Quantitative Human Physiology - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780128008836, 9780128011546

Quantitative Human Physiology

2nd Edition

An Introduction

Authors: Joseph Feher
eBook ISBN: 9780128011546
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128008836
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 16th December 2016
Page Count: 1008
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Table of Contents

  • Preface
    • This Text Is a Physiology Text First, and Quantitative Second
    • The Text Uses Mathematics Extensively
    • Not All Things Worth Knowing Are Worth Knowing Well
    • Perfect Is the Enemy of Good: Equations Aren’t Perfect, but They’re Often Good Enough
    • Examples and Problem Sets Allow Application of the Useful Equations
    • Learning Objectives, Summaries, and Review Questions Guide Student Learning
    • Clinical Applications Pique Interest
    • How Instructors Can Use This Text
    • Ancillary Materials for Instructors
    • How students Can Use This Text
    • Ancillary Materials for Students
    • Student Feedback
  • Acknowledgments
  • Unit 1: Physical and Chemical Foundations of Physiology
    • 1.1. The Core Principles of Physiology
      • Abstract
      • Human Physiology Is the Integrated Study of the Normal Function of the Human Body
      • The Body Consists of Causal Mechanisms That Obey the Laws of Physics and Chemistry
      • The Core Principles of Physiology
      • Cells Are the Organizational Unit of Life
      • The Concept of Homeostasis Is a Central Theme of Physiology
      • Evolution Is an Efficient Cause of the Human Body Working Over Longtime Scales
      • Living Beings Transform Energy and Matter
      • Function Follows Form
      • Positive Feedback Control Systems Have Different Signs for the Adjustment to Perturbations
      • We Are Not Alone: the Microbiota
      • Physiology Is a Quantitative Science
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 1.2. Physical Foundations of Physiology I: Pressure-Driven Flow
      • Abstract
      • Forces Produce Flows
      • Conservation of Matter or Energy Leads to the Continuity Equation
      • Steady-State Flows Require Linear Gradients
      • Heat, Charge, Solute, and Volume Can Be Stored: Analogues of Capacitance
      • Pressure Drives Fluid Flow
      • Poiseuille’s Law Governs Steady-State Laminar Flow in Narrow Tubes
      • The Law of LaPlace Relates Pressure to Tension in Hollow Organs
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
      • Appendix 1.2.A1 Derivation of Poiseuille’s Law
      • Appendix 1.2.A2 Introductory Statistics and Linear Regresssion
    • 1.3. Physical Foundations of Physiology II: Electrical Force, Potential, Capacitance, and Current
      • Abstract
      • Coulomb’s Law Describes Electrical Forces
      • The Electric Potential Is the Work per Unit Charge
      • The Idea of Potential Is Limited to Conservative Forces
      • The Work Done by a Conservative Force Is Path Independent
      • Potential Difference Depends Only on the Initial and Final States
      • The Electric Field Is the Negative Gradient of the Potential
      • Force and Energy Are Simple Consequences of Potential
      • Gauss’s Law Is a Consequence of Coulomb’s Law
      • The Capacitance of a Parallel Plate Capacitor Depends on Its Area and Plate Separation
      • Biological Membranes Are Electrical Capacitors
      • Electric Charges Move in Response to Electric Forces
      • Movement of Ions in Response to Electrical Forces Makes a Current and a Solute Flux
      • The Relationship Between J and C Defines an Average Velocity
      • Ohm’s Law Relates Current to Potential
      • Kirchhoff’s Current Law and Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law
      • The Time Constant Characterizes the Charging of a Capacitor in a Simple RC Circuit
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • Problem Set 1.1. Physical Foundations: Pressure and Electrical Forces and Flows
    • 1.4. Chemical Foundations of Physiology I: Chemical Energy and Intermolecular Forces
      • Abstract
      • Atoms Contain Distributed Electrical Charges
      • Electron Orbitals Have Specific, Quantized Energies
      • Human Life Requires Relatively Few of the Chemical Elements
      • Atomic Orbitals Explain the Periodicity of Chemical Reactivities
      • Atoms Bind Together in Definite Proportions to Form Molecules
      • Compounds Have Characteristic Geometries and Surfaces
      • Single CC Bonds Can Freely Rotate
      • Double CC Bonds Prohibit Free Rotation
      • Chemical Bonds Have Bond Energies, Bond Lengths, and Bond Angles
      • Bond Energy Is Expressed as Enthalpy Changes
      • The Multiplicity of CX Bonds Produces Isomerism
      • Unequal Sharing Makes Polar Covalent Bonds
      • Ionic Bonds Result from Atoms with Highly Unequal Electronegativities
      • Water Provides an Example of a Polar Bond
      • Intermolecular Forces Arise from Electrostatic Interactions
      • Hydrogen Bonding Occurs Between Two Electronegative Centers
      • Dipole–Dipole Interactions Are Effective Only Over Short Distances
      • London Dispersion Forces Involve Induced Dipoles
      • Close Approach of Molecules Results in a Repulsive Force That Combines with the van der Waals Forces in the Lennard–Jones Potential
      • Atoms Within Molecules Wiggle and Jiggle, and Bonds Stretch and Bend
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
      • Appendix 1.4.A1 Dipole Moment
    • 1.5. Chemical Foundations of Physiology II: Concentration and Kinetics
      • Abstract
      • Avogadro’s Number Counts the Particles in a Mole
      • Concentration Is the Amount Per Unit Volume
      • Scientific Prefixes Indicate Order of Magnitude
      • Dilution of Solutions Is Calculated Using Conservation of Solute
      • Calculation of Fluid Volumes by the Fick Dilution Principle
      • Chemical Reactions Have Forward and Reverse Rate Constants
      • First-Order Rate Equations Show Exponential Decay
      • Rates of Chemical Reactions Depend on the Activation Energy
      • Enzymes Speed Up Reactions by Lowering Ea
      • The Michaelis–Menten Formulation of Enzyme Kinetics
      • Physiology Is All About Surfaces
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
      • Appendix 1.5.A1 Transition State Theory Explains Reaction Rates in Terms of an Activation Energy
      • Appendix 1.5.A2 Unidirectional Fluxes Over a Series of Intermediates Depend on All of the Individual Unidirectional Fluxes
      • Appendix 1.5.A3 Simple Compartmental Analysis
    • 1.6. Diffusion
      • Abstract
      • Fick’s First Law of Diffusion Was Proposed in Analogy to Fourier’s Law of Heat Transfer
      • Fick’s Second Law of Diffusion Follows from the Continuity Equation and Fick’s First Law
      • Fick’s Second Law Can Be Derived from the One-Dimensional Random Walk
      • The Time for One-Dimensional Diffusion Increases with the Square of Distance
      • Diffusion Coefficients in Cells Are Less than the Free Diffusion Coefficient in Water
      • External Forces Can Move Particles and Alter the Diffusive Flux
      • The Stokes–Einstein Equation Relates the Diffusion Coefficient to Molecular Size
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
      • Appendix 1.6.A1 Derivation of Einstein’s Frictional Coefficient from Momentum Transfer in Solution
    • 1.7. Electrochemical Potential and Free Energy
      • Abstract
      • Diffusive and Electrical Forces Can Be Unified in the Electrochemical Potential
      • The Overall Force That Drives Flux Is the Negative Gradient of the Electrochemical Potential
      • The Electrochemical Potential Is the Gibbs Free Energy Per Mole
      • The Sign of ΔG Determines the Direction of a Reaction
      • Processes with ΔG>0 Can Proceed Only by Linking Them with Another Process with ΔG<0
      • The Large Negative Free Energy of ATP Hydrolysis Powers Many Biological Processes
      • Measurement of the Equilibrium Concentrations of ADP, ATP, and Pi Allows Us to Calculate ΔG0
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • Problem Set 1.2. Kinetics and Diffusion
  • Unit 2: Membranes, Transport, and Metabolism
    • 2.1. Cell Structure
      • Abstract
      • For Cells, Form Follows Function
      • Organelles Make Up the Cell Like the Organs Make Up the Body
      • The Cell Membrane Marks the Limits of the Cell
      • The Cytosol Provides a Medium for Dissolution and Transport of Materials
      • The Cytoskeleton Supports the Cell and Forms a Network for Vesicular Transport
      • Microtubules Are the Largest Cytoskeletal Filaments
      • Actin Filaments Arise from Nucleation Sites Usually in the Cell Cortex
      • Intermediate Filaments Are Diverse
      • Cytoskeletal Units Form Free-Floating Structures Based on Tensegrity
      • Myosin Interacts with Actin to Produce Force or Shortening
      • The Nucleus Is the Command Center of the Cell
      • Ribosomes Are the Site of Protein Synthesis
      • The ER Is the Site of Protein and Lipid Synthesis and Processing
      • The Golgi Apparatus Packages Secretory Materials
      • The Mitochondrion Is the Powerhouse of the Cell
      • Lysosomes and Peroxisomes Are Bags of Enzymes
      • Proteasomes Degrade Marked Proteins
      • Cells Attach to Each Other Through a Variety of Junctions
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
      • Appendix 2.1.A1 Some Methods for Studying Cell Structure and Function
      • Microscopic Resolution Is the Ability to Distinguish Between Two Separated Objects
      • The Electron Microscope Has Advanced Our Understanding of Cell Structure
      • Subcellular Fractionation Allows Studies of Isolated Organelle But Requires Disruption of Cell Function and Structure
      • Differential Centrifugation Produces Enriched Fractions of Subcellular Organelles
      • Density Gradient Centrifugation Enhances Purity of the Fractions
      • Analysis of Centrifugation Separation
      • Centripetal Force in a Spinning Tube Is Provided by the Solvent
      • The Magnitude of the Centripetal Force Can Be Expressed as Relative Centrifugal Force
      • The Velocity of Sedimentation Is Measured in Svedbergs or S Units
      • Density Gradient Centrifugation
      • Other Optical Methods
    • 2.2. DNA and Protein Synthesis
      • Abstract
      • DNA Makes Up the Genome
      • DNA Consists of Two Intertwined Sequences of Nucleotides
      • RNA Is Closely Related to DNA
      • The Genetic Code Is a System Property
      • Regulation of DNA Transcription Defines the Cell Type
      • The Histone Code Provides Another Level of Regulation of Gene Transcription
      • DNA Methylation Represses Transcription
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 2.3. Protein Structure
      • Abstract
      • Amino Acids Make Up Proteins
      • Hydrophobic Interactions Can Be Assessed from the Partition Coefficient
      • Peptide Bonds Link Amino Acids Together in Proteins
      • Protein Function Centers on Their Ability to Form Reactive Surfaces
      • There Are Four Levels of Description for Protein Structure
      • Posttranslational Modification Regulates and Refines Protein Structure and Function
      • Protein Activity Is Regulated by the Number of Molecules or by Reversible Activation/Inactivation
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 2.4. Biological Membranes
      • Abstract
      • Biological Membranes Surround Most Intracellular Organelles
      • Biological Membranes Consist of a Lipid Bilayer Core with Embedded Proteins and Carbohydrate Coats
      • Organic Solvents Can Extract Lipids from Membranes
      • Biological Membranes Contain Mostly Phospholipids
      • Phospholipids Contain Fatty Acyl Chains, Glycerol, Phosphate, and a Hydrophilic Group
      • Plasmanyl Phospholipids and Plasmenyl Phospholipids Use Fatty Alcohols Instead of Fatty Acids
      • Sphingolipids Use Sphingosine as a Backbone and Are Particularly Rich in Brain and Nerve Tissues
      • Other Lipid Components of Membranes Include Cardiolipin, Sphingolipids, and Cholesterol
      • Surface Tension of Water Results from Asymmetric Forces at the Interface
      • Water “Squeezes Out” Amphipathic Molecules
      • Amphipathic Molecules Spread Over a Water Surface, Reduce Surface Tension, and Produce an Apparent Surface Pressure
      • Phospholipids Form Bilayer Membranes Between Two Aqueous Compartments
      • Lipid Bilayers Can Also Form Liposomes
      • Although Lipids Form the Core, Membrane Proteins Carry Out Many of the Functions of Membranes
      • Membrane Proteins Bind to Membranes with Varying Affinity
      • Lipids Maintain Dynamic Motion Within the Bilayer
      • Lipid Rafts Are Special Areas of Lipid and Protein Composition
      • Caveolae and Clathrin-Coated Pits Are Stabilized by Integral Proteins
      • Secreted Proteins Have Special Mechanisms for Getting Inside the Endoplasmic Reticulum
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • Problem Set 2.1. Surface Tension, Membrane Surface Tension, Membrane Structure, Microscopic Resolution, and Cell Fractionation
    • 2.5. Passive Transport and Facilitated Diffusion
      • Abstract
      • Membranes Possess a Variety of Transport Mechanisms
      • A Microporous Membrane Is One Model of a Passive Transport Mechanism
      • Dissolution in the Lipid Bilayer Is Another Model for Passive Transport
      • Facilitated Diffusion Uses a Membrane-Bound Carrier
      • Facilitated Diffusion Saturates with Increasing Solute Concentrations
      • Facilitated Diffusion Shows Specificity
      • Facilitated Diffusion Shows Competitive Inhibition
      • Passive Transport Occurs Spontaneously Without Input of Energy
      • Ions Can be Passively Transported Across Membranes by Ionophores or by Channels
      • Ionophores Carry Ions Across Membranes or Form Channels
      • Ion Channels
      • Water Moves Passively Through Aquaporins
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 2.6. Active Transport: Pumps and Exchangers
      • Abstract
      • The Electrochemical Potential Difference Measures the Energetics of Ion Permeation
      • Active Transport Mechanisms Link Metabolic Energy to Transport of Materials
      • Na,K-ATPase Is an Example of Primary Active Transport
      • Na,K-ATPase Forms a Phosphorylated Intermediate
      • The Na,K-ATPase Is Electrogenic
      • There Are Many Different Primary Active Transport Pumps
      • The Na–Ca Exchanger as an Example of Secondary Active Transport
      • Secondary Active Transport Mechanisms Are Symports or Antiports
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
      • Appendix 2.6.A1 Derivation of the Ussing Flux Ratio Equation
      • Appendix 2.6.A2 Nomenclature of Transport Proteins
      • Carrier Classifications
      • Solute Carriers
      • ATP-Driven Ion Pumps
      • ABC Transporters
      • Aquaporins
    • 2.7. Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure
      • Abstract
      • Osmosis Is the Flow of Water Driven by Solute Concentration Differences
      • The van’t Hoff Equation Relates Osmotic Pressure to Concentration
      • Thermodynamic Derivation of van’t Hoff’s Law
      • Osmotic Pressure Is a Property of Solutions Related to Other Colligative Properties
      • The Osmotic Coefficient φ Corrects for the Assumption of Dilute Solution and for Nonideal Behavior
      • The Rational Osmotic Coefficient Corrects for the Assumption of Ideality
      • Equivalence of Osmotic and Hydrostatic Pressures
      • The Reflection Coefficient Corrects van’t Hoff’s Equation for Permeable Solutes
      • Lp for a Microporous Membrane Depends on the Microscopic Characteristics of the Membrane
      • Case 1: The Solute Is Very Small Compared to the Pore
      • Case 2: The Solute Is Larger than the Pore: The Mechanism of Osmosis for Microporous Membranes
      • Case 3: The Reflection Coefficient Results from Partially Restricted Entry of Solutes into the Pores
      • Solutions May Be Hypertonic or Hypotonic
      • Osmosis, Osmotic Pressure, and Tonicity Are Related But Distinct Concepts
      • Cells Behave Like Osmometers
      • Cells Actively Regulate Their Volume Through RVDs and RVIs
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
      • Appendix 2.7.A1 Mechanism of Osmosis: Filtration Versus Diffusion Down a Concentration Gradient
    • Problem Set 2.2. Membrane Transport
    • 2.8. Cell Signaling
      • Abstract
      • Signaling Transduces One Event into Another
      • Cell-to-Cell Communication Can Also Use Direct Mechanical, Electrical, or Chemical Signals
      • Signals Elicit a Variety of Classes of Cellular Responses
      • Electrical Signals and Neurotransmitters Are Fastest; Endocrine Signals Are Slowest
      • Voltage-Gated Ion Channels Convey Electrical Signals
      • Voltage-Gated Ca2+ Channels Transduce an Electrical Signal to an Intracellular Ca2+ Signal
      • Ligand-Gated Ion Channels Open Upon Binding with Chemical Signals
      • Heterotrimeric G-Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) Are Versatile
      • There Are Four Classes of G-Proteins: Gαs, Gαi/Gαo, Gαq, and Gα12/Gα13
      • The Response of a Cell to a Chemical Signal Depends on the Receptor and Its Effectors
      • Chemical Signals Can Bind to and Directly Activate Membrane-Bound Enzymes
      • Many Signals Alter Gene Expression
      • Nuclear Receptors Alter Gene Transcription
      • Nuclear Receptors Recruit Histone Acetylase to Unwrap the DNA from the Histones
      • Nuclear Receptors Recruit Transcription Factors
      • Other Signaling Pathways Also Regulate Gene Expression
      • Summary of Signaling Mechanisms
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 2.9. ATP Production I: Glycolysis
      • Abstract
      • Take a Global View of Metabolism
      • Energy Production Occurs in Three Stages: Breakdown into Units, Formation of Acetyl CoA, and Complete Oxidation of Acetyl CoA
      • ATP Is the Energy Currency of the Cell
      • Fuel Reserves Are Stored in the Body Primarily in Fat Depots and Glycogen
      • Glucose Is a Readily Available Source of Energy
      • Glucose Release by the Liver Is Controlled by Hormones Through a Second Messenger System
      • The Liver Exports Glucose into the Blood Because It Can Dephosphorylate Glucose-6-P
      • A Specific Glucose Carrier Takes Glucose up into Cells
      • Glycolysis Is a Series of Biochemical Transformations Leading from Glucose to Pyruvate
      • Glycolysis Generates ATP Quickly in the Absence of Oxygen
      • Glycolysis Requires NAD+
      • Gluconeogenesis Requires Reversal of Glycolysis
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 2.10. ATP Production II: The TCA Cycle and Oxidative Phosphorylation
      • Abstract
      • Oxidation of Pyruvate Occurs in the Mitochondria via the TCA Cycle
      • Pyruvate Enters the Mitochondria and Is Converted to Acetyl CoA
      • Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Releases CO2 and Makes NADH
      • The Affinity of a Chemical for Electrons Is Measured by Its Standard Reduction Potential
      • The Reduction Potential Depends on the Concentration of Oxidized and Reduced Forms, and the Temperature
      • The TCA Cycle Is a Catalytic Cycle
      • The ETC Links Chemical Energy to H+ Pumping Out of the Mitochondria
      • Oxygen Accepts Electrons at the End of the ETC
      • Proton Pumping and Electron Transport Are Tightly Coupled
      • The ATP Synthase Couples Inward H+ Flux to ATP Synthesis
      • The Proton Electrochemical Gradient Provides the Energy for ATP Synthesis
      • NADH Forms About 2.5 ATP Molecules; FADH2 Forms About 1.5 ATP Molecules
      • ATP Can Be Produced From Cytosolic NADH
      • Most of the ATP Produced During Complete Glucose Oxidation Comes from Oxidative Phosphorylation
      • Mitochondria Have Specific Transport Mechanisms
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 2.11. ATP Production III: Fatty Acid Oxidation and Amino Acid Oxidation
      • Abstract
      • Fats and Proteins Contribute 50% of the Energy Content of Many Diets
      • Depot Fat Is Stored as Triglycerides and Broken Down to Glycerol and Fatty Acids for Energy
      • Glycerol Is Converted to an Intermediate of Glycolysis
      • Fatty Acids Are Metabolized in the Mitochondria and Peroxisomes
      • Beta Oxidation Cleaves Two Carbon Pieces off Fatty Acids
      • The Liver Packages Substrates for Energy Production by Other Tissues
      • Amino Acids Can Be Used to Generate ATP
      • Amino Acids Are Deaminated to Enable Oxidation
      • Urea Is Produced During Deamination and Is Eliminated as a Waste Product
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
  • Unit 3: Physiology of Excitable Cells
    • 3.1. The Origin of the Resting Membrane Potential
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • The Equilibrium Potential Arises from the Balance Between Electrical Force and Diffusion
      • The Equilibrium Potential for K+ Is Negative
      • Integration of the Nernst–Planck Electrodiffusion Equation Gives the Goldman–Hodgkin–Katz Equation
      • Slope Conductance and Chord Conductance Relate Ion Flows to the Net Driving Force
      • The Chord Conductance Equation Relates Membrane Potential to All Ion Flows
      • The Current Convention Is that an Outward Current Is Positive
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
      • Appendix 3.1.A1 Derivation of the GHK Equation
    • 3.2. The Action Potential
      • Abstract
      • Cells Use Action Potentials as Fast Signals
      • The Motor Neuron Has Dendrites, a Cell Body, and an Axon
      • Passing a Current Across the Membrane Changes the Membrane Potential
      • An Outward Current Hyperpolarizes the Membrane Potential
      • The Result of Depolarizing Stimulus of Adequate Size Is a New Phenomenon—the Action Potential
      • The Action Potential Is All or None
      • The Latency Decreases with Increasing Stimulus Strength
      • Threshold Is the Membrane Potential at Which an Action Potential Is Elicited 50% of the Time
      • The Nerve Cannot Produce a Second Excitation During the Absolute Refractory Period
      • The Action Potential Reverses to Positive Values, Called the Overshoot
      • The Strength–Duration Relationship is Hyperbolic
      • Voltage-Dependent Changes in Ion Conductance Cause the Action Potential
      • The Action Potential Is Accompanied by Na+ Influx
      • The Chord Conductance Equation Predicts that Changes in Conductance Will Change the Membrane Potential
      • gNa Increases Transiently During the Action Potential; gK Increases Later and Stays Elevated Longer
      • Conductance and Equilibrium Potentials for Na+ and K+ Account for All of the Features of the Action Potential
      • gNa Is a Function of a Na+-Selective Channel
      • The Inactivation Gates Must Be Reset Before Another Action Potential Can Be Fired
      • Conductance Depends on the Number and State of the Channels
      • Patch Clamp Experiments Measure Unitary Conductances
      • The Current–Voltage Relationship for the Whole Cell Determines the Threshold for Excitation
      • Threshold Depolarization Requires a Threshold Charge Movement, Which Explains the Strength–Duration Relationship
      • The Amount of Charge Necessary to Reach Threshold Explains the Strength–Duration Relationship
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
      • Appendix 3.2.A1 The Hodgkin–Huxley Model of the Action Potential
      • The HH Model Divides the Total Current into Separate Na+, K+, and Leak Currents
      • The HH Model of the K+ Conductance Incorporates Four Independent “Particles”
      • The HH Model of Na+ Conductances Uses Activating and Inactivating Particles
      • Calculation of gNa(t) and gK(t) for a Voltage Clamp Experiment
      • Results of the Calculations
    • 3.3. Propagation of the Action Potential
      • Abstract
      • The Action Potential Moves Along the Axon
      • The Velocity of Nerve Conduction Varies Directly with the Axon Diameter
      • The Action Potential Is Propagated by Current Moving Axially Down the Axon
      • The Time Course and Distance of Electrotonic Spread Depend on the Cable Properties of the Nerve
      • Capacitance Depends on the Area, Thickness, and Dielectric Constant
      • Charge Buildup or Depletion from a Capacitor Constitutes a Capacitative Current
      • The Transmembrane Resistance Depends on the Area of the Membrane
      • The Axoplasmic Resistance Depends on the Distance, Area, and Specific Resistance
      • The Extracellular Resistance Also Depends on the Distance, Area, and Specific Resistance
      • Cable Properties Define a Space Constant and a Time Constant
      • The Cable Properties Explain the Velocity of Action Potential Conduction
      • Saltatory Conduction Refers to the “Jumping” of the Current from Node to Node
      • The Action Potential Is Spread out Over More than One Node
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
      • Appendix 3.3.A1 Capacitance of a Coaxial Capacitor
      • The Capacitance of a Coaxial Cable
    • Problem Set 3.1. Membrane Potential, Action Potential, and Nerve Conduction
    • 3.4. Skeletal Muscle Mechanics
      • Abstract
      • Muscles Either Shorten or Produce Force
      • Muscles Perform Diverse Functions
      • Muscles Are Classified According to Fine Structure, Neural Control, and Anatomical Arrangement
      • Isometric Force Is Measured While Keeping Muscle Length Constant
      • Muscle Force Depends on the Number of Motor Units That Are Activated
      • The Size Principle States That Motor Units Are Recruited in the Order of Their Size
      • Muscle Force Can Be Graded by the Frequency of Motor Neuron Firing
      • Muscle Force Depends on the Length of the Muscle
      • Recruitment Provides the Greatest Gradation of Muscle Force
      • Muscle Fibers Differ in Contractile, Metabolic and Proteomic Characteristics
      • Motor Units Contain a Single Type of Muscle Fiber
      • The Innervation Ratio of Motor Units Produces a Proportional Control of Muscle Force
      • Muscle Force Varies Inversely with Muscle Velocity
      • Muscle Power Varies with the Load and Muscle Type
      • Eccentric Contractions Lengthen the Muscle and Produce More Force
      • Concentric, Isometric, and Eccentric Contractions Serve Different Functions
      • Muscle Architecture Influences Force and Velocity of the Whole Muscle
      • Muscles Decrease Force Upon Repeated Stimulation; This Is Fatigue
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 3.5. Contractile Mechanisms in Skeletal Muscle
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Muscle Fibers Have a Highly Organized Structure
      • The Sliding Filament Hypothesis Explains the Length–Tension Curve
      • Force Is Produced by an Interaction Between Thick Filament Proteins and Thin Filament Proteins
      • The Thin Filament Consists Primarily of Actin
      • α-Actinin at the Z-disk Joins Actin Filaments of Adjacent Sarcomeres
      • Myomesin Joins Thick Filaments at the M-Line or M-Band
      • Overall Structure of the Sarcomere Is Complicated
      • Cross-Bridges from the Thick Filament Split ATP and Generate Force
      • Myosin Heads Are Independent But May Cooperate Through Strain on the Cross-Bridge
      • Cross-Bridge Cycling Rate Explains the Fiber-Type Dependence of the Force–Velocity Curve
      • Force Is Transmitted Outside the Cell Through the Cytoskeleton and Special Transmembrane Proteins
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 3.6. The Neuromuscular Junction and Excitation–Contraction Coupling
      • Abstract
      • Motor Neurons Are the Sole Physiological Activators of Skeletal Muscles
      • The Motor Neuron Receives Thousands of Inputs from Other Cells
      • Postsynaptic Potentials Can Be Excitatory or Inhibitory
      • Postsynaptic Potentials Are Graded, Spread Electrotonically, and Decay with Time
      • Action Potentials Originate at the Initial Segment or Axon Hillock
      • Motor Neurons Integrate Multiple Synaptic Inputs to Initiate Action Potentials
      • The Action Potential Travels Down the Axon Toward the Neuromuscular Junction
      • The Neuromuscular Junction Consists of Multiple Enlargements Connected by Axon Segments
      • Neurotransmission at the Neuromuscular Junction Is Unidirectional
      • Motor Neurons Release Acetylcholine to Excite Muscles
      • Ca2+ Efflux Mechanisms in the Presynaptic Cell Shut Off the Ca2+ Signal
      • Acetylcholine Is Degraded and Then Recycled
      • The Action Potential on the Muscle Membrane Propagates Both Ways on the Muscle
      • The Muscle Fiber Converts the Action Potential into an Intracellular Ca2+ Signal
      • The Ca2+ during E–C Coupling Originates from the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
      • Ca2+ Release from the SR and Reuptake by the SR Requires Several Proteins
      • Reuptake of Ca2+ by the SR Ends Contraction and Initiates Relaxation
      • Cross-Bridge Cycling Is Controlled by Myoplasmic [Ca2+]
      • Sequential SR Release and Summation of Myoplasmic [Ca2+] Explains Summation and Tetany
      • The Elastic Properties of the Muscle Are Responsible for the Waveform of the Twitch
      • Repetitive Stimulation Causes Repetitive Ca2+ Release from the SR and Wave Summation
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
      • Appendix 3.6.A1 Molecular Machinery of the Neuromuscular Junction
      • Appendix 3.6.A2 Molecular Machinery of the Calcium Release Unit
    • 3.7. Muscle Energetics, Fatigue, and Training
      • Abstract
      • Muscular Activity Relies on the Free Energy of ATP Hydrolysis
      • Muscular Activity Consumes ATP at High Rates
      • The Aggregate Rate and Amount of ATP Consumption Varies with the Intensity and Duration of Exercise
      • In Repetitive Exercise, Intensity Increases Frequency and Reduces Rest Time
      • Metabolic Pathways Regenerate ATP on Different Timescales and with Different Capacities
      • The Metabolic Pathways Used by Muscle Varies with Intensity and Duration of Exercise
      • At High Intensity of Exercise, Glucose and Glycogen Are the Preferred Fuel for Muscle
      • Lactic Acid Produced by Anaerobic Metabolism Allows High Glycolytic Flux
      • Muscle Fibers Differ in Their Metabolic Properties
      • Blood Lactate Levels Rise Progressively with Increases in Exercise Intensity
      • Mitochondria Import Lactic Acid, Then Metabolize it; This Forms a Carrier System for NADH Oxidation
      • Lactate Shuttles to the Mitochondria, Oxidative Fibers, or Liver
      • The “Anaerobic Threshold” Results from a Mismatch of Lactic Acid Production and Oxidation
      • Exercise Increases Glucose Transporters in the Muscle Sarcolemma
      • Fatigue Is a Transient Loss of Work Capacity Resulting from Preceding Work
      • Initial Training Gains Are Neural
      • Muscle Strength Depends on Muscle Size
      • Endurance Training Uses Repetitive Movements to Tune Muscle Metabolism
      • Endocrine and Autocrine Signals Regulate Muscle Size (=Strength)
      • Human Ability to Switch Muscle Fiber Types Is Limited
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • Problem Set 3.2. Neuromuscular Transmission, Muscle Force, and Energetics
    • 3.8. Smooth Muscle
      • Abstract
      • Smooth Muscles Show No Cross-Striations
      • Smooth Muscle Develops Tension More Slowly But Can Maintain Tension for a Long Time
      • Smooth Muscle Can Contract Tonically or Phasically
      • Smooth Muscles Exhibit a Variety of Electrical Activities that May or May Not Be Coupled to Force Development
      • Contractile Filaments in Smooth Muscle Cells Form a Lattice That Attaches to the Cell Membrane
      • Adjacent Smooth Muscle Cells Are Mechanically Coupled and May Be Electrically Coupled
      • Smooth Muscle Is Controlled by Intrinsic Activity, Nerves, and Hormones
      • Nerves Release Neurotransmitters Diffusely onto Smooth Muscle
      • Contraction in Smooth Muscle Cells Is Initiated by Increasing Intracellular [Ca2+]
      • Smooth Muscle Cytosolic [Ca2+] Is Heterogeneous and Controlled by Multiple Mechanisms
      • Smooth Muscle [Ca2+] Can Be Regulated by Chemical Signals
      • Force in Smooth Muscle Arises from Ca2+ Activation of Actin–Myosin Interaction
      • Myosin Light Chain Phosphorylation Regulates Smooth Muscle Force
      • Myosin Light Chain Phosphatase Dephosphorylates the RLC
      • Ca2+ Sensitization Produces Force at Lower [Ca2+] Levels
      • Nitric Oxide Induces Smooth Muscle Relaxation by Stimulating Guanylate Cyclase
      • Adrenergic Stimulation Relaxes Smooth Muscles by Reducing Cytosolic [Ca2+]
      • Synopsis of Mechanisms Promoting Contraction or Relaxation of Smooth Muscle
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
  • Unit 4: The Nervous System
    • 4.1. Organization of the Nervous System
      • Abstract
      • The Neuroendocrine System Controls Physiological Systems
      • A Central Tenet of Physiological Psychology Is That Neural Processes Completely Explain All Behavior
      • The New Mind–Body Problem Is How Consciousness Arises from a Material Brain
      • External Behavioral Responses Require Sensors, Internal Processes, and Motor Response
      • The Nervous System Is Divided into the Central and Peripheral Nervous System
      • The Brain Has Readily Identifiable Surface Features
      • CSF Fills the Ventricles and Cushions the Brain
      • The Blood-Brain Barrier Protects the Brain
      • Cross Sections of the Brain and Staining Reveal Internal Structures
      • Gray Matter Is Organized into Layers
      • Overall Function of the Nervous System Derives from its Component Cells
      • Overview of the Functions of Some Major Areas of the CNS
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 4.2. Cells, Synapses, and Neurotransmitters
      • Abstract
      • Nervous System Behavior Derives from Cell Behavior
      • Nervous Tissue Is Composed of Neurons and Supporting Cells
      • Glial Cells Protect and Serve
      • Neurons Differ in Shapes and Size
      • Input Information Typically Converges on the Cell and Output Information Diverges
      • Chemical Synapses Are Overwhelmingly More Common
      • Ca2+ Signals Initiate Chemical Neurotransmission
      • Vesicle Fusion Uses the Same Molecular Machinery That Regulates Other Vesicle Traffic
      • Ca2+ Efflux Mechanisms in the Pre-Synaptic Cell Shut Off the Ca2+ Signal
      • Removal or Destruction of the Neurotransmitter Shuts Off the Neurotransmitter Signal
      • The Pre-Synaptic Terminal Recycles Neurotransmitter Vesicles
      • Ionotropic Receptors Are Ligand-Gated Channels; Metabotropic Receptors Are GPCR
      • Acetylcholine Binds to Nicotinic Receptors or Muscarinic Receptors
      • Catecholamines: Dopamine, Norepinephrine, and Epinephrine Derive from Tyrosine
      • Dopamine Couples to Gs and Gi-Coupled Receptors through D1 and D2 Receptors
      • Adrenergic Receptors Are Classified According to Their Pharmacology
      • Glutamate and Aspartate Are Excitatory Neurotransmitters
      • GABA Inhibits Neurons
      • Serotonin Exerts Multiple Effects in the PNS and CNS
      • Neuropeptides Are Synthesized in the Soma and Transported via Axonal Transport
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 4.3. Cutaneous Sensory Systems
      • Abstract
      • Sensors Provide a Window onto Our World
      • Exteroreceptors Include the Five Classical Senses and the Cutaneous Senses
      • Interoreceptors Report on the Chemical and Physical State of the Interior of the Body
      • Sensory Systems Consist of the Sense Organ, the Sensory Receptors, and the Pathways to the CNS
      • Perception Refers to Our Awareness of a Stimulus
      • Long and Short Receptors Differ in Their Production of Action Potentials
      • Anatomical Connection Determines the Quality of a Sensory Stimulus
      • The Intensity of Sensory Stimuli Is Encoded by the Frequency of Sensory Receptor Firing and the Population of Active Receptors
      • Frequency Coding is the Basis of the Weber–Fechner Law of Psychology
      • Adaptation to a Stimulus Allows Sensory Neurons to Signal Position, Velocity, and Acceleration
      • Receptive Fields Refer to the Physical Areas at Which a Stimulus Will Excite a Receptor
      • Cutaneous Receptors Include Mechanoreceptors, Thermoreceptors, and Nociceptors
      • Somatosensory Information Is Transmitted to the Brain through the Dorsal Column Pathway
      • The Cutaneous Senses Map onto the Sensory Cortex
      • Pain and Temperature Information Travel in the Anterolateral Tract
      • Disorders of Sensation Can Pinpoint Damage
      • Pain Sensation Can Be Reduced by Somatosensory Input
      • The Receptive Field of Somatosensory Cortical Neurons is Often On-Center, Off-Surround
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 4.4. Spinal Reflexes
      • Abstract
      • A Reflex is a Stereotyped Muscular Response to a Specific Sensory Stimulus
      • The Withdrawal Reflex Protects Us from Painful Stimuli
      • The Crossed-Extensor Reflex Usually Occurs in Association with the Withdrawal Reflex
      • The Myotatic Reflex Involves a Muscle Length Sensor, the Muscle Spindle
      • The Muscle Spindle Is a Specialized Muscle Fiber
      • The Myotatic Reflex Is a MonoSynaptic Reflex Between Ia Afferents and the α Motor Neuron
      • The Gamma Motor System Maintains Tension on the Intrafusal Fibers During Muscle Contraction
      • The Inverse Myotatic Reflex Involves Sensors of Muscle Force in the Tendon
      • The Spinal Cord Possesses Other Reflexes and Includes Locomotor Pattern Generators
      • The Spinal Cord Contains Descending Tracts That Control Lower Motor Neurons
      • All of the Inputs to the Lower Motor Neurons Form Integrated Responses
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 4.5. Balance and Control of Movement
      • Abstract
      • The Nervous System Uses a Population Code and Frequency Code to Control Contractile Force
      • Control of Movement Entails Control of α Motoneuron Activity
      • The Circuitry of the Spinal Cord Provides the First Layer in a Hierarchy of Muscle Control
      • The Motor Nerves Are Organized by Myotomes
      • Spinal Reflexes Form the Basis of Motor Control
      • Purposeful Movements Originate in the Cerebral Cortex
      • The Primary Motor Cortex Has a Somatotopic Organization
      • Motor Activity Originates from Sensory Areas Together with Premotor Areas
      • Motor Control Is Hierarchical and Serial
      • The Basal Ganglia and Cerebellum Play Important Roles in Movement
      • The Substantia Nigra Sets the Balance Between the Direct and Indirect Pathways
      • The Cerebellum Maintains Movement Accuracy
      • The Sense of Balance Originates in Hair Cells in the Vestibular Apparatus
      • Rotation of the Head Gives Opposite Signals from the Two Vestibular Apparatuses
      • The Utricles and Saccules Contain Hair Cells That Respond to Static Forces of Gravity
      • The Afferent Sensory Neurons from the Vestibular Apparatus Project to the Vestibular Nuclei in the Medulla
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • Problem Set 4.1. Nerve Conduction
      • Abstract
    • 4.6. The Chemical Senses
      • Abstract
      • The Chemical Senses Include Taste and Smell
      • Taste and Olfactory Receptors Turn Over Regularly
      • The Olfactory Epithelium Resides in the Roof of the Nasal Cavities
      • Olfactory Receptor Cells Send Axons Through the Cribriform Plate
      • Humans Recognize a Wide Variety of Odors But Are Often Untrained in Their Identification
      • The Response to Specific Odorants Is Mediated by Specific Odorant Binding Proteins
      • The Olfactory Receptor Cells Send Axons to Second-Order Neurons in the Olfactory Bulb
      • Each Glomerulus Corresponds to One Receptor That Responds to Its Molecular Receptive Range
      • Olfaction Requires Pattern Recognition Over About 350 Input Channels
      • Olfactory Output Connects Directly to the Cortex in the Temporal Lobe
      • A Second Olfactory Output Is Through the Thalamus to the Orbitofrontal Cortex
      • The Detection Limits for Odors Can Be Low
      • Adaptation to Odors Involves the Central Nervous System
      • Some “Smells” Stimulate the Trigeminal Nerve and Not the Olfactory Nerve
      • Humans Distinguish Among Five Primary Types of Taste Sensations
      • The Taste Buds Are Groups of Taste Receptors Arranged on Taste Papillae
      • TRCs Respond to Single Modalities
      • Salty Taste Has Two Mechanisms Distinguished by Their Amiloride Sensitivity
      • Sour Taste Depends on TRC Cytosolic pH
      • Sweet, Bitter, and Umami Taste Are Transduced by Three Sets of G-Protein-Coupled Receptors
      • The “Hot” Taste of Jalapeno Peppers Is Sensed Through Pain Receptors
      • Taste Receptors Project to the Cortex Through the Solitary Nucleus and the Thalamus
      • Flavor Is in the Brain
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 4.7. Hearing
      • Abstract
      • The Human Auditory System Discriminates Among Tone, Timbre, and Intensity
      • The Auditory System Can Locate Sources of Noise Using Time Delays and Intensity Differences
      • The Ear Consists of Three Parts: the Outer Ear, Middle Ear, and Inner Ear: Each Has a Definite Function
      • Hair Cells of the Cochlea Respond to Deformation of Stereocilia Touching the Tectorial Membrane
      • Outer Hair Cells Move in Response to Efferent Stimulation and Thereby Tune the Inner Hair Cells
      • The Cochlea Produces a Tonotopic Mapping of Sound Frequency
      • Auditory Information Passes Through the Brain Stem to the Auditory Cortex
      • Language is Processed in Areas Near the Primary Auditory Cortex in the Left Hemisphere, but Music Is Processed in the Right Hemisphere
      • Perception of Pitch Is Accomplished by a Combination of Tuning and Phase Locking
      • The Cochlear Microphonic Shows that the Inner Hair Cells Have an AC Response That Can Keep up with Moderate Frequency Vibrations
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
      • Appendix 4.7.A1 The Physics of Sound
    • 4.8. Vision
      • Abstract
      • Overview of the Visual System
      • The Structure of the Eye Enables Focusing of Light on the Retina
      • The Vitreous Body Maintains Eye Shape
      • The Eye Focuses Light on the Retina by Refraction
      • The Lens Changes Shape to Focus Near Objects
      • Near-Sightedness and Far-Sightedness Are Problems in Focusing the Image on the Retina
      • Photoreceptor Cells in the Retina Transduce Light Signals
      • The Retina Consists of Several Layers and Begins Processing of Visual Signals
      • Bipolar Cells Are Off-Center or On-Center
      • The Output of Bipolar Cells Converge Onto On-Center and Off-Center Ganglion Cells
      • Signals from the Two Eyes Cross Over During the Central Visual Pathways
      • Some Ganglion Cells Project to Other Areas of the Brain
      • Additional Processing of Visual Images Occurs in the Visual Cortex
      • The Visual Cortex Sends Output to the Temporal and Parietal Lobes
      • We Still Do Not Know How We Perceive Visual Images
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
      • Appendix 4.8.A1 Refraction of Light and the Thin Lens Formula
    • 4.2 Problem Set. Sensory Transduction
    • 4.9. Autonomic Nervous System
      • Abstract
      • The Autonomic Nervous System Serves a Homeostatic Function and an Adaptive Function
      • Autonomic Reflexes Are Fast
      • The Emotional State Greatly Affects Autonomic Efferent Function
      • Autonomic Efferent Nerves Have Two Neurons
      • The Sympathetic Nervous System Originates in the Thoracolumbar Spinal Cord
      • The Parasympathetic Nervous System Originates in Cranial and Sacral Nerves
      • Autonomic Reflexes Link Sensory Input to Motor Efferents
      • The Major Autonomic Neurotransmitters Are Acetylcholine and Norepinephrine
      • Parasympathetic Release of Acetylcholine Works on Muscarinic Receptors
      • Norepinephrine Released by Postganglionic Sympathetic Neurons Acts Through α- and β-Receptors
      • Autonomic Nerve Terminals Also Release Other Neurotransmitters
      • Effects of Autonomic Stimulation Depend on the Receptor on the Target Cell
      • The Pupillary Light Reflex Regulates Light Intensity Falling on the Retina: A Parasympathetic Reflex
      • Micturition Involves Autonomic Reflexes and Volitional Nervous Activity
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
  • Unit 5: The Cardiovascular System
    • 5.1. Overview of the Cardiovascular System and the Blood
      • Abstract
      • The Circulatory System Is a Transport System
      • The Circulatory System Consists of the Heart, Blood Vessels, and Blood
      • The Circulatory System Carries Nutrients, Wastes, Chemical Signals, and Heat
      • The Circulation Is Necessary Because Diffusion from and to the Environment Is Too Slow
      • The Circulatory System Consists of the Pulmonary Circulation and Systemic Circulation
      • Most Circulatory Beds Are Arranged in Parallel
      • Pressure Drives Blood Flow Through the Vascular System
      • Vessels Are Characterized by a Compliance
      • Blood Consists of Cells Suspended in Plasma
      • Hemostasis Defends the Integrity of the Vascular Volume
      • Blood Coagulation Sits on a Knife Edge of Activation and Inhibition
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 5.2. Plasma and Red Blood Cells
      • Abstract
      • Plasma Consists Mainly of Water, Electrolytes, and Proteins
      • Plasma Proteins and Ions Buffer Changes in Plasma pH
      • The Oncotic Pressure of Plasma Proteins Retains Circulatory Volume
      • The Erythrocyte Is the Most Abundant Cell in the Blood
      • Erythrocytes Contain a Lot of Hemoglobin
      • Hemoglobin Consists of Four Polypeptide Chains, Each with a Heme Group
      • Erythropoietin Controls Formation of Erythrocytes from Pluripotent Stem Cells in Bone Marrow
      • Phagocytes in the Reticuloendothelial System Destroy Worn Erythrocytes
      • Iron Recycles into New Heme
      • Human Blood Can Be Classified into a Small Number of Blood Types
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 5.3. White Blood Cells and Inflammation
      • Abstract
      • The White Blood Cells Include Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils, Monocytes, Lymphocytes, and Platelets
      • White Blood Cells Originate from Pluripotent Stem Cells
      • Neutrophils Are Phagocytes
      • Monocytes Leave the Circulatory System to Become Tissue Macrophages
      • Basophils Resemble Mast Cells
      • Eosinophils Are Involved in Defense of Parasitic Infections and Allergies
      • Lymphocytes Form a Specific Defense System
      • Tissue Macrophages, Monocytes, and Specialized Endothelial Cells Form the Reticuloendothelial System
      • Inflammation Is the Net Response of the Body to Tissue Injury
      • Inflammation Begins with the Release of Signaling Molecules from the Damaged Tissue
      • The Innate Immune Response Requires No Prior Exposure–Specificity of the Response Is Inherited in the Genome
      • Neutrophils and Monocytes Leave the Circulatory System by Diapedesis in Response to Chemotaxic Compounds
      • The Complement System Destroys Microbes that Have Attached Antibodies
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 5.4. The Heart as a Pump
      • Abstract
      • The Heart Is Located in the Center of the Thoracic Cavity
      • The Heart Is a Muscle
      • Contraction of Cardiac Muscle Produces a Pressure within the Chamber
      • Blood is Pumped through Four Chambers
      • The Four Valves Are Nearly CoPlanar
      • Closure of the Valves Produces the Heart Sounds
      • Additional Turbulence Causes Heart Murmurs
      • Summary of the Contractile Events in the Cardiac Cycle
      • An Automatic Electrical System Controls the Contraction of the Heart
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • Problem Set 5.1. Blood
    • 5.5. The Cardiac Action Potential
      • Abstract
      • Different Cardiac Cells Differ in Their Resting Membrane Potential and Action Potential
      • SA Nodal Cells Spontaneously Generate Action Potentials Whereas Contractile Cells Have Stable Resting Membrane Potentials
      • Autonomic Nerves Alter the Heart Rate by Affecting the Pacemaker Potential
      • The Ionic Basis of the Ventricular Cardiomyocyte Action Potential
      • Epinephrine Enhances the L-Type Ca2+ Channels, Which Elevates the Action Potential Plateau
      • The Action Potential Is Conducted to Neighboring Cells through Gap Junctions in the Intercalated Disks
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 5.6. The Electrocardiogram
      • Abstract
      • The ECG is the Projection of Cardiac Electrical Activity onto the Body Surface
      • The Heart Muscle Fibers Act as Electric Dipoles
      • Einthoven Idealized the Thorax as a Triangle
      • The Heart’s Electric Dipole Moment Varies with Time—and so Does its Recording on Leads I, II, and III
      • The Values of Leads I and III Can Be Used to Calculate the Electric Dipole Moment of the Heart
      • Atrial Depolarization Causes the P wave
      • Sequential Depolarization of the Ventricles Produces the QRS Complex
      • The Subepicardium Repolarizes before the Subendocardium, Causing an Upright T wave
      • The Cardiac Dipole Traces a Closed Curve during Each Heart Beat
      • The Largest Depolarization Defines the Mean Electrical Axis
      • Unipolar Leads Record the Difference between an Electrode and a Zero Electrode
      • Augmented Unipolar Limb Leads Use Combination of Only Two Electrodes for the Indifferent Electrode
      • The Einthoven Triangle is Only Approximately Valid
      • The Cardiac Cycle, Revisited
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 5.7. The Cellular Basis of Cardiac Contractility
      • Abstract
      • Cardiac Muscle Shares Many Structural Features with Skeletal Muscle
      • Intercalated Disks Electrically Couple Cardiomyocytes
      • The Strength of Cardiac Muscle Contraction Is not Regulated by Recruitment or by Summation
      • Cardiac Myofibrils Have Thick and Thin Filaments and Form the Cross-Striations
      • Actin-Activated Myosin ATPase Activity Produces Force and Shortening
      • Cytoplasmic [Ca2+] Controls Actomyosin Cross-Bridge Cycling
      • Calcium-Induced Calcium Release Couples Excitation to Contraction in Cardiac Muscle
      • Reuptake of Ca2+ by the SR and SL Extrusion of Ca2+ Cause Relaxation
      • Mitochondria Can Take Up Ca2+
      • Calsequestrin Augments SR Ca2+ Uptake and Release
      • What Regulates Cardiac Contractility?
      • The Force Generally Increases with the Frequency of the Heart Beat: The Force–Frequency Relation
      • Sympathetic Stimulation Increases Force by Increasing the Ca2+ Transient
      • Parasympathetic Stimulation Opposes Sympathetic Effects (see Figure 5.7.7)
      • Cardiac Glycosides Increase Cardiac Contractility by Increasing the Ca2+ Transient
      • Cardiac Contractile Force Is Powerfully Modulated by Stretch
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 5.8. The Cardiac Function Curve
      • Abstract
      • Cardiac Output Is the Flow Produced by the Heart
      • Stroke Volume Is Determined by Preload, Afterload, and Contractility
      • The Integral of the Pressure–Volume Loop Is the PV Work
      • Total Work of the Heart Includes Pressure, Kinetic, and Gravitational Terms
      • Stretch of the Heart Determines the Stroke Volume: The Frank–Starling Law of the Heart
      • The Ventricular Function Curve Plots Cardiac Function against Right Atrial Pressure
      • Increasing Preload Increases the Stroke Volume, Increasing Afterload Decreases It
      • Positive Inotropic Agents Shift the Cardiac Function Curve Up and to the Left
      • Fick’s Principle Estimates Cardiac Output from O2 Consumption
      • Cardiac Output can be Determined by the Indicator Dilution Method
      • The Thermal Dilution Method
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • Problem Set 5.2. Cardiac Work
      • Publisher Summary
    • 5.9. Vascular Function: Hemodynamics
      • Abstract
      • The Vascular System Distributes Cardiac Output to the Tissues
      • The Circulatory System Uses Four Major Physical Principles
      • Flow is Driven by a Pressure Difference
      • Compliance Describes the Relation between Pressure and Volume in the Vessels
      • The Heart’s Ejection of Blood into the Arterial Tree Causes the Arterial Pressure Pulse
      • The Pulse Pressure Depends on the Stroke Volume and Compliance of the Arteries
      • Diastolic Pressure Plus One-Third Pulse Pressure Estimates the Mean Arterial Pressure
      • Pressure and Flow Waves Propagate Down the Arterial Tree
      • Clinicians Use a Sphygmomanometer to Measure Blood Pressure
      • Blood Vessels Branch Extensively, Reducing Their Diameter but Increasing the Overall Area
      • The Major Pressure Drop in the Arterial Circulation Occurs in the Arterioles
      • Poiseuille’s Law Only Approximately Describes Flow in the Vasculature
      • The Ratio of ΔP to Qv Defines the Vascular Resistance
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 5.10. The Microcirculation and Solute Exchange
      • Abstract
      • The Exchange Vessels Include Capillaries, Terminal Arterioles, and Venules
      • Ultrastructural Studies Reveal Three Distinct Types of Capillaries
      • Capillary Exchange Uses Passive Mechanisms
      • Passive Diffusion Obeys Fick’s Law of Diffusion Across Multiple Barriers
      • Either Flow or Diffusion Can Limit Delivery of Materials to Cells
      • The Interstitial Fluid Concentration Is Set by the Balance Between Consumption and Delivery
      • Regulation of Perfusion Regulates Solute Transfer
      • Some Macromolecules Cross the Capillary Wall by Transcytosis
      • Starling First Described the Forces That Drive Bulk Fluid Movement Across Capillaries
      • In Most Organs, Net Filtration Pressure Drives Fluid Out of the Capillaries at the Arteriolar End
      • The Lymphatics Drain the Fluid Filtered Through the Capillaries Back into the Blood
      • Muscle Activity Helps Pump Lymph Through the Lymphatics
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 5.11. Regulation of Perfusion
      • Abstract
      • For Any Given Input Pressure, the Caliber of the Arterioles Controls Perfusion of a Tissue
      • Vasoconstriction Decreases Capillary Pressure
      • Vascular Smooth Muscle Contracts by Activation of Myosin Light Chain Kinase
      • Multiple Signals Regulate the Activity of MLCK and MLCP
      • Multiple Mechanisms Cause Vasodilation
      • Control of Blood Vessel Caliber Is Local (Intrinsic) and Systemic (Extrinsic)
      • The Myogenic Response Arises from the Contractile Response to Stretch
      • Endothelial Secretions Dilate Arterioles
      • Metabolic Products Generally Vasodilate
      • Paracrine Secretions Affect Vascular Caliber
      • The Sympathetic Nervous System Predominantly Controls the Vascular System
      • Circulating Hormones That Affect Vessel Caliber Include Epinephrine, Angiotensin, ANP, and Vasopressin
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 5.12. Integration of Cardiac Output and Venous Return
      • Abstract
      • The Cardiovascular System Is Closed
      • The Cardiovascular System Can Be Simplified for Analysis
      • The Operating Point of the Cardiovascular System Matches Cardiac Function to Vascular Function
      • The Mean Systemic Pressure Normally Equals the Mean Circulatory Pressure
      • Filling the Empty Circulatory System Reveals Stressed and Unstressed Volumes
      • The Vascular Function Curve Can Be Derived from Arterial and Venous Compliances and TPR
      • The Experimentally Determined Vascular Function Curve Follows the Theoretical Result Only for Positive Right Atrial Pressures
      • Simultaneous Solution of the Cardiac Function Curve and Vascular Function Curve Defines the Steady-State Operating Point of the Cardiovascular System
      • Changing Arteriolar Resistance Rotates the Vascular Function Around PMS
      • Changes in Blood Volume Shift the Vascular Function Curve Vertically
      • Changes in the Cardiac Function Curve Change the Steady-State Operating Point
      • Strenuous Exercise Alters Multiple Parts of the Cardiovascular System
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 5.13. Regulation of Arterial Pressure
      • Abstract
      • Arterial Pressure Drives Flow but Arterial Pressure also Arises from Flow
      • Regulation of Arterial Pressure Occurs on Three Separate Timescales Involving Three Distinct Types of Mechanisms
      • Baroreceptors in the Carotid Sinus and Aortic Arch Sense Blood Pressure
      • The Baroreflex Regulates Heart and Vasculature to Stabilize Blood Pressure
      • The Baroreflex Mediates Parasympathetic and Sympathetic Output from Centers Located in the Medulla
      • Inspiration Influences Heart Rate—The Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia
      • Higher Centers Influence Blood Pressure and Heart Rate
      • Long-Term Regulation of Blood Volume Determines Long-Term Regulation of Blood Pressure
      • Sympathetic Tetralogy
      • Hormonal Regulation of Blood Pressure
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • Problem Set 5.3. Hemodynamics and Microcirculation
  • Unit 6: Respiratory Physiology
    • 6.1. The Mechanics of Breathing
      • Abstract
      • The Respiratory System Supplies O2 and Removes Waste CO2
      • Air Flows Through an Extensive Airway System That Filters, Warms, and Humidifies the Air
      • Gas Flows in Response to Pressure Differences
      • Changes in Lung Volumes Produce the Pressure Differences That Drive Air Movement
      • Skeletal Muscles Power Inspiration
      • Resting Expiration Is Passive; Abdominal Muscles Aid in Forceful Expiration
      • The Pleura and the Pleural Fluid Join the Lungs to the Chest Wall
      • Compliance Measures the Ease of Expanding the Lungs
      • The Compliance and Recoil Tendency of the Lung Is Produced by Elastic Fibers and by Surface Tension
      • The Law of Laplace Predicts Alveolar Instability
      • Pulmonary Surfactant Lowers the Surface Tension in the Alveoli
      • The Lungs and Chest Wall Interact to Produce the Pressures That Drive Ventilation
      • Breaking the Seal on the Intrapleural Space Collapses the Lungs
      • Airway Resistance Partly Determines Dynamic Pressures
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 6.2. Lung Volumes and Airway Resistance
      • Abstract
      • Spirometers Measure Lung Volumes and Allow Identification of Several Lung Volumes and Lung Capacities
      • Lung Capacities Are Combinations of Two or More Lung Volumes
      • Lung Volumes and Capacities Vary Mainly with Body Size
      • Pulmonary Ventilation Is the Product of Respiratory Rate and Tidal Volume
      • During Exercise, Pulmonary Ventilation Increases Due to Increased RR and TV
      • The Maximum Voluntary Ventilation Exceeds Pulmonary Ventilation During Exercise
      • Spirometry Also Provides a Clinically Useful Measure of Airway Resistance
      • Airway Resistance Depends on Whether Airflow Is Laminar or Turbulent
      • The Poiseuille Equation Derived for Right Cylinders Does Not Model the Complicated Airways
      • Airway Resistance Is the Slope Between ΔP and QV
      • Turbulent and Laminar Flows Result in Resistances That Occur in Series and Add
      • Airway Resistance Depends on Lung Volume
      • Dynamic Compression of the Airways During Forceful Expiration Limits Airflow
      • Airway Resistance Is Modified by Smooth Muscle Contraction of the Airways
      • Pursed Lips Increase Airflow in Cases of Increased Airway Resistance
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 6.3. Gas Exchange in the Lungs
      • Abstract
      • The Respiratory System Exchanges Blood Gases with Atmospheric Gases
      • The Partial Pressure of a Gas Is Its Mole Fraction Times the Total Pressure
      • The Vapor Pressure of Water Is the Partial Pressure of Water in the Gas Phase That Is in Equilibrium with Liquid Water
      • The Vapor Pressure of Water at Body Temperature Is 47 mmHg
      • Henry’s Law Describes the Dissolution of Gases in Water
      • Conversion of Partial Pressures and Volumes at STPD to Those at BTPS
      • Gases Diffuse Across the Alveolar Membrane Passively
      • The Diffusing Capacity Is the Flow Per Unit Partial Pressure
      • The Anatomic Dead Space Reduces the Volume of Inspired Air That Exchanges with the Blood
      • Physiologic Dead Space Is Larger than the Anatomic Dead Space
      • The Rate of CO2 Production Allows Calculation of Alveolar Ventilation
      • The Alveolar Gas Equation Allows Calculation of PAO2
      • Blood Is In the Lungs for Less Than a Second—But That Is Long Enough to Equilibrate the Gases
      • Blood Flow to the Lung Varies with Position with Respect to Gravity
      • Regulation of the Pulmonary Circulation Helps Restore the Ventilation/Perfusion Ratio
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
      • Appendix 6.3.A1 Derivation of the Steady-State Gas Exchange Equations
      • Appendix 6.3.A2 Conversion of Partial Pressures and Volumes Between STPD and BTPS
    • Problem Set 6.1. Airway Resistance and Alveolar Gas Exchange
    • 6.4. Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Transport
      • Abstract
      • Dissolved Oxygen Content of Blood Is Small
      • Most of the Oxygen in Blood Is Bound to Hemoglobin
      • Oxygen Consumption Can Be Calculated by Blood Flow Times the A–V Difference in Oxygen
      • Oxygen Consumption Can Be Calculated from the Difference Between O2 Inspired and O2 Expired
      • O2 Diffuses from Blood to the Interstitial Fluids and Then to the Cells
      • Hemoglobin Delivers Oxygen to the Tissues
      • Myoglobin Stores O2 in Oxidative Muscle and May Enhance Diffusion
      • Shift of the O2 Dissociation Curve to the Right Helps Deliver O2 to Exercising Muscles
      • Increased O2 Delivery in Exercise Is Caused by Increased Blood Flow and Shorter Diffusion
      • Dissolved CO2 Accounts for a Small Fraction of Blood CO2 Transport
      • Most CO2 Is Carried in the Blood as HCO3−
      • Carbaminohemoglobin Accounts for a Small Fraction of Transported CO2
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 6.5. Acid–Base Physiology I: The Bicarbonate Buffer System and Respiratory Compensation
      • Abstract
      • pH Is a Monotonically Decreasing Function of [H+]
      • Plasma pH Is Maintained Within Narrow Limits
      • The Body Uses Chemical Buffers, the Respiratory System, and the Renal System to Regulate pH
      • Chemical Buffers Absorb or Desorb H+ According to the Law of Mass Action
      • The Isohydric Principle States That All Buffers in a Solution Are in Equilibrium with the Same [H+]
      • Expressing [H2CO3] in Terms of PCO2 Makes the Henderson–Hasselbalch Equation More Useful
      • The Respiratory System Regulates pH by Adjusting Plasma PCO2
      • Hypoventilation in Response to Alkalosis Is Called Respiratory Compensation of Alkalosis
      • Hyperventilation in Response to Acidosis Is Called Respiratory Compensation of Acidosis
      • Respiratory Acidosis and Respiratory Alkalosis
      • The pH−HCO3− Diagram Depicts Acid–Base Balance Graphically
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 6.6. Control of Ventilation
      • Abstract
      • Nerves Regulate Breathing
      • Control of Breathing Involves Voluntary and Involuntary Components
      • The Brain Stem Contains a Pontine Respiratory Group in the Pons, an Apneustic Center in the Lower Pons, and Dorsal and Ventral Respiratory Groups in the Medulla
      • The DRG Receives a Variety of Inputs and Excites Inspiratory Motor neurons
      • The VRG Contains Both I and E Neurons
      • Neurons in the VRG Have a More Varied Activity than “Expiratory” or “Inspiratory”
      • Despite Progress, the Neural Mechanism of the Respiratory Pattern Remains Unknown
      • Peripheral Chemosensors Modulate Respiration in Response to Changes in PaO2, PaCO2, and pH
      • Peripheral Arterial Chemosensors Increase Firing Rates with Increased PaCO2, Decreased pH, and Decreased PaO2
      • Peripheral Chemosensors for PaO2 are More Important Than Those for PaCO2
      • The Ventilatory Response to Increased Chemoreceptor Firing Rate is Increased Ventilation
      • Central Chemosensors Provide the Major Response to Changes in PaCO2
      • The Brain Adjusts the [HCO3−] of the CSF
      • Ventilatory Drive Increases by Integrated Response to Elevated PaCO2, Metabolic Acidosis, or Hypoxia
      • Airway and Lung Mechanoreceptors Alter Breathing Patterns
      • Increased Respiration During Exercise May be Neural and May Involve Learning
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • Problem Set 6.2. Gas Transport and pH Disturbances
  • Unit 7: Renal Physiology
    • 7.1. Body Fluid Compartments
      • Abstract
      • Fick’s Dilution Principle Allows Determination of Body Fluid Compartments
      • Inulin Marks the Extracellular Fluid; Evans’ Blue Dye Marks Plasma
      • The Main Fluid Compartments Are the Intracellular Compartment, the Interstitial Compartment, and the Plasma
      • The TBW Varies with Body Composition
      • Water Composition of the LBM Varies with Age and Sex
      • The Fluid Compartments Correspond to Anatomic Compartments
      • Body Fluids Obey the Principle of Macroscopic Electroneutrality
      • The Gibbs–Donnan Equilibrium Arises from Unequal Distribution of Impermeant Ions
      • Changes of Plasma Volume and Composition Transfer to All Fluid Compartments
      • Darrow–Yannet Diagrams Depict Fluid Compartment Composition and Volume
      • The Kidneys Regulate Body Fluid Volume and Composition by Acting on the Plasma
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 7.2. Functional Anatomy of the Kidneys and Overview of Kidney Function
      • Abstract
      • Function Follows Form in Functional Units Called Nephrons
      • The Paired Kidneys Have an Enormous Blood Supply and Drain Urine into the Bladder Through the Ureters
      • Intermediate Level of Kidney Structure Reveals Functional Areas
      • The Renal Arteries Arise from the Abdominal Aorta
      • The Functional Unit of the Kidney, the Nephron, Participates in All Elementary Renal Processes
      • The Nephron Is a Tubule with Functionally and Microscopically Distinct Regions
      • The Juxtaglomerular Apparatus Produces Renin
      • Nonexcretory Functions of the Kidney
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 7.3. Glomerular Filtration
      • Abstract
      • Morphological Studies First Led to the Idea of Glomerular Filtration
      • Micropuncture Studies Showed That the Fluid in Bowman’s Space Is an Ultrafiltrate
      • Tubular Reabsorption Explains the Lack of Nutrients in the Final Urine
      • Tubular Secretion Adds Material to the Ultrafiltrate
      • The Three Elementary Nephron Processes are Ultrafiltration, Reabsorption, and Secretion
      • The Clearance of Inulin Provides an Estimate of the Glomerular Filtration Rate
      • The Clearance of Para Amino Hippuric Acid Allows Estimation of Renal Plasma Flow
      • The Clearance of a Substance Depends on How It Is Handled by the Kidney
      • Glomerular Filtration Is Like a Leaky Hose; About 20% of the Plasma Constituents End Up in the Filtrate
      • Multiple Structures Contribute to the Selectivity of the Glomerular Filtrate
      • The Endothelial Cell Layer Retains the Cellular Elements of Blood
      • The Basement Membrane Excludes Some Proteins
      • The Slit Membrane Retains Proteins 70 kDa or Larger
      • The Sieving Coefficient Depends Mainly on the Slit Diaphragm
      • The Glomerulus Selectively Excludes Proteins Based on Size and Charge
      • The Starling Forces Drive Ultrafiltration
      • Why Does the Glomerular Filtration Barrier Not Clog?
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • Problem Set 7.1. Fluid Volumes, Glomerular Filtration, and Clearance
    • 7.4. Tubular Reabsorption and Secretion
      • Abstract
      • The Filtered Load of Water and Valuable Nutrients Is Enormous
      • The Renal Titration Curve of Inulin Is Linear
      • The Renal Titration of Glucose Shows Reabsorption and Saturation Kinetics
      • Saturation Kinetics and Nephron Heterogeneity Cause Splay
      • High Plasma Glucose in Diabetes Mellitus Causes Glucose Excretion
      • The Kidneys Help Regulate Plasma Phosphate
      • Renal Titration Curve of PAH Shows Secretion
      • The Meaning of the Clearance Depends on the Renal Handling
      • Endogenous Creatinine Clearance Approximates the GFR
      • Plasma Creatinine Concentration Alone Indicates the GFR
      • (TF/P)inulin Marks Water Reabsorption
      • The Double Ratio (TF/P)x/(TF/P)inulin Is the Fraction of the Filtered Load of x Remaining
      • Micropuncture Studies Show That the Proximal Tubule Reabsorbs Two-Thirds of the Ultrafiltrate
      • The Proximal Convoluted Tubule Contains Many Transport Mechanisms
      • Absorption of Water and Salt Across the Late Proximal Tubule
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 7.5. Mechanism of Concentration and Dilution of Urine
      • Abstract
      • Life on Dry Land Struggles Against Desiccation
      • Control of Urine Concentration Uses an Osmotic Gradient and Regulated Water Permeability
      • Tubular Transport Mechanisms Differ Along the Length of the Nephron
      • Urea Contributes to the Osmotic Gradient in the Inner Medulla
      • Transport by the Vasa Recta Is Essential to the Operation of the Loop of Henle
      • Increased Solute Loads in the Distal Nephron Produce an Osmotic Diuresis
      • ADH Controls Distal Nephron Permeability
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 7.6. Regulation of Fluid and Electrolyte Balance
      • Abstract
      • Regulation of Glomerular Filtration Rate Affects Urine Output
      • RBF and GFR Exhibit Autoregulation
      • The Nephron Adjusts Reabsorption of Water and Salt to Match Changes in the GFR
      • Water Balance in the Body Is Mediated by Antidiuretic Hormone
      • ADH Secretion by the Brain Is Increased by Hypovolemia and Hyperosmolarity
      • ADH Increases Water Permeability of the Distal Nephron
      • The ADH-Renal System Forms Negative Feedback Loops
      • The Free Water Clearance Quantifies the Overall Concentration or Dilution of Urine
      • Regulation of Na+ Balance Involves the Renin–Angiotensin–Aldosterone System
      • Atrial Natriuretic Peptide and Endogenous Digitalis-Like Substance Increase Na+ Excretion in Hypervolemia
      • The Integrated Response to Decreased Blood Volume
      • Integrated Response to Increased Na+ Load or Volume Expansion
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 7.7. Renal Component of Acid–Base Balance
      • Abstract
      • The Kidneys Eliminate the Acid Produced from Metabolism
      • The Body Uses Chemical Buffers, the Respiratory System, and the Renal System to Regulate pH
      • Acid Excretion by the Tubule Adjusts Blood pH
      • The Kidney Links Acid Secretion to HCO3− Appearance in Plasma
      • Secreted Acid Reclaims HCO3− or Combines with Titratable Acid or Ammonium
      • Ammonia Does Not Show Up as Titratable Acid Because Its pK Is Too High
      • New HCO3− Formed Is the Sum of Titratable Acid and NH4+ Minus the Excreted HCO3−
      • Ammonium Originates from Amino Acids in Proximal Tubule Cells
      • The Thick Ascending Limb Secretes Acid, Reabsorbs Bicarbonate and Ammonium
      • Different Cell Types in the Distal Nephron and Collecting Duct Handle Acid and Base Differently
      • Synopsis of Acid–Base Handling by the Nephron
      • Tubular pH and Cellular PCO2 Regulate HCO3− Reabsorption and H+ Secretion
      • The Kidneys Compensate for Respiratory Acidosis by Increasing [HCO3−]
      • The Kidneys Compensate for Respiratory Alkalosis by Decreasing [HCO3−]
      • The Overall Response to Metabolic Acidosis Involves Both Lungs and Kidneys
      • The Overall Response to Metabolic Alkalosis Involves Both Lungs and Kidneys
      • HCO3− Increases Acid Secretion by A-Intercalated Cells Through a Soluble Adenylyl Cyclase
      • Chronic Acidosis Increases Excretion of NH4+
      • Potassium and Acid–Base Balance Interact
      • Volume Contraction Increases Acid Secretion
      • The Overall Picture
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • Problem Set 7.2. Fluid and Electrolyte Balance and Acid–Base Balance
  • Unit 8: Gastrointestinal Physiology
    • 8.1. Mouth and Esophagus
      • Abstract
      • The Gastrointestinal System Secures Nutrients for Maintenance, Movement, and Growth
      • Nutrients Are Necessary Materials That Must Be Supplied By Food
      • The Gastrointestinal System Is a Tube Running from Mouth to Anus
      • The Gastrointestinal System Propels Material Between Defined Areas Demarcated by Sphincters
      • The Liver and Pancreas Secrete Materials into the Intestine to Aid Digestion and Absorption
      • The Trigeminal Nucleus in the Brainstem Sets the Rhythm of Mastication
      • Chewing Has Multiple Purposes
      • Saliva Moistens, Lubricates, Digests, and Protects
      • Salivary Glands Produce an Isotonic Fluid That Is Subsequently Modified
      • Saliva Composition Depends on the Flow Rate
      • The Salivary Nuclei of the Medulla Control Salivation
      • Parasympathetic Stimulation Results in High-Volume, Watery Saliva
      • In the First Stage of Saliva Production, Acinar Cells Secrete a Fluid Isotonic in NaCl
      • In the Second Stage of Saliva Production, Duct Cells Reabsorb NaCl and Secrete a Hypotonic KHCO3
      • A Swallowing Center in the Medulla Orchestrates Swallowing
      • Swallowing Is a Complex Sequence of Events
      • Swallowing Consists of a Pharyngeal Phase and an Esophageal Phase
      • The Esophagus Contains an Inner Circular Smooth Muscle Layer and an Outer Longitudinal Smooth Muscle Layer
      • The Gut Contains Two Ganglionic Plexuses of Nerve Cells, the Body’s “Little Brain”
      • The LES Must Relax for Food to Enter the Stomach
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 8.2. The Stomach
      • Abstract
      • The Stomach Stores Food and Releases It Gradually to the Small Intestine
      • The Stomach Has Distinct Regions
      • Gastric Motility Is Fundamentally Intrinsic, But It Is Modulated by Nerves and Hormones
      • Extrinsic and Intrinsic Nerves Control Gastric Motility
      • A Number of Hormones Influence Gastric Motility
      • The Orad Stomach Relaxes to Accommodate Large Meals
      • After a Meal, Gastric Contractions Result in Propulsion, Grinding, or Retropulsion of Stomach Contents
      • Stomach and Duodenal Contents Regulate Stomach Emptying
      • Nerves and GI Hormones Alter Stomach Emptying
      • The Migrating Motility Complex Clears the Stomach and Intestine During Fasting
      • The Stomach Secretes HCl, Pepsinogen, Mucus, Gastric Lipase, and Intrinsic Factor
      • Acid Secretion Is Regulated in Four Phases: The Basal Phase, Cephalic Phase, Gastric Phase, and Intestinal Phase
      • The Surface Membrane H+,K+-ATPase, or Proton Pump, Actively Secretes HCl
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 8.3. Intestinal and Colonic Chemoreception and Motility
      • Abstract
      • The Small Intestine Consists of Duodenum, Jejunum, and Ileum
      • Intrinsic Nerves, Extrinsic Nerves, Paracrine and Endocrine Hormones Regulate Intestinal and Colonic Motility
      • Intrinsic Innervation of the Intestine Consists of the Myenteric Plexus, Submucosal Plexus, and the Interstitial Cells of Cajal
      • Extrinsic Innervation of the Gut Arises from Parasympathetic and Sympathetic Nerves
      • Intestinal Motility Has Several Different Patterns: Segmentations, Peristalsis, Migrating Motor Complex or Migrating Myoelectric Complex, and Reverse Peristalsis
      • The Ileocecal Sphincter Prevents Reflux of Colonic Contents into the Ileum
      • The Large Intestine or Colon Has Several Anatomic Regions
      • Colonic Motility Shows Several Distinct Patterns
      • Local and Extrinsic Nervous Innervations Control Ileal and Colonic Motility
      • Defecation Involves Voluntary and Involuntary Muscles
      • Summary of Regulatory Connections Within the GI Tract
      • Vomiting Removes Potentially Dangerous Material from the Gut
      • Vomiting Is a Complicated Programmed Event
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 8.4. Pancreatic and Biliary Secretion
      • Abstract
      • The Exocrine Pancreas Secretes Digestive Enzymes and HCO3−
      • The Pancreas Secretes Four Classes of Enzymes
      • The Pancreas Secretes Inactive Forms of the Proteolytic Enzymes
      • Pancreatic Amylase Breaks Down Starches
      • The Pancreas Secretes a Set of Lipolytic Enzymes
      • The Pancreas Secretes Nucleolytic Enzymes
      • Pancreatic Duct Cells Secrete an Alkaline Solution in Two Stages
      • Postprandial Pancreatic Enzyme Secretion Is Regulated in Cephalic, Gastric, and Intestinal Phases
      • Secretin Primarily Regulates Pancreatic Duct Secretion
      • The Liver Produces Bile and Stores It in the Gallbladder in the Interdigestive Period
      • Hepatocytes Are Polarized Cells with Special Access to Plasma
      • Bile Consists of Bile Acids, Phospholipids, Cholesterol, Bile Pigments, Mucin, Xenochemicals, and Electrolytes
      • The Liver Makes and Recycles Bile Acids as an Integral Part of Biliary Secretion
      • The Liver Excretes Xenobiotics (Foreign Biologically Active Chemicals)
      • ABCG5 and ABCG8 Secrete Cholesterol into the Bile
      • The Gallbladder Stores and Concentrates Bile and Releases It During Digestion
      • The Bile Duct Cells Secrete a HCO3−-Rich Solution Much Like Pancreatic Duct Cells
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 8.5. Digestion and Absorption of the Macronutrients
      • Abstract
      • The Intestine Increases Its Surface Area by Folds Upon Folds
      • The Intestinal Lining Continuously Renews Itself
      • Protein Digestion Occurs in a Gastric Phase and an Intestinal Phase
      • Specific Carriers Move Amino Acids Across the Brush Border and Basolateral Membranes
      • Distinct Carriers Transport Amino Acids Across the Basolateral Membrane
      • Carbohydrates Are Mainly Digested in the Small Intestine
      • Indigestible Carbohydrates Make Up Part of Dietary Fiber
      • The Brush Border Completes Starch Digestion
      • Glucose, Fructose, and Galactose Absorption Is Carrier Mediated
      • Lipid Digestion Begins with Emulsification
      • Most Lipolytic Activity Occurs in the Small Intestine
      • Hydrolysis Products of Lipids Are Absorbed and Then Repackaged into Lipoproteins
      • Bile Acids Are Absorbed in the Terminal Ileum
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 8.6. Energy Balance and Regulation of Food Intake
      • Abstract
      • Early Studies on Energy Balance Used Calorimeters
      • “The Energy Content of Food” Is Its Heat of Combustion
      • Measurement of Energy Expenditure by Indirect Calorimetry
      • Indirect Calorimetry and Urinary Nitrogen Allow Estimation of Catabolism of Macronutrients
      • Energy Expenditure Consists of Basal Metabolism Plus Activity Increment
      • Empirical Formulas for BMR
      • Eating Food Increases Metabolism
      • Activity Adds the Greatest Increment to Metabolism
      • The Body Homeostatically Regulates Its Weight
      • The Central Nervous System Regulates Feeding Behavior
      • Early Studies Showed That the Hypothalamus Drives Feeding Behavior
      • The Simplistic Early View Is Supplanted by a Picture of Multiple Centers and Multiple Signals
      • Short-Term Signals Limit the Size of Meals: They Are Satiety Signals
      • Long-Term Signals Maintain Body Composition: They Are Adiposity Signals
      • Integrated Mechanism of Food Intake Regulation
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • Problem Set 8.1. Energy Balance
  • Unit 9: Endocrine Physiology
    • 9.1. General Principles of Endocrinology
      • Abstract
      • Endocrine Glands Release Signaling Molecules into the Blood
      • Modern Definitions of Hormone Include Local and Distant Effects and Integration of the Endocrine and Neural Systems of Control
      • The Neural System Provides Fast, Short-Lived Control; Endocrine Control is Slower and Longer Lasting
      • Hormones Can Be Classified by Their Chemical Structure and Source
      • Polypeptide Hormones Are Typically Synthesized as Larger Precursors
      • Steroid Hormones Are Metabolized from Cholesterol and Are Not Stored
      • Blood Carries Hormones in Either Free or Bound Forms
      • Only Target Cells with Receptors to the Hormone Respond to the Hormone
      • Dose–Response Curves Derive from the Kinetics of Hormone Binding and Post-receptor Events
      • Dose–Response Curves Can Be “Upregulated” or “Downregulated”
      • The Half-Life and Metabolic Clearance Rate Quantitatively Describe Hormone Metabolism
      • The MCR Is Inversely Related to the Half-Life
      • A Variety of Techniques Can Measure Hormone Levels
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
      • Appendix 9.1.A1 Analysis of Ligand Binding
      • The Scatchard Plot
      • The Titration Curve
      • Cooperativity and the Hill Plot
      • Competitive Inhibition of Binding
      • The Dixon Plot
    • 9.2. Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland
      • Abstract
      • The Pituitary Gland Lies Below the Brain and Connects to the Hypothalamus by a Narrow Stalk
      • Cells in the Hypothalamus Synthesize ADH and Oxytocin and Secrete Them in the Posterior Pituitary
      • Oxytocin and ADH Are Chains of Nine Amino Acids
      • Oxytocin Contracts the Uterus and Myoepithelial Cells of Alveoli Cells in the Breast
      • Oxytocin Has Become Known as the “Trust Hormone” or “Love Hormone”
      • Increased Plasma Osmolarity and Decreased Blood Volume Stimulate ADH Release
      • The Hypothalamus Controls Release of Hormones from the Anterior Pituitary
      • Multiple Signals Produce Pulsatile Release of GH
      • The Complicated GH Secretion Pattern Is Produced by Complicated Neuronal Circuits
      • GH Mediates Some of Its Effects Through Increased IGF-I
      • Skeletal Growth Occurs Mainly at the Growth Plates
      • Both Starvation and Estrogen Reduce Adult Height
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 9.3. The Thyroid Gland
      • Abstract
      • The Thyroid Gland Is One of the Largest Endrocrine Glands
      • The Thyroid Gland Consists of Thousands of Follicles that Store Thyroglobulin
      • The Thyroid Follicle Secretes Thyroxine and Triiodothyronine
      • Follicular Cells Secrete Thyroglobulin Precursor into the Follicle
      • Synthesis of Thyroxine Requires Four Steps
      • Follicular Cells Proteolyze Thyroglobulin to Release T4 and T3
      • TSH Regulates State of the Thyroid Gland
      • The Hypothalamus Partly Controls TSH Release
      • T4 and T3 Inhibit Secretion of TSH
      • Almost all Circulating T4 and T3 Are Bound to Plasma Proteins
      • The Tissues Metabolize T4 to T3 and rT3; T3 is the Active Metabolite
      • T3 Alters Gene Expression
      • Thyroid Hormone Plays A Crucial Role in Growth and Development and in General Metabolism
      • Hypothyroidism Refers to Reduced Circulating Levels of T4 and T3
      • The Clinical Symptoms of Hypothyroidism Are Manifold
      • The Most Important Clinical Abnormality of Hyperthyroidism is Graves’ Disease
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 9.4. The Endocrine Pancreas and Control of Blood Glucose
      • Abstract
      • The Pancreas Has Both Exocrine and Endocrine Functions
      • β Cells Synthesize Insulin as a Prohormone and Secrete Insulin and C peptide 1:1
      • High Plasma Glucose Stimulates Insulin Secretion
      • GLP-1, and GIP Stimulate Insulin Secretion; Somatostatin Inhibits it
      • Parasympathetic Stimulation Increases Insulin Secretion; Sympathetic Stimulation Inhibits It
      • Amino Acids Stimulate Insulin Secretion
      • Sulfonylureas Close the KATP Channel and Thereby Increase Insulin Secretion
      • Insulin Release Is Pulsatile
      • Insulin Phosphorylates Insulin Receptor Substrates via a Tyrosine Kinase
      • Low Glucose Stimulates Glucagon Release from α Cells in the Islets of Langerhans
      • Glucagon Stimulates Liver Glycogenolysis through a Gs and Gq Mechanism
      • Blood Glucose Is Maintained Between 70 and 110 mg% in the Face of Constant Depletion
      • Plasma Glucose Concentrations Are Maintained by Absorption, Glycogenolysis, and Gluconeogenesis
      • Multiple Hormones and Nerves Control Glucose Flux
      • Exercise Has an Insulin-Like Effect
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 9.5. The Adrenal Cortex
      • Abstract
      • The Adrenal Glands Lie Atop the Kidneys, Are Richly Vascularized, and Secrete Many Hormones
      • Steroid Hormones Derive from Cholesterol
      • The Pituitary–Hypothalamus Axis Controls Adrenal Function through ACTH
      • ACTH Increases Adrenal Cortical Steroid Secretion
      • Cortisol Binding Protein Carries Glucocorticoids in Blood
      • Cortisol Affects Target Cells through Regulation of Transcription
      • Cortisol Affects Many Body Functions
      • The Zona Glomerulosa Makes Aldosterone in Response to Angiotensin II, ACTH and K+
      • Angiotensin II Exerts Multiple Effects
      • Aldosterone Increases Na+ Reabsorption and K+ Secretion by Genomic and Nongenomic Mechanisms
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 9.6. The Adrenal Medulla and Integration of Metabolic Control
      • Abstract
      • The Adrenal Medulla Is Part of the Sympathetic Nervous System
      • Epinephrine Derives from Tyrosine
      • Catecholamines Are Released in Response to Sympathetic Stimulation
      • Catecholamines Are Degraded Rapidly
      • Actions of Catecholamines Are Mediated by Adrenergic Receptor Types
      • The Effects of Catecholamines Are to Prepare the Body for “Fight or Flight”
      • Integration of Metabolic Control
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 9.7. Calcium and Phosphorus Homeostasis I: The Calcitropic Hormones
      • Abstract
      • Calcium Homeostasis Is Required for Health
      • About Half of Plasma Calcium Is Free: The Other Half Is Complexed or Bound to Plasma Proteins
      • Failure to Regulate Plasma [Ca2+] Causes System Malfunction
      • Plasma Ca2+ Homeostasis Results from a Balance of Sources and Sinks
      • Plasma Ca2+ Homeostasis Is Linked to P homeostasis
      • Plasma Pi Is Present in Multiple Ionized Forms
      • Plasma [Pi] Is Set by a Balance Between Sources and Sinks
      • Overall Ca2+ and Pi Homeostasis Is Controlled by Four Hormones Acting on Three Target Tissues
      • Hypocalcemia Stimulates PTH Secretion
      • PTH Secretion Is an Example of Derivative Control
      • PTH Is Destroyed Rapidly After Secretion
      • PTH Defends Against Hypocalcemia by Actions on Bone and Kidney
      • CT Is Secreted in Response to Hypercalcemia and Gastrointestinal Hormones
      • CT Tends to Lower Plasma [Ca2+]
      • “Vitamin D” Is a Hormone, Not a Vitamin, Synthesized in the Skin
      • Vitamin D Does not Fit Standard Definitions of Either Vitamin or Hormone
      • The Liver Activates Vitamin D by 25-Hydroxylation: The Kidney Activates It by 1-Hydroxylation
      • Vitamin D Inactivation Begins with 24-Hydroxylation
      • PTH Controls Metabolism of Vitamin D
      • Vitamin D Has Two Forms of Equal Potency in Humans
      • 25(OH)2D Is the Major Circulating Form of Vitamin D
      • Vitamin D Maintains Conditions for Bone Mineralization
      • Bone Cells Release FGF23 in Response to a Variety of Signals
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 9.8. Calcium and Phosphorus Homeostasis II: Target Tissues and Integrated Control
      • Abstract
      • The Skeleton Gives Us Form and Support
      • Osteoblasts Are Surface Cells That Lay Down the Organic Matrix of Bone
      • Osteocytes Are Embedded Deep Within Bone
      • Osteoclasts Destroy the Organic Matrix of Bone and Release Both Ca2+ and Pi
      • Bone Is Constantly Being Remodeled
      • Osteoblasts Make Osteoid and Signal Bone Resorption
      • Osteoclasts Resorb Bone
      • Calcitonin Shuts Off Osteoclast Resorption
      • Summary of Hormone Effects on Bone
      • Only 1,25(OH)2D Directly Affects Intestinal Ca2+ and Pi Absorption
      • The Intestine Adapts to Diets Containing Differing Amounts of Ca2+ and Pi
      • Regulation of Urinary Excretion of Ca2+ and Pi Is Achieved in the Distal Nephron
      • The “Goals” of PTH, CT, and Vitamin D Are Distinct
      • Integrated Control of Plasma [Ca2+] and Pi Involves Multiple Negative Feedback Loops
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 9.9. Female Reproductive Physiology
      • Abstract
      • Sexual Reproduction Costs a Lot but it is Worth the Price
      • The Anatomy of the Female Reproductive Tract
      • Overiew of Female Reproductive Function
      • Oogenesis Begins in the Fetus
      • Puberty Initiates Ovulation and Development of Secondary Sex Characteristics
      • LH and FSH Drive the Menstrual Cycle
      • Overview of Follicular Development
      • Cellular Aspects of Follicular Development
      • Ovarian Steroidogenesis Requires Two Cell Types and Two Hormones
      • Central Hormonal Control of the Menstrual Cycle
      • LH and FSH Surge Induces Ovulation
      • After Ovulation, the Follicle Forms the Corpus Luteum
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 9.10. Male Reproductive Physiology
      • Abstract
      • Somatic Cells Divide by Mitosis; Germ Cells Divide by Meiosis
      • Mitosis Produces Two Daughter Cells with the Same DNA Content as the Original Cell
      • Meiosis Divides the Parent Genome in Half—But Crossing-Over Diversifies the Result
      • Reassortment of Genetic Material Arises from Two Sources: Independence of Homologous Chromosome Sorting and Crossing-Over
      • Testicles Produce Sperm and Testosterone
      • The Hypothalamus and Anterior Pituitary Control Testicular Function
      • Both LH and FSH Control Testicular Function
      • The Male Sexual Response
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • Problem Set 9.1. Ligand Binding
      • Publisher Summary
  • Appendix I. Important Equations
  • Appendix II. Important Physical Constants for Physiology
  • Index

Description

Quantitative Human Physiology: An Introduction is the first text to meet the needs of the undergraduate bioengineering student who is being exposed to physiology for the first time, but requires a more analytical/quantitative approach. This book explores how component behavior produces system behavior in physiological systems. Through text explanation, figures, and equations, it provides the engineering student with a basic understanding of physiological principles with an emphasis on quantitative aspects.

Key Features

  • Features a quantitative approach that includes physical and chemical principles
  • Provides a more integrated approach from first principles, integrating anatomy, molecular biology, biochemistry and physiology
  • Includes clinical applications relevant to the biomedical engineering student (TENS, cochlear implants, blood substitutes, etc.)
  • Integrates labs and problem sets to provide opportunities for practice and assessment throughout the course

NEW FOR THE SECOND EDITION

  • Expansion of many sections to include relevant information
  • Addition of many new figures and re-drawing of other figures to update our understanding and clarify difficult areas
  • Substantial updating of the text to reflect newer research results
    Addition of several new appendices including statistics, nomenclature of transport carriers, and structural biology of important items such as the neuromuscular junction and calcium release unit
  • Addition of new problems within the problem sets
  • Addition of commentary to power point presentations

Readership

Undergraduate bioengineering students


Details

No. of pages:
1008
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2017
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780128011546
Hardcover ISBN:
9780128008836

About the Authors

Joseph Feher Author

Dr. Feher is professor of Physiology and Biophysics at Virginia Commonwealth University. He received his Ph.D. from Cornell University, and has research interests in the quantitative understanding of the mechanisms of calcium uptake and release by the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum, in the mechanisms of calcium transport across the intestine, and in muscle contraction and relaxation. Dr. Feher developed a course in Introductory Quantitative Physiology at VCU and has been course coordinator for more than a decade. He also teaches muscle and cell physiology to medical and graduate students and is course coordinator for the Graduate Physiology survey course in physiology given at VCU’s School of Medicine.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA