12.4. The Western Caucasus

    12.5. The Central Caucasus

    12.6. The Eastern Caucasus

    12.7. The Minor Caucasus

    12.8. Conclusions

    Pleistocene Glaciations of North Germany—New Results

    13.1. Introduction

    13.2. Traces of Early glaciation

    13.3. The Elsterian glaciation

    13.4. The Holsteinian Interglacial

    13.5. The Saalian Complex

    13.6. The Dömnitz Interglacial

    13.7. The Saalian glaciation

    13.8. The Eemian Stage Interglacial

    13.9. The Weichselian glaciation

    Pleistocene Glaciations of Southern Germany

    14.1. Introduction

    14.2. Stratigraphical results and concepts

    14.3. Regional description

    14.4. Arguable Early Pleistocene glaciations derived from oldest gravel spreads

    14.5. Stratigraphical implications from sediments overlying the Zusamplatte gravel (Uhlenberg site and others)

    14.6. Ältere Deckenschotter and possibly equivalent glaciation

    14.7. Mittlere Deckenschotter and possibly equivalent glaciation

    14.8. Jüngere Deckenschotter and equivalent glaciation

    14.9. Incision between Jüngere Deckenschotter and Hochterrasse, ‘third from last’ glaciation and the Samerberg site

    14.10. The belt of morainic amphitheatres correlated with the penultimate glaciation

    14.11. Eemian stage interglacial

    14.12. Last glaciation (Würmian)

    14.13. Glaciations of low mountain ranges

    Acknowledgements

    Glaciation in Greece

    15.1. Introduction

    15.2. The Glacial Record on Mount Olympus, Northeast Greece

    15.3. The Glacial Record on Mount Tymphi, Northwest Greece

    15.4. The First Uranium-Series Ages for the Glacial Record in Greece

    15.5. Towards a Formal Stratigraphical Framework for the Glacial Record in Greece

    15.6. Secondary Carbonate Formation and Environmental Change

    15.7. Palaeoclimate Reconstructions from Glacial Geomorphological Data

    15.8. River Response to Glaciation and the Last Glacial-to-Interglacial Transition

    15.9. The Mount Tymphi and Mount Olympus records

    15.10. Pleistocene ELAs Across Greece

    15.11. Conclusions and Future Research Needs

    Acknowledgements

    Pliocene and Pleistocene Glaciations of Iceland

    16.1. Introduction

    16.2. Tertiary Glaciations—Earliest Signs of Glaciation in South-East and East Iceland (>3–2.59Ma)

    16.3. Early- to Mid-Pleistocene Glaciation (2.59–0.78Ma)—An Icelandic Ice Sheet is Established

    16.4. Middle to Late Pleistocene Glaciations in Iceland (0.78–0.126Ma)

    16.5. From the Last Glacial Maximum Through to the Last Deglaciation (<0.126Ma)

    16.6. Early Holocene Thermal Maximum and the Onset of Neoglaciation

    16.7. Glacial Limits and Quality of Data

    16.8. Dating of Glacial Limits—Reliability of Dates

    16.9. Conclusions

    Middle Pleistocene to Holocene Glaciations in the Italian Apennines

    17.1. Introduction

    17.2. Middle Pleistocene glaciations

    17.3. Late Pleistocene glaciation

    17.4. Holocene neoglaciation

    17.5. Conclusions

    Acknowledgements

    Pleistocene Glaciations in Latvia

    18.1. Introduction

    18.2. Early Pleistocene Glaciation

    18.3. Middle Pleistocene Glaciations

    18.4. Late Pleistocene Glaciations

    18.5. Glacial Limits

    18.6. Conclusions

    Acknowledgements

    Pleistocene Glaciations in Lithuania

    19.1. Introduction

    19.2. Early Pleistocene Glaciation

    19.3. Middle Pleistocene

    19.4. Late Pleistocene. Lower and Middle Weichselian Substage Glaciations (Nemunas)

    19.5. Conclusions

    Acknowledgements

    Pleistocene Glaciation in The Netherlands

    20.1. Pre-Elsterian glaciations

    20.2. The Elsterian glaciation

    20.3. The Saalian glaciation in the Netherlands

    20.4. The Weichselian glaciation in the North Sea

    20.5. Conclusions

    Acknowledgements

    The Pleistocene Glaciations of the North Sea Basin

    21.1. Introduction

    21.2. Early Pleistocene glaciation(s)

    21.3. Middle Pleistocene/pre-Elsterian glaciations

    21.4. The Elsterian (MIS 12)

    21.5. The Saalian (MIS 6–10)

    21.6. The Weichselian (MIS 5d–2)

    21.7. Summary

    21.8. Note on the Maps

    Acknowledgements

    Glacial History of Norway

    22.1. Introduction

    22.2. Early and Middle Quaternary Glaciations

    22.3. The Late Quaternary Glaciations—The Weichselian

    22.4. The Early and Middle Weichselian

    22.5. The Late Weichselian

    Quaternary Glaciations in Poland

    23.1. Introduction

    23.2. Early Pleistocene Glaciations

    23.3. Middle Pleistocene Glaciations

    23.4. Late Pleistocene Glaciation

    23.5. Conclusions

    New Evidence on the Quaternary Glaciation in the Romanian Carpathians

    24.1. Introduction

    24.2. The setting

    24.3. Methodological aspects

    24.4. The arguments

    24.5. Eastern Carpathians

    24.6. The Southern Carpathians

    24.7. The Apuseni Mountains

    24.8. Glacier orientations

    24.9. Problems of age assignment

    24.10. Reconstructed Pleistocene ELAs

    24.11. Conclusions and open questions

    Ice Margins of Northern Russia Revisited

    25.1. Introduction

    25.2. Middle Pleistocene Glaciations

    25.3. Late Pleistocene Glaciations

    25.4. New Solutions

    25.5. Conclusion

    Acknowledgements

    Glaciations of the East European Plain

    26.1. Introduction

    26.2. Likovo Glaciation

    26.3. Akulovo Interglacial

    26.4. Krasikovo Interglacial

    26.5. Setun’ Glaciation

    26.6. Okatovo Interglacial

    26.7. Don Glaciation

    26.8. Muchkap Interglacial

    26.9. Ikorets Interglacial

    26.10. Oka Glaciation

    26.11. Likhvin Interglacial

    26.12. Pechora Glaciation

    26.13. Kamenka Interglacial

    26.14. Dnieper Glacial Epoch

    26.15. Mikulino Interglacial

    26.16. Valdai Glaciation

    Glacial History of the Barents Sea Region

    27.1. Introduction

    27.2. Physiography and Quaternary Sediments

    27.3. Palaeogene and Neogene

    27.4. Early Pleistocene (~2.6 to ~0.7Ma)

    27.5. Middle Pleistocene Glaciations (0.78–0.12Ma)

    27.6. Late Pleistocene Glaciations

    27.7. The Early and Middle Weichselian Glacial History

    27.8. The Late Weichselian Ice Sheet

    Acknowledgements

    Glacial History of the Taymyr Peninsula and the Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago, Arctic Russia

    28.1. Introduction

    28.2. The Middle Pleistocene Pre-Saalian History

    28.3. The Middle/Late Pleistocene Transition: The Saalian and Eemian Stages

    28.4. The Build-Up of KSIS: Changing Paradigms

    28.5. The Early Weichselian—The Weichselian Glaciation Maximum on Taymyr

    28.6. Deglaciation from the Early Weichselian Maximal Position to the Byrranga Mountains

    28.7. The North Taymyr Ice-Marginal Zone

    28.8. The Early Weichselian NTZ Stage

    28.9. The Middle Weichselian NTZ Stage

    28.10. The Late Weichselian NTZ Stage

    28.11. The Severnaya Zemlya Islands During the Weichselian Stage

    28.12. Summary of Results

    Glacial History of Slovenia

    29.1. Introduction

    29.2. Early/Middle Pleistocene Glaciations

    29.3. Late Pleistocene Glaciations

    29.4. Conclusions

    Quaternary Glaciations of Turkey

    30.1. Introduction

    30.2. Quaternary Glacial Landforms

    30.3. The Taurus Mountains

    30.4. Mountain Ranges Along the Eastern Black Sea

    30.5. Volcanoes and Individual Mountains on the Anatolian Plateau

    30.6. Conclusions

    Acknowledgements

    Limits of the Pleistocene Glaciations in the Ukraine

    31.1. Introduction

    31.2. The Interpretation of the Primary Data

    31.3. The Oka Glaciation in the Western and Northern Parts of the Ukraine and in the Eastern and Southern Parts of Belarus

    31.4. The Dnieper Glaciation in the Central and Northern Ukraine and Adjacent Regions of Russia

    31.5. Mountain Glaciation in the Ukrainian Carpathians

    31.6. Conclusion

    Acknowledgements

    Chronology and Extent of Late Cenozoic Ice Sheets in North America

    Alaska Palaeo-Glacier Atlas (Version 2)

    33.1. Introduction

    33.2. GIS Procedures

    33.3. Palaeo-Glacier Limits

    33.4. Regional Updates for APG Atlas v2

    33.5. Discussion

    Full Citation

    Glaciations of the Sierra Nevada, California, USA

    34.1. Introduction

    34.2. Glacial Advances

    34.3. Discussion

    34.4. Summary

    Acknowledgements

    Pleistocene Glaciation of Hawaii

    Quaternary Glaciations in Illinois

    36.1. Introduction

    36.2. Pre-Illinois Episode

    36.3. Illinois Episode

    Ice-Margin Fluctuations at the End of the Wisconsin Episode, Michigan, USA

    37.1. Introduction

    37.2. Structure of the Diachronic Classification

    37.3. Major Glacial Phases in Michigan

    37.4. Discussion

    37.5. Summary

    The Quaternary of Minnesota

    38.1. General Character and Age of Quaternary Deposits in Minnesota

    38.2. Lithostratigraphy of Quaternary Deposits in Minnesota

    Pleistocene Glaciation of Ohio, USA

    39.1. Introduction

    39.2. Tertiary Period

    39.3. Early Pleistocene Glaciations

    39.4. Middle Pleistocene Glaciations

    39.5. Late Pleistocene Glaciations

    39.6. Conclusions

    The Glaciation of Pennsylvania, USA

    40.1. Introduction

    40.2. Discussion of the Glacial Limits

    40.3. Discussion of the Dating of the Age of the Glacial Limits

    40.4. Early Pleistocene Pseudo-Moraine at Selinsgrove and Allentown Pennsylvania

    40.5. Late Wisconsinan Till Knobs Forming ‘Beaded Valleys’ in North-Eastern Pennsylvania

    40.6. Open Questions

    Glaciation of Western Washington, USA

    41.1. Cordilleran Ice Sheet in Western Washington

    41.2. Glaciation of the Cascade Range

    41.3. Glaciation of the Olympic Mountains

    The Quaternary of Wisconsin

    42.1. Introduction

    42.2. Early Pleistocene Glaciations

    42.3. Middle Pleistocene (Illinoian Glaciation)

    42.4. Late Pleistocene (Wisconsinan Glaciation)

    42.5. Driftless Area

    42.6. Future Work

    Acknowledgments

    Summary of Early and Middle Pleistocene Glaciations in Northern Missouri, USA

    43.1. Introduction

    43.2. Early Work in Missouri

    43.3. Stratigraphy and Lithologies

    43.4. Chronology

    43.5. Glacial Boundaries

    43.6. Correlation and Future Work

    43.7. Summary and Conclusions

    Pleistocene Glaciation of British Columbia

    44.1. Introduction

    44.2. Character and Extent of Cordilleran Ice Sheet

    44.3. Growth and Decay of Cordilleran Ice Sheet

    44.4. Glacial Erosion and Deposition

    44.5. Crustal Deformation

    44.6. Stratigraphical Record and Chronology

    Limits of Successive Middle and Late Pleistocene Continental Ice Sheets, Interior Plains of Southern and Central Alberta and Adjacent Areas

    45.1. Introduction

    45.2. Cosmogenic exposure dating of glacial erratics in southern Alberta and northern Montana

    45.3. Testing the Barendregt–Irving hypothesis: Stratigraphy in Alberta's buried valleys

    45.4. Discussion and conclusions

    Acknowledgement

    Appendix A. Methods in the cosmogenic 36Cl dating of glacial erratics around Del Bonita upland

    Appendix B. Basal gravel predating continental glaciation and its time-transgressive nature

    Appendix C. Elimination of ‘Labuma Till’ and related allostratigraphic units outside of the Red Deer–Stettler area

    Magnetostratigraphy of Quaternary Sections in Eastern Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba

    Chapter 46.1. Introduction

    46.2. Study Sites

    46.3. Discussion

    46.4. Conclusions

    Late Pleistocene–Early Holocene Decay of the Laurentide Ice Sheet in Québec–Labrador

    47.1. Introduction

    47.2. Overview of the Glacial History of Québec–Labrador

    47.3. The Late Wisconsinan (Late Weichselian)–Holocene Deglaciation of Québec–Labrador: Overview

    47.4. The Deglaciation in Southern Québec During Late Wisconsinan: From the St. Lawrence Ice Stream to the Early Phase of Younger Dryas

    47.5. The Younger Dryas

    47.6. Deglaciation of the Canadian Shield Area (Québec and Labrador) During the Early Holocene

    47.7. Ice Retreat in the Southern Margin of the New Québec–Labrador Dome: The Laurentians

    47.8. Deglaciation of Central and Southern Labrador

    47.9. Deglaciation on the Western Side of the New Québec Dome

    47.10. Deglaciation in the Northern Areas of Québec–Labrador

    47.11. The Latest Deglaciated Areas in Nunavik, Central New Québec and Western Labrador

    47.12. Pending Questions on the Deglaciation of Québec–Labrador

    47.13. Conclusions

    Acknowledgements

    The Appalachian Glacier Complex in Maritime Canada

    48.1. Introduction

    48.2. Pre-Illinoian Record

    48.3. Northumberland Phase (MIS 6; ~190–130ka)

    48.4. Sangamonian Interglacial (MIS 5; 128–75ka)

    48.5. Early–Middle Wisconsinan Caledonia Phase (75–50?ka)

    48.6. Mid-Wisconsinan Retreat Phase (MIS 3; ~50–25ka)

    48.7. Late Wisconsinan Escuminac Phase (MIS 2; 25–20ka)

    48.8. Late Wisconsinan Scotian Phase (20–17ka)

    48.9. Chignecto Phase (15.9–14.7ka)

    48.10. Shulie Lake Phase (~13.8ka)

    48.11. Collins Pond Phase (Younger Dryas Chronozone—12.9–11.7ka)

    48.12. Discussion: Problems of the Quaternary in Maritime Canada

    48.13. Conclusions

    Stratigraphical Record of Glacials/Interglacials in Northwest Canada

    49.1. Introduction

    49.2. West-Central Yukon (Tintina Trench, Klondike Plateau, Fort Selkirk)

    49.3. Northwest Territories

    49.4. Northern British Columbia

    49.5. Southern British Columbia

    49.6. Regional Correlations

    49.7. Late Pliocene preglacial sediments and the first glaciation (MIS G6)

    49.8. Earliest Matuyama glaciations (2.2–2.6Ma, MIS 100 or 98 or 96)

    49.9. Early Matuyama glaciation (1.98–2.15Ma, MIS 78)

    49.10. Olduvai glaciation (1.75–1.98Ma, MIS 70?)

    49.11. Late Matuyama glaciations (1.06–1.78Ma, MIS 58, 34)

    49.12. Jaramillo Subchron glaciation (0.99–1.05Ma, MIS 30)

    49.13. Latest Matuyama glaciation (0.99–0.78Ma, MIS 20 or 22)

    49.14. Early Brunhes glaciations (0.78–0.40Ma, MIS 18, 16 and 12?)

    49.15. Late Brunhes glaciations (0.40–0.015Ma, MIS 10–2)

    49.16. Latest Brunhes glaciations (32–12ka, MIS 2)

    49.17. Conclusions

    Acknowledgements

    The Greenland Ice Sheet During the Past 300,000 Years: A Review

    50.1. Introduction

    50.2. Saalian Stage (Fig. 50.2, MIS≥6, ca. 300–130ka BP)

    50.3. The Eemian Stage (Fig. 50.2, MIS 5e, 135–115ka BP)

    50.4. The Weichselian Stage (MIS 5d-1, ca. 115–11.7ka BP)

    50.5. Deglaciation

    50.6. Summary

    Pleistocene Glaciations in Southern Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego

    51.1. Introduction

    51.2. The Southern Patagonian palaeo-ice-Lobes

    51.3. The Fuegian palaeo-ice-lobes

    51.4. Final comments

    Acknowledgements

    Pleistocene Glaciations in Northern Patagonia, Argentina: An Updated Review

    52.1. Introduction

    52.2. The Río Malleo Valley (latitude 39°37′30″S; longitude 71°17′W)

    52.3. Heads of the Río Limay and Lago Nahuel Huapi (latitude 41°8′S; longitude 71°8′W)

    52.4. The pre-Andean valley of El Maitén (latitude 42°10′S; –longitude 71°10′S)

    52.5. Valley of Esquel and Río Corintos (latitude 43°S; longitude 71°W)

    52.6. The Río Huemul Valley (latitude 43°30′S; longitude 71°10′W)

    52.7. The Río Corcovado Valley (latitude 43°45′S; longitude 71°20′W) and Lago General Vintter (latitude 43°55′S; longitude 71°25′W)

    52.8. The Río Pico Valley (latitude 44°10′S; longitude 71°20′W)

    52.9. The Río Apeleg Valley (latitude 44°30′S; longitude 71°20′W)

    52.10. The sequence of the La Plata and Fontana lakes (latitude 45°S; longitude 71°10′W)

    52.11. The El Coyte (latitude 45°15′S; longitude 71°15′W), heads of the Río Mayo (latitude 45°30′S; longitude 71°15′W) and Lago Blanco (latitude 45°55′S; longitude 71°15′W) regions

    The High-Glacial (Last Glacial Maximum) Glacier Cover of the Aconcagua Group and Adjacent Massifs in the Mendoza Andes (South America) with a Closer Look at Further Empirical Evidence

    53.1. Introduction

    53.2. Results

    Acknowledgements

    The Pleistocene Glaciations of Chile

    54.1. Introduction

    54.2. The Andes

    54.3. Methods

    54.4. The Maximum Glaciations

    54.5. The Early/Middle Weichselian/Wisconsinan Glaciation

    54.6. The Last Glacial Maximum and Late-Glacial

    54.7. Glaciation During the Younger Dryas Chronozone and Antarctic Cold Reversal

    54.8. Discussion

    54.9. Conclusions

    Acknowledgements

    Late Quaternary Glaciations in Bolivia: Comments on Some New Approaches to Dating Morainic Sequences

    55.1. Introduction

    55.2. Glacial Geomorphological Sequences of the Cordillera Real

    55.3. Pre-Weichselian Glaciation

    55.4. The Last Glacial Maximum

    55.5. Deglaciation

    55.6. The Holocene

    55.7. Mapping Glacial Limits

    55.8. Remaining Questions

    Acknowledgements

    Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia

    56.1. Introduction

    56.2. Geographical setting

    56.3. Tertiary and Early Pleistocene glaciations (>MIS 19; >790ka)

    56.4. Middle Pleistocene glaciations (MIS 19–6; 790–132ka)

    56.5. Late Pleistocene glaciations (MIS 5–2; 132–11.7ka)

    56.6. MIS 1 (Holocene) glaciations (11.7ka–present)

    56.7. Conclusions

    Late Quaternary Glaciations of Ecuador

    57.1. Introduction

    57.2. Bedded (Stratified) Slope Deposits on Moraines in Ecuador

    57.3. Pre-LGM Glaciation (Older than 30ka)

    57.4. The Last Glacial Maximum

    57.5. Deglaciation

    57.6. The Holocene

    57.7. Mapping Glacial Limits

    57.8. Open Questions

    Acknowledgements

    Quaternary Glaciations of Colombia

    58.1. Introduction

    58.2. Early and Middle Pleistocene Glaciations Recorded by Glaciofluvial Sediment in the Bogotá Basin

    58.3. Late Pleistocene and Holocene Glaciations Recorded by Moraines in the Eastern Cordillera

    58.4. Mountain Ranges Near Bogotá

    58.5. Sierra Nevada del Cocuy

    58.6. Comparison with the Glacial Record of the Central Cordillera

    58.7. Summary

    Acknowledgments

    Late Quaternary Glaciations in the Venezuelan (Mérida) Andes

    59.1. Introduction

    59.2. Early and Middle Pleistocene

    59.3. Late Pleistocene

    59.4. Holocene Glacier Fluctuations

    Costa Rica and Guatemala

    60.1. Introduction

    60.2. Glacial Geology

    60.3. Ice Cap and Valley Glacier Reconstruction

    60.4. Equilibrium Line Altitudes

    60.5. Discussion

    Acknowledgements

    Late Quaternary Glaciation in Mexico

    61.1. Introduction

    61.2. Iztaccíhuatl

    61.3. Nevado de Toluca

    61.4. La Malinche volcano

    61.5. Ajusco volcano

    61.6. Citlaltépetl

    61.7. Cofre de Perote

    61.8. Tancítaro

    61.9. Nevado de Colima

    61.10. Cerro Potosí

    61.11. Pre-Weichselian (pre-Wisconsinan)

    61.12. Weichselian/Wisconsinan glacial maximum (LLGM) and Holocene

    61.13. Open questions

    61.14. Summary

    Acknowledgements

    Late Pleistocene Glaciation of the Hindu Kush, Afghanistan

    Late Pleistocene Glaciations in North-East Asia

    63.1. Introduction

    63.2. Relief and climate

    63.3. Late Pleistocene glaciations

    63.4. Conclusion

    Acknowledgement

    Extent and Timing of Quaternary Glaciations in the Verkhoyansk Mountains

    64.1. Introduction

    64.2. Verkhoyansk Mountains

    64.3. Regional comparison

    64.4. Conclusion

    Glaciation in the High Mountains of Siberia

    65.1. Introduction

    65.2. Methods

    65.3. Characteristics controlling the development of glaciation

    65.4. Function and structure of the CGS

    65.5. Types and occurrence of the CGS

    65.6. Timing of glaciation and results of the dating

    65.7. Palaeogeographical interpretation

    65.8. Conclusions

    Late Quaternary Glaciation of Northern Pakistan

    66.1. Introduction

    66.2. Hindu Kush

    66.3. Karakoram

    66.4. Western Himalaya

    66.5. Indus Valley

    66.6. Conclusions

    Acknowledgements

    Quaternary Glaciation of Northern India

    67.1. Introduction

    67.2. Regional Setting

    67.3. Kashmir

    67.4. Lahul Himalaya

    67.5. Zanskar

    67.6. Ladakh Range

    67.7. Garhwal

    67.8. Conclusions

    Acknowledgements

    The High Glacial (Last Ice Age and Last Glacial Maximum) Ice Cover of High and Central Asia, with a Critical Review of Some Recent OSL and TCN Dates

    68.1. Preface

    68.2. Introduction: The state of research to 1973 in relation to the author's observations

    68.3. Glacial limits: References to the new empirical glacial map database since 2002

    68.4. Dating methods and empirical evidence for the general overestimation by numerical dating in High Asia

    68.5. The methodological consequences of the comparisons

    68.6. Problems: Magnetic field excursions—On the astrophysical sources of error of the TCN technique

    68.7. The Question of Aridity

    68.8. Conclusions

    Acknowledgements

    The Extent and Timing of Late Pleistocene Glaciations in the Altai and Neighbouring Mountain Systems

    69.1. Introduction

    69.2. Extent of present and Late Pleistocene glaciations

    69.3. Present and Late Pleistocene ELA reconstructions

    69.4. Timing of Pleistocene glaciations in the Russian Altai and Western Mongolia

    69.5. Summary

    Quaternary Glaciations

    70.1. Distribution of Quaternary glacial remnants on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    70.2. Other mountains

    70.3. The sequence of Pleistocene glaciations in China

    70.4. ELAS Distributions on the Plateau and the Bordering Mountains

    70.5. The Glaciations and the Uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    70.6. The problem of ice cover

    70.7. Conclusions

    Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene Glaciations in the Taiwanese High Mountain Ranges

    71.1. Introduction

    71.2. Late Pleistocene Glaciations

    71.3. Late Glacial and Early Holocene Glaciations

    71.4. Equilibrium Line Altitudes and Palaeoclimatic Correlations

    71.5. Conclusions

    Late Quaternary Glaciations in Japan

    72.1. Introduction

    72.2. Middle Pleistocene Glaciations

    72.3. Late Pleistocene Glaciations

    72.4. Holocene Glaciation

    The Glaciation of the South-East Asian Equatorial Region

    73.1. Introduction

    73.2. Western New Guinea (Papua, Indonesia)

    73.3. Eastern New Guinea (Papua New Guinea)

    73.4. Middle Pleistocene Glaciations

    73.5. Late Pleistocene Glaciations

    73.6. Conclusions

    Acknowledgements

    The Glaciation of Australia

    74.1. Introduction

    74.2. Snowy Mountains

    74.3. Tasmania

    74.4. Climate

    74.5. Conclusions

    Acknowledgements

    Quaternary Glaciers of New Zealand

    75.1. Introduction

    75.2. Early Pleistocene Glaciers

    75.3. Gaps in the Early Pleistocene Glacial Record

    75.4. Middle and Late Pleistocene (and Holocene) Glaciers

    75.5. Conclusions

    Acknowledgements

    Quaternary Glaciations of the Atlas Mountains, North Africa

    76.1. Introduction

    76.2. The High Atlas

    76.3. The Middle Atlas and the Rif

    76.4. Algerian Atlas

    76.5. Palaeoglaciers in North Africa: Their Importance for Understanding Palaeoclimates

    76.6. Conclusions

    Acknowledgements

    Quaternary Glacial Chronology of Mount Kenya Massif

    Glaciation in Southern Africa and in the Sub-Antarctic

    78.1. Introduction

    78.2. Glaciation in Southern Africa

    78.3. The Sub-Antarctic

Product details

  • No. of pages: 1126
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2011
  • Published: June 29, 2011
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780444534477
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444535375

About the Editors

J. Ehlers

Affiliations and Expertise

Geologisches Landesamt, Hamburg, Germany

P.L. Gibbard

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Cambridge, UK

P.D. Hughes

P.D. Hughes
Philip Hughes is Professor of Physical Geography at the University of Manchester, United Kingdom. He obtained his first degree in geography at the University of Exeter. This was followed by a Master’s degree in Quaternary Science, then a PhD in Geography, both at the University of Cambridge (Darwin College). His PhD was on the glacial history of the Pindus Mountains, Greece. This was then followed by a postdoctoral project examining the glacial history of Montenegro at the University of Manchester. He has since worked on glaciation across the Mediterranean mountains and in the British Isles. In this research he has utilised U-series dating and cosmogenic nuclides to date glacial landforms. He has also published on global glaciations and stratigraphy in Quaternary science and in 2011 Philip also co-edited, with Jürgen Ehlers and Philip Gibbard, the highly successful Elsevier volume Quaternary Glaciation: Extent and Chronology – A Closer Look.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Physical Geography, University of Manchester, UK