Quantitative Human Physiology

Quantitative Human Physiology

An Introduction

1st Edition - February 7, 2012

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  • Author: Joseph Feher
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123821645

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Description

Quantitative Human Physiology: An Introduction presents a course in quantitative physiology developed for undergraduate students of Biomedical Engineering at Virginia Commonwealth University. The text covers all the elements of physiology in nine units: (1) physical and chemical foundations; (2) cell physiology; (3) excitable tissue physiology; (4) neurophysiology; (5) cardiovascular physiology; (6) respiratory physiology; (7) renal physiology; (8) gastrointestinal physiology; and (9) endocrinology. The text makes extensive use of mathematics at the level of calculus and elementary differential equations. Examples and problem sets are provided to facilitate quantitative and analytic understanding, while the clinical applications scattered throughout the text illustrate the rationale behind the topics discussed. This text is written for students with no knowledge of physiology but with a solid background in calculus with elementary differential equations. The text is also useful for instructors with less time; each chapter is intended to be a single lecture and can be read in a single sitting.

Key Features

  • A quantitative approach that includes physical and chemical principles
  • An integrated approach from first principles, integrating anatomy, molecular biology, biochemistry and physiology. Illustration program reinforces the integrated nature of physiological systems
  • Pedagogically rich, including chapter objectives, chapter summaries, large number of illustrations, and short chapters suitable for single lectures
  • Clinical applications relevant to the biomedical engineering student (TENS, cochlear implants, blood substitutes, etc.)
  • Problem sets provide opportunity for practice and assessment throughout the course.

Readership

Undergraduate bioengineering students

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    Acknowledgments

    UNIT 1. Physical and Chemical Foundations of Physiology

    1.1. The Core Principles of Physiology

    Human Physiology Is the Integrated Study of the Normal Function of the Human Body

    Cells Are the Organizational Unit of Life

    The Concept of Homeostasis Is a Central Theme of Physiology

    The Body Consists of Causal Mechanisms That Obey the Laws of Physics and Chemistry

    Evolution Is an Efficient Cause of the Human Body Working Over Long Time Scales

    Living Beings Transform Energy and Matter

    Function Follows Form

    Coordinated Command and Control Requires Signaling at All Levels of Organization

    Physiology Is a Quantitative Science

    Summary

    Review Questions

    1.2. Physical Foundations of Physiology I

    Forces Produce Flows

    Conservation of Matter or Energy Leads to the Continuity Equation

    Steady-State Flows Require Linear Gradients

    Heat, Charge, Solute, and Volume Can Be Stored: Analogues of Capacitance

    Pressure Drives Fluid Flow

    Poiseuille’s Law Governs Steady-State Laminar Flow in Narrow Tubes

    The Law of LaPlace Relates Pressure to Tension in Hollow Organs

    Summary

    Review Questions

    Appendix 1.2.A1 Derivation of Poiseuille’s Law

    1.3. Physical Foundations of Physiology II

    Coulomb’s Law Describes Electrical Forces

    The Electric Potential Is the Work per Unit Charge

    The Idea of Potential Is Limited to Conservative Forces

    Potential Difference Depends Only on the Initial and Final States

    The Electric Field Is the Negative Gradient of the Potential

    Force and Energy Are Simple Consequences of Potential

    Gauss’s Law Is a Consequence of Coulomb’s Law

    The Capacitance of a Parallel Plate Capacitor Depends on its Area and Plate Separation

    Biological Membranes Are Electrical Capacitors

    Electric Charges Move in Response to Electric Forces

    Movement of Ions in Response to Electrical Forces Make a Current and a Solute Flux

    The Relation Between J and C Defines an Average Velocity

    Summary

    Review Questions

    Problem Set 1.1. Physical Foundations

    1.4. Chemical Foundations of Physiology I

    Atoms Contain Distributed Electrical Charges

    Electron Orbitals Have Specific, Quantized Energies

    Human Life Requires Relatively Few of the Chemical Elements

    Atomic Orbitals Explain the Periodicity of Chemical Reactivities

    Atoms Bind Together in Definite Proportions to Form Molecules

    Compounds Have Characteristic Geometries and Surfaces

    Single CC Bonds Can Freely Rotate

    Double CC Bonds Prohibit Free Rotation

    Chemical Bonds Have Bond Energies, Bond Lengths, and Bond Angles

    Bond Energy Is Expressed as Enthalpy Changes

    The Multiplicity of CX Bonds Produces Isomerism

    Unequal Sharing Makes Polar Covalent Bonds

    Water Provides an Example of a Polar Bond

    Intermolecular Forces Arise from Electrostatic Interactions

    Atoms Within Molecules Wiggle and Jiggle and Bonds Stretch and Bend

    Summary

    Review Questions

    Appendix 1.4.A1 Dipole Moment

    1.5. Chemical Foundations of Physiology II

    Avogadro’s number Counts the Particles in a Mole

    Concentration is the Amount per unit Volume

    Scientific Prefixes Indicate Order of Magnitude

    Dilution of Solutions Is Calculated Using Conservation of Solute

    Calculation of Fluid Volumes By the Fick Dilution Principle

    Chemical Reactions Have Forward and Reverse Rate Constants

    The Michaelis–Menten Formulation of Enzyme Kinetics

    Summary

    Review Questions

    Appendix 1.5.A1 Transition State Theory Explains Reaction Rates in Terms of An Activation Energy

    The Activation Energy Depends on the Path

    1.6. Diffusion

    Fick’s First Law of Diffusion Was Proposed in Analogy to Fourier’s Law of Heat Transfer

    Fick’s Second Law of Diffusion Follows from the Continuity Equation and Fick’s First Law

    Fick’s Second Law Can Be Derived from the One-Dimensional Random Walk

    The Time for One-Dimensional Diffusion Increases with the Square of Distance

    Diffusion Coefficients in Cells Are Less than the Free Diffusion Coefficient in Water

    External Forces Can Move Particles and Alter the Diffusive Flux

    The Stokes–Einstein Equation Relates the Diffusion Coefficient to Molecular Size

    Summary

    Review Questions

    1.7. Electrochemical Potential and Free Energy

    Diffusive and Electrical Forces Can Be Unified in the Electrochemical Potential

    The Overall Force That Drives Flux Is the Negative Gradient of the Electrochemical Potential

    The Electrochemical Potential Is the Gibbs Free Energy Per Mole

    The Sign of ΔG Determines the Direction of a Reaction

    Processes with ΔG>0 Can Proceed Only by Linking Them with Another Process with ΔG<0

    The Large Negative Free Energy of ATP Hydrolysis Powers Many Biological Processes

    Measurement of the Equilibrium Concentrations of ADP, ATP, and Pi Allows Us to Calculate ΔG0

    Summary

    Review Questions

    Problem Set 1.2. Kinetics and Diffusion

    UNIT 2. Membranes, Transport, and Metabolism

    2.1. Cell Structure

    For Cells, Form Follows Function

    Organelles Make Up the Cell Like the Organs Make Up the Body

    The Cell Membrane Marks the Limits of the Cell

    The Cytosol Provides a Medium for Dissolution and Transport of Materials

    The Cytoskeleton Supports the Cell and Forms a Network for Vesicular Transport

    The Nucleus Is the Command Center of the Cell

    Ribosomes Are the Site of Protein Synthesis

    The ER Is the Site of Protein and Lipid Synthesis and Processing

    The Golgi Apparatus Packages Secretory Materials

    The Mitochondrion Is the Powerhouse of the Cell

    Lysosomes and Peroxisomes Are Bags of Enzymes

    Proteasomes Degrade Marked Proteins

    Cells Attach to Each Other Through a Variety of Junctions

    Summary

    Review Questions

    Appendix 2.1.A1 Some Methods for Studying Cell Structure and Function

    2.2. DNA and Protein Synthesis

    DNA Makes Up the Genome

    DNA Consists of Two Intertwined Sequences of Nucleotides

    RNA Is Closely Related to DNA

    Messenger RNA Carries the Instructions for Making Proteins

    Ribosomal RNA Is Assembled in the Nucleolus from a DNA Template

    Transfer RNA Covalently Binds Amino Acids and Recognizes Specific Regions of mRNA

    The Genetic Code Is a System Property

    Regulation of DNA Transcription Defines the Cell Type

    The Histone Code Provides Another Level of Regulation of Gene Transcription

    Summary

    Review Questions

    2.3. Protein Structure

    Amino Acids Make Up Proteins

    Hydrophobic Interactions Can Be Assessed from the Partition Coefficient

    Peptide Bonds Link Amino Acids Together in Proteins

    Protein Function Centers on Their Ability to Form Reactive Surfaces

    There Are Four Levels of Description for Protein Structure

    Posttranslational Modification Regulates and Refines Protein Structure and Function

    Protein Activity Is Regulated by the Number of Molecules or by Reversible Activation/Inactivation

    Summary

    Review Questions

    2.4. Biological Membranes

    Biological Membranes Surround Most Intracellular Organelles

    Biological Membranes Consist of a Lipid Bilayer Core with Embedded Proteins and Carbohydrate Coats

    Organic Solvents Can Extract Lipids from Membranes

    Biological Membranes Contain Mostly Phospholipids

    Phospholipids Contain Fatty Acyl Chains, Glycerol, Phosphate, and a Hydrophilic Group

    Other Lipid Components of Membranes Include Cardiolipin, Sphingolipids, and Cholesterol

    Phospholipids in Water Self-Organize into Layered Structures

    Surface Tension of Water Results from Asymmetric Forces at the Interface

    Amphipathic Molecules Spread Over a Water Surface, Reduce Surface Tension, and Produce an Apparent Surface Pressure

    Phospholipids Form Bilayer Membranes Between Two Aqueous Compartments

    Lipid Bilayers Can Also Form Liposomes

    Lipids Maintain Dynamic Motion within the Bilayer

    Lipid Rafts Are Special Areas of Lipid and Protein Composition

    Membrane Proteins Bind to Membranes with Varying Affinity

    Secreted Proteins Have Special Mechanisms for Getting Inside the Endoplasmic Reticulum

    Summary

    Review Questions

    Problem Set 2.1. Surface Tension, Membrane Structure, Microscopic Resolution, and Cell Fractionation

    2.5. Passive Transport and Facilitated Diffusion

    Membranes Possess a Variety of Transport Mechanisms

    A Microporous Membrane Is One Model of a Passive Transport Mechanism

    Dissolution in the Lipid Bilayer Is Another Model for Passive Transport

    Facilitated Diffusion Uses a Membrane-Bound Carrier

    Facilitated Diffusion Saturates with Increasing Solute Concentrations

    Facilitated Diffusion Shows Specificity

    Facilitated Diffusion Shows Competitive Inhibition

    Passive Transport Occurs Spontaneously Without Input of Energy

    Ions Can be Passively Transported Across Membranes by Ionophores or by Channels

    Water Moves Passively Through Aquaporins

    Summary

    Review Questions

    2.6. Active Transport

    The Electrochemical Potential Difference Measures the Energetics of Ion Permeation

    Active Transport Mechanisms Link Metabolic Energy to Transport of Materials

    Na,K-ATPase is an Example of Primary Active Transport

    Na,K-ATPase forms a Phosphorylated Intermediate

    There Are Many Different Primary Active Transport Pumps

    The Na–Ca Exchanger as an Example of Secondary Active Transport

    Secondary Active Transport Mechanisms Are Symports or Antiports

    Summary

    Review Questions

    2.7. Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure

    The Model for Water Transport Is a Microporous Membrane

    Case A: The Solute Is Very Small Compared to the Pore

    Case B: The Solute Is Larger than the Pore: Osmosis

    The van’t Hoff Equation Relates Osmotic Pressure to Concentration

    The Osmotic Coefficient Corrects for NonIdeal Behavior of Solutions

    Osmosis in a Microporous Membrane Is Caused by a Momentum Deficit within the Pores

    The Flow across a Membrane Responds to the Net Hydrostatic and Osmotic Pressure

    Case C: The Solute is Smaller than the Pore but is not Tiny Compared to the Pore

    Solutions May Be Hypertonic or Hypotonic

    Osmosis, Osmotic Pressure, and Tonicity Are Related but Distinct Concepts

    Osmotic Pressure Is a Property of Solutions Related to Other Colligative Properties

    Cells Behave Like Osmometers

    Cells Actively Regulate their Volume through RVDs and RVIs

    Summary

    Review Questions

    Appendix 2.7.A.1 Thermodynamic Derivation of van’t Hoff’s Law

    Appendix 2.7.A2 Mechanism of Osmosis across a Microporous Membrane

    Problem Set 2.2. Membrane Transport

    2.8. Cell Signaling

    Signaling transduces One Event into Another

    Cell-to-Cell Communication Can Also Use Direct Mechanical, Electrical, or Chemical Signals

    Signals Elicit a Variety of Classes of Cellular Responses

    Electrical Signals and Neurotransmitters Are Fastest; Endocrine Signals Are Slowest

    Voltage-Gated Ion Channels Convey Electrical Signals

    Voltage-Gated Ca2+ Channels Transduce an Electrical Signal to an Intracellular Ca2+ Signal

    Ligand-Gated Ion Channels Open with Chemical Signals

    Heterotrimeric G-Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) Are Versatile

    There Are Four Classes of G-Proteins: Gαs, Gαi/Gαo, Gαq, and Gα12/Gα13

    The Response of a Cell to a Chemical Signal Depends on the Receptor and Its Effectors

    Chemical Signals Can Bind to and Directly Activate Membrane-Bound Enzymes

    Many Signals Alter Gene Expression

    Nuclear Receptors Alter Gene Transcription

    Nuclear Receptors Recruit Histone Acetylase to Unwrap the DNA from the Histones

    Nuclear Receptors Recruit Transcription Factors

    Other Signaling Pathways Also Regulate Gene Expression

    Summary of Signaling Mechanisms

    Summary

    Review Questions

    2.9. ATP Production I

    Take a Global View of Metabolism

    Energy Production and use in the Cell is Analogous to Societal Production and use of Electrical Power

    Energy Production Occurs in Three Stages: Breakdown into Units, Formation of Acetyl CoA and Complete Oxidation of Acetyl CoA

    Fuel Reserves are Stored in the Body Primarily in Fat Depots and Glycogen

    Glucose is a Readily Available Source of Energy

    Glucose Release by the Liver is Controlled by Hormones through a Second Messenger System

    The Liver Exports Glucose into the Blood Because it can Dephosphorylate Glucose-1-P

    A Specific Glucose Carrier Takes Glucose up into Cells

    Glycolysis is a Series of Biochemical Transformations Leading from Glucose to Pyruvate

    Glycolysis Generates ATP Quickly in the Absence of Oxygen

    Glycolysis Requires NAD+

    Gluconeogenesis Requires Reversal of Glycolysis

    Summary

    Review Questions

    2.10. ATP Production II

    Oxidation of Pyruvate Occurs in the Mitochondria via the TCA Cycle

    Pyruvate Enters the Mitochondria and Is Converted to Acetyl CoA

    Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Releases CO2 and Makes NADH

    The TCA Cycle Is a Catalytic Cycle

    The ETC Links Chemical Energy to H+ Pumping Out of the Mitochondria

    Oxygen Accepts Electrons at the End of the ETC

    Proton Pumping and Electron Transport Are Tightly Coupled

    Oxidative Phosphorylation Couples Inward H+ Flux to ATP Synthesis

    The Proton Electrochemical Gradient Provides the Energy for ATP Synthesis

    NADH Forms 3 ATP Molecules; FADH2 Forms 2 ATP Molecules

    ATP Can Be Produced From Cytosolic NADH

    Most of the ATP Produced During Complete Glucose Oxidation Comes from Oxidative Phosphorylation

    Mitochondria Have Specific Transport Mechanisms

    Summary

    Review Questions

    2.11. ATP Production III

    Fats and Proteins Contribute 60% of the Energy Content of Many Diets

    Depot Fat Is Stored as Triglycerides and Broken Down to Glycerol and Fatty Acids for Energy

    Glycerol Is Converted to an Intermediate of Glycolysis

    Fatty Acids Are Metabolized in the Mitochondria and Peroxisomes

    Beta Oxidation Cleaves Two-Carbon Pieces off Fatty Acids

    The Liver Packages Substrates for Energy Production by Other Tissues

    Amino Acids Can Be Used to Generate ATP

    Amino Acids Are Deaminated to Enable Oxidation

    Urea Is Produced During Deamination and Is Eliminated as a Waste Product

    Summary

    Review Questions

    UNIT 3. Physiology of Excitable Cells

    3.1. The Origin of the Resting Membrane Potential

    Introduction

    The Equilibrium Potential Arises from the Balance Between Electrical Force and Diffusion

    The Equilibrium Potential for K+ Is Negative

    Integration of the Nernst–Planck Electrodiffusion Equation Gives the Goldman–Hodgkin–Katz Equation

    Slope Conductance and Chord Conductance Relate Ion Flows to the Net Driving Force

    The Chord Conductance Equation Relates Membrane Potential to All Ion Flows

    The Current Convention Is that an Outward Current Is Positive

    Summary

    Review Questions

    Appendix 3.1.A1 Derivation of the GHK Equation

    3.2. The Action Potential

    Cells Use Action Potentials as Fast Signals

    The Motor Neuron Has Dendrites, a Cell Body, and an Axon

    Passing a Current Across the Membrane Changes the Membrane Potential

    An Outward Current Hyperpolarizes the Membrane Potential

    The Result of Depolarizing Stimulus of Adequate Size Is a New Phenomenon—the Action Potential

    The Action Potential Is All or None

    The Latency Decreases with Increasing Stimulus Strength

    Threshold Is the Membrane Potential at Which an Action Potential Is Elicited 50% of the Time

    The Nerve Cannot Produce a Second Excitation During the Absolute Refractory Period

    The Action Potential Reverses to Positive Values, Called the Overshoot

    Voltage-Dependent Changes in Ion Conductance Cause the Action Potential

    Conductance Depends on the Number and State of the Channels

    Patch Clamp Experiments Measure Unitary Conductances

    Summary

    Review Questions

    Appendix 3.2.A1 The Hodgkin–Huxley Model of the Action Potential

    3.3. Propagation of the Action Potential

    The Action Potential Moves Along the Axon

    The Velocity of Nerve Conduction Varies Directly with the Axon Diameter

    The Action Potential Is Propagated by Current Moving Axially Down the Axon

    The Time Course and Distance of Electrotonic Spread Depend on the Cable Properties of the Nerve

    Cable Properties Define a Space Constant and a Time Constant

    The Cable Properties Explain the Velocity of Action Potential Conduction

    Saltatory Conduction Refers to the “Jumping” of the Current from Node to Node

    The Action Potential Is Spread out Over More than One Node

    Summary

    Review Questions

    Appendix 3.3.A1 Capacitance of a Coaxial Capacitor

    Problem Set 3.1. Membrane Potential, Action Potential, and Nerve Conduction

    3.4. Skeletal Muscle Mechanics

    Muscles Either Shorten or Produce Force

    Muscles Perform Diverse Functions

    Muscles Are Classified According to Fine Structure, Neural Control, and Anatomical Arrangement

    Isometric Force Is Measured While Keeping Muscle Length Constant

    Muscle Force Depends on the Number of Motor Units That Are Activated

    The Size Principle States that Motor Units Are Recruited in the Order of Their Size

    Muscle Force Can Be Graded by the Frequency of Motor Neuron Firing

    Muscle Force Depends on the Length of the Muscle

    Muscle Force Varies Inversely with Muscle Velocity

    Muscle Power Varies with the Load and Muscle Type

    Eccentric Contractions Lengthen the Muscle and Produce More Force

    Concentric, Isometric, and Eccentric Contractions Serve Different Functions

    Muscle Architecture Influences Force and Velocity of the Whole Muscle

    Muscles Decrease Force Upon Repeated Stimulation; This Is Fatigue

    Summary

    Review Questions

    3.5. Contractile Mechanisms in Skeletal Muscle

    Introduction

    Muscle Cells Have a Highly Organized Structure

    The Sliding Filament Hypothesis Explains the Length–Tension Curve

    Force is Produced by an Interaction Between Thick Filament Proteins and Thin Filament Proteins

    Cross-Bridges from the Thick Filament Split ATP and Generate Force

    Cross-Bridge Cycling Rate Explains the Fiber Type Dependence of the Force–Velocity Curve

    Force Is Transmitted Outside the Cell Through the Cytoskeleton and Special Transmembrane Proteins

    Summary

    Review Questions

    3.6. The Neuromuscular Junction and Excitation-Contraction Coupling

    Motor Neurons Are the Sole Physiological Activators of Skeletal Muscles

    The Motor Neuron Receives Thousands of Inputs from Other Cells

    Postsynaptic Potentials Can Be Excitatory or Inhibitory

    Postsynaptic Potentials Are Graded, Spread Electrotonically, and Decay with Time

    Action Potentials Originate at the Initial Segment or Axon Hillock

    Motor Neurons Integrate Multiple Synaptic Inputs to Initiate Action Potentials

    The Action Potential Travels Down the Axon Toward the Neuromuscular Junction

    Neurotransmission at the Neuromuscular Junction Is Unidirectional

    Motor Neurons Release Acetylcholine to Excite Muscles

    Ca2+ Efflux Mechanisms in the Presynaptic Cell Shut Off the Ca2+ Signal

    Acetylcholine Is Degraded and Then Recycled

    The Action Potential on the Muscle Membrane Propagates Both Ways on the Muscle

    The Muscle Fiber Converts the Action Potential into an Intracellular Ca2+ Signal

    The Ca2+ during E-C Coupling Originates from the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum

    Ca2+ Release from the SR and Reuptake by the SR Requires Several Proteins

    Reuptake of Ca2+ by the SR Ends Contraction and Initiates Relaxation

    Cross-Bridge Cycling Is Controlled by Myoplasmic [Ca2+]

    Sequential SR Release and Summation of Myoplasmic [Ca2+] Explains Summation and Tetany

    The Elastic Properties of the Muscle Are Responsible for the Waveform of the Twitch

    Repetitive Stimulation Causes Repetitive Ca2+ Release from the SR and Wave Summation

    Summary

    Review Questions

    3.7. Muscle Energetics, Fatigue, and Training

    Muscular Activity Consumes ATP at High Rates

    The Aggregate Rate and Amount of ATP Consumption Varies with the Intensity and Duration of Exercise

    In Repetitive Exercise, Intensity Increases Frequency and Reduces Rest Time

    In Maximum Effort, There Is No Rest Phase

    Metabolic Pathways Regenerate ATP on Different Timescales and with Different Capacities

    The Metabolic Pathways Used by Muscle Varies with Intensity and Duration of Exercise

    At High Intensity of Exercise, Glucose and Glycogen Is the Preferred Fuel for Muscle

    Muscle Fibers Differ in Their Metabolic Properties

    Blood Lactate Levels Rise Progressively with Increases in Exercise Intensity

    Mitochondria Import Lactic Acid, Then Metabolize it; This Forms a Carrier System for NADH Oxidation

    Lactate Shuttles to the Mitochondria, Oxidative Fibers, or Liver

    The “Anaerobic Threshold” Results from a Mismatch of Lactic Acid Production and Oxidation

    Exercise Increases Glucose Transporters in the Muscle Sarcolemma

    Fatigue Is a Transient Loss of Work Capacity Resulting from Preceding Work

    Early and Rapid Strength Gains Comes from Training the Brain

    Strength Training Induces Muscle Hypertrophy

    Hormones Influence Muscle Size (=Strength)

    Myostatin Is a Negative Regulator of the Muscle Mass

    Endurance Training Uses Repetitive Movements to Tune Muscle Metabolism

    Our Ability to Switch Muscle Fiber Types Is Limited

    Summary

    Review Questions

    Problem Set 3.2. Neuromuscular Transmission, Muscle Force, and Energetics

    3.8. Smooth Muscle

    Smooth Muscles Show No Cross-Striations

    Smooth Muscle Develops Tension More Slowly But Can Maintain Tension for a Long Time

    Smooth Muscle Can Contract Tonically or Phasically

    Smooth Muscles Exhibit a Variety of Electrical Activities that May or May Not Be Coupled to Force Development

    Contractile Filaments in Smooth Muscle Cells Form a Lattice that Attaches to the Cell Membrane

    Adjacent Smooth Muscle Cells Are Mechanically Coupled and May Be Electrically Coupled

    Smooth Muscle Is Controlled by Intrinsic Activity, Nerves, and Hormones

    Nerves Release Neurotransmitters Diffusely onto Smooth Muscle

    Contraction in Smooth Muscle Cells Is Initiated by Increasing Intracellular [Ca2+]

    Smooth Muscle Cytosolic [Ca2+] Is Heterogeneous and Controlled by Multiple Mechanisms

    Smooth Muscle [Ca2+] Can Be Regulated by Chemical Signals

    Force in Smooth Muscle Arises from Actin–Myosin Interaction

    Myosin Light Chain Phosphorylation Regulates Smooth Muscle Force

    Myosin Light Chain Phosphatase Dephosphorylates the RLC

    Ca2+ Sensitization Produces Force at Lower [Ca2+] Levels

    Nitric Oxide Induces Smooth Muscle Relaxation by Stimulating Guanylate Cyclase

    Activation of Beta2 Receptors on Smooth Muscle Causes Relaxation by Removing Cytosolic [Ca2+]

    Synopsis of Mechanisms Promoting Contraction or Relaxation of Smooth Muscle

    Summary

    Review Questions

    UNIT 4. The Nervous System

    4.1. Organization of the Nervous System

    The Neuroendocrine System Controls Physiological Systems

    A Central Tenet of Physiological Psychology Is That Neural Processes Completely Explain All Behavior

    The New Mind–Body Problem Is How Consciousness Arises from a Material Brain

    External Behavioral Responses Require Sensors, Internal Processes, and Motor Response

    The Nervous System Is Divided into the Central and Peripheral Nervous System

    The Brain Has Readily Identifiable Surface Features

    CSF Fills the Ventricles and Cushions the Brain

    The Blood-Brain Barrier Protects the Brain

    Cross Sections of the Brain and Staining Reveal Internal Structures

    Gray Matter Is Organized into Layers

    Overall Function of the Nervous System Derives from its Component Cells

    Overview of the Functions of Some Major Areas of the CNS

    Summary

    Review Questions

    4.2. Cells, Synapses, and Neurotransmitters

    Nervous System Behavior Derives from Cell Behavior

    Nervous Tissue Is Composed of Neurons and Supporting Cells

    Glial Cells Protect and Serve

    Neurons Differ in Shapes and Size

    Input Information Typically Converges on the Cell and Output Information Diverges

    Chemical Synapses Are Overwhelmingly More Common

    Ca2+ Signals Initiate Chemical Neurotransmission

    Vesicle Fusion Uses the Same Molecular Machinery That Regulates Other Vesicle Traffic

    Ca2+ Efflux Mechanisms in the Pre-Synaptic Cell Shut Off the Ca2+ Signal

    Removal or Destruction of the Neurotransmitter Shuts Off the Neurotransmitter Signal

    The Pre-Synaptic Terminal Recycles Neurotransmitter Vesicles

    Ionotropic Receptors Are Ligand-Gated Channels; Metabotropic Receptors Are GPCR

    Acetylcholine Binds to Nicotinic Receptors or Muscarinic Receptors

    Catecholamines: Dopamine, Norepinephrine, and Epinephrine Derive from Tyrosine

    Dopamine Couples to Gs and Gi-Coupled Receptors through D1 and D2 Receptors

    Adrenergic Receptors Are Classified According to Their Pharmacology

    Glutamate and Aspartate Are Excitatory Neurotransmitters

    GABA Inhibits Neurons

    Serotonin Exerts Multiple Effects in the PNS and CNS

    Neuropeptides Are Synthesized in the Soma and Transported via Axonal Transport

    Summary

    Review Questions

    4.3. Cutaneous Sensory Systems

    Sensors Provide a Window onto Our World

    Exteroreceptors Include the Five Classical Senses and the Cutaneous Senses

    Interoreceptors Report on the Chemical and Physical State of the Interior of the Body

    Sensory Systems Consist of the Sense Organ, the Sensory Receptors, and the Pathways to the CNS

    Perception Refers to Our Awareness of a Stimulus

    Long and Short Receptors Differ in Their Production of Action Potentials

    Anatomical Connection Determines the Quality of a Sensory Stimulus

    The Intensity of Sensory Stimuli Is Encoded by the Frequency of Sensory Receptor Firing and the Population of Active Receptors

    Frequency Coding is the Basis of the Weber–Fechner Law of Psychology

    Adaptation to a Stimulus Allows Sensory Neurons to Signal Position, Velocity, and Acceleration

    Receptive Fields Refer to the Physical Areas at Which a Stimulus Will Excite a Receptor

    Cutaneous Receptors Include Mechanoreceptors, Thermoreceptors, and Nociceptors

    Somatosensory Information Is Transmitted to the Brain through the Dorsal Column Pathway

    The Cutaneous Senses Map onto the Sensory Cortex

    Pain and Temperature Information Travel in the Anterolateral Tract

    Disorders of Sensation Can Pinpoint Damage

    Pain Sensation Can Be Reduced by Somatosensory Input

    The Receptive Field of Somatosensory Cortical Neurons is Often On-Center, Off-Surround

    Summary

    Review Questions

    4.4. Spinal Reflexes

    A Reflex is a Stereotyped Muscular Response to a Specific Sensory Stimulus

    The Withdrawal Reflex Protects Us from Painful Stimuli

    The Crossed-Extensor Reflex Usually Occurs in Association with the Withdrawal Reflex

    The Myotatic Reflex Involves a Muscle Length Sensor, the Muscle Spindle

    The Muscle Spindle Is a Specialized Muscle Fiber

    The Myotatic Reflex Is a MonoSynaptic Reflex Between Ia Afferents and the α Motor Neuron

    The Gamma Motor System Maintains Tension on the Intrafusal Fibers During Muscle Contraction

    The Inverse Myotatic Reflex Involves Sensors of Muscle Force in the Tendon

    The Spinal Cord Possesses Other Reflexes and Includes Locomotor Pattern Generators

    The Spinal Cord Contains Descending Tracts That Control Lower Motor Neurons

    All of the Inputs to the Lower Motor Neurons Form Integrated Responses

    Summary

    Review Questions

    4.5. Balance and Control of Movement

    The Nervous System Uses a Population Code and Frequency Code to Control Contractile Force

    Control of Movement Entails Control of α Motoneuron Activity

    The Circuitry of the Spinal Cord Provides the First Layer in a Hierarchy of Muscle Control

    The Motor Nerves Are Organized by Myotomes

    Spinal Reflexes Form the Basis of Motor Control

    Purposeful Movements Originate in the Cerebral Cortex

    The Primary Motor Cortex Has a Somatotopic Organization

    Motor Activity Originates from Sensory Areas Together with Premotor Areas

    Motor Control Is Hierarchical and Serial

    The Basal Ganglia and Cerebellum Play Important Roles in Movement

    The Substantia Nigra Sets the Balance Between the Direct and Indirect Pathways

    The Cerebellum Maintains Movement Accuracy

    The Sense of Balance Originates in Hair Cells in the Vestibular Apparatus

    Rotation of the Head Gives Opposite Signals from the Two Vestibular Apparatuses

    The Utricles and Saccules Contain Hair Cells That Respond to Static Forces of Gravity

    The Afferent Sensory Neurons from the Vestibular Apparatus Project to the Vestibular Nuclei in the Medulla

    Summary

    Review Questions

    Problem Set 4.1. Nerve Conduction

    4.6. The Chemical Senses

    The Chemical Senses Include Taste and Smell

    Taste and Olfactory Receptors Turn Over Regularly

    The Olfactory Epithelium Resides in the Roof of the Nasal Cavities

    Olfactory Receptor Cells Send Axons Through the Cribriform Plate

    Humans Recognize a Wide Variety of Odors but Are Often Untrained in Their Identification

    The Response to Specific Odorants Is Mediated by Specific Odorant Binding Proteins

    The Olfactory Receptor Cells Send Axons to Second-Order Neurons in the Olfactory Bulb

    Each Glomerulus Corresponds to One Receptor That Responds to its Molecular Receptive Range

    Olfactory Output Connects Directly to the Cortex in the Temporal Lobe

    A Second Olfactory Output Is Through the Thalamus to the Orbitofrontal Cortex

    A Third Pathway of Olfactory Sensors Is Between the Vomeronasal Organ and the Hypothalamus

    The Detection Limits for Odors Can Be Low

    Adaptation to Odors Involves the Central Nervous System

    Some “Smells” Stimulate the Trigeminal Nerve and Not the Olfactory Nerve

    Some Odorants Do Not Use Golf Linked to Odorant Binding Proteins

    Humans Distinguish Among Five Primary Types of Taste Sensations

    The Taste Buds Are Groups of Taste Receptors Arranged on Taste Papillae

    TRCs Respond to Single Modalities

    Salty Taste Has Two Mechanisms Distinguished by Their Amiloride Sensitivity

    Sour Taste Depends on TRC Cytosolic pH

    Sweet, Bitter, and Umami Taste Is Transduced by Three Sets of G-Protein-Coupled Receptors

    The “Hot” Taste of Jalapeno Peppers Is Sensed Through Pain Receptors

    Taste Receptors Project to the Cortex Through the Solitary Nucleus and the Thalamus

    Summary

    Review Questions

    4.7. Hearing

    The Human Auditory System Discriminates Among Tone, Timbre, and Intensity

    The Auditory System Can Locate Sources of Noise Using Time Delays and Intensity Differences

    The Ear Consists of Three Parts: the Outer Ear, Middle Ear, and Inner Ear: Each Has a Definite Function

    Hair Cells of the Cochlea Respond to Deformation of Stereocilia Touching the Tectorial Membrane

    Outer Hair Cells Move in Response to Efferent Stimulation and Thereby Tune the Inner Hair Cells

    The Cochlea Produces a Tonotopic Mapping of Sound Frequency

    Auditory Information Passes Through the Brain Stem to the Auditory Cortex

    Language is Processed in Areas Near the Primary Auditory Cortex in the Left Hemisphere, but Music Is Processed in the Right Hemisphere

    Perception of Pitch Is Accomplished by a Combination of Tuning and Phase Locking

    The Cochlear Microphonic Shows that the Inner Hair Cells Have an AC Response That Can Keep up with Moderate Frequency Vibrations

    Summary

    Review Questions

    Appendix 4.7.A1 The Physics of Sound

    4.8. Vision

    Overview of the Visual System

    The Structure of the Eye Enables Focusing of Light on the Retina

    The Vitreous Body Maintains Eye Shape

    The Eye Focuses Light on the Retina by Refraction

    The Lens Changes Shape to Focus Near Objects

    Near-Sightedness and Far-Sightedness Are Problems in Focusing the Image on the Retina

    Photoreceptor Cells in the Retina Transduce Light Signals

    The Retina Consists of Several Layers and Begins Processing of Visual Signals

    Bipolar Cells Are Off-Center or On-Center

    The Output of Bipolar Cells Converge Onto On-Center and Off-Center Ganglion Cells

    Signals from the Two Eyes Cross Over During the Central Visual Pathways

    Some Ganglion Cells Project to Other Areas of the Brain

    Additional Processing of Visual Images Occurs in the Visual Cortex

    The Visual Cortex Sends Output to the Temporal and Parietal Lobes

    We Still Do Not Know How We Perceive Visual Images

    Summary

    Review Questions

    Appendix 4.8.A1 Refraction of Light and the Thin Lens Formula

    Problem Set 4.2. Sensory Transduction

    4.9. Autonomic Nervous System

    The Autonomic Nervous System Serves a Homeostatic Function and an Adaptive Function

    Autonomic Reflexes Are Fast

    The Emotional State Greatly Affects Autonomic Efferent Function

    Autonomic Efferent Nerves Have Two Neurons

    The Sympathetic Nervous System Originates in the Thoracolumbar Spinal Cord

    The Parasympathetic Nervous System Originates in Cranial and Sacral Nerves

    Autonomic Reflexes Link Sensory Input to Motor Efferents

    The Major Autonomic Neurotransmitters Are Acetylcholine and Norepinephrine

    Parasympathetic Release of Acetylcholine Works on Muscarinic Receptors

    Norepinephrine Released by Postganglionic Sympathetic Neurons Acts Through α- and β-Receptors

    Autonomic Nerve Terminals Also Release Other Neurotransmitters

    Effects of Autonomic Stimulation Depend on the Receptor on the Target Cell

    The Pupillary Light Reflex Regulates Light Intensity Falling on the Retina: A Parasympathetic Reflex

    Micturition Involves Autonomic Reflexes and Volitional Nervous Activity

    Summary

    Review Questions

    UNIT 5. The Cardiovascular System

    5.1. Overview of the Cardiovascular System and the Blood

    The Circulatory System Is a Transport System

    The Circulatory System Consists of the Heart, Blood Vessels, and Blood

    The Circulatory System Carries Nutrients, Wastes, Chemical Signals, and Heat

    The Circulation Is Necessary Because Diffusion from and to the Environment Is Too Slow

    The Circulatory System Consists of the Pulmonary Circulation and Systemic Circulation

    Most Circulatory Beds Are Arranged in Parallel

    Pressure Drives Blood Flow Through the Vascular System

    Vessels Are Characterized by a Compliance

    Blood Consists of Cells Suspended in Plasma

    Hemostasis Defends the Integrity of the Vascular Volume

    Blood Coagulation Sits on a Knife Edge of Activation and Inhibition

    Summary

    Review Questions

    5.2. Plasma and Red Blood Cells

    Plasma Consists Mainly of Water, Electrolytes, and Proteins

    Plasma Proteins and Ions Buffer Changes in Plasma pH

    The Oncotic Pressure of Plasma Proteins Retains Circulatory Volume

    The Erythrocyte Is the Most Abundant Cell in the Blood

    Erythrocytes Contain a Lot of Hemoglobin

    Hemoglobin Consists of Four Polypeptide Chains, Each with a Heme Group

    Erythropoietin Controls Formation of Erythrocytes from Pluripotent Stem Cells in Bone Marrow

    Phagocytes in the Reticuloendothelial System Destroy Worn Erythrocytes

    Iron Recycles into New Heme

    Human Blood Can Be Classified into a Small Number of Blood Types

    Summary

    Review Questions

    5.3. White Blood Cells and Inflammation

    The White Blood Cells Include Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils, Monocytes, Lymphocytes, and Platelets

    White Blood Cells Originate from Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Neutrophils Are Phagocytes

    Monocytes Leave the Circulatory System to Become Tissue Macrophages

    Basophils Resemble Mast Cells

    Eosinophils Are Involved in Defense of Parasitic Infections and Allergies

    Lymphocytes Form a Specific Defense System

    Tissue Macrophages, Monocytes, and Specialized Endothelial Cells Form the Reticuloendothelial System

    Inflammation Is the Net Response of the Body to Tissue Injury

    Inflammation Begins with the Release of Signaling Molecules from the Damaged Tissue

    The Innate Immune Response Requires No Prior Exposure–Specificity of the Response Is Inherited in the Genome

    Neutrophils and Monocytes Leave the Circulatory System by Diapedesis in Response to Chemotaxic Compounds

    The Complement System Destroys Microbes that Have Attached Antibodies

    Summary

    Review Questions

    5.4. The Heart as a Pump

    The Heart Is Located in the Center of the Thoracic Cavity

    The Heart Is a Muscle

    Contraction of Cardiac Muscle Produces a Pressure within the Chamber

    Blood is Pumped through Four Chambers

    The Four Valves Are Nearly CoPlanar

    Closure of the Valves Produces the Heart Sounds

    Additional Turbulence Causes Heart Murmurs

    Summary of the Contractile Events in the Cardiac Cycle

    An Automatic Electrical System Controls the Contraction of the Heart

    Summary

    Review Questions

    Problem Set 5.1. Blood

    5.5. The Cardiac Action Potential

    Different Cardiac Cells Differ in Their Resting Membrane Potential and Action Potential

    SA Nodal Cells Spontaneously Generate Action Potentials Whereas Contractile Cells Have Stable Resting Membrane Potentials

    Autonomic Nerves Alter the Heart Rate by Affecting the Pacemaker Potential

    The Ionic Basis of the Ventricular Cardiomyocyte Action Potential

    Epinephrine Enhances the L-Type Ca2+ Channels, Which Elevates the Action Potential Plateau

    The Action Potential Is Conducted to Neighboring Cells through Gap Junctions in the Intercalated Disks

    Summary

    Review Questions

    5.6. The Electrocardiogram

    The ECG is the Projection of Cardiac Electrical Activity onto the Body Surface

    The Heart Muscle Fibers Act as Electric Dipoles

    Einthoven Idealized the Thorax as a Triangle

    The Heart’s Electric Dipole Moment Varies with Time—and so Does its Recording on Leads I, II, and III

    The Values of Leads I and III Can Be Used to Calculate the Electric Dipole Moment of the Heart

    Atrial Depolarization Causes the P wave

    Sequential Depolarization of the Ventricles Produces the QRS Complex

    The Subepicardium Repolarizes before the Subendocardium, Causing an Upright T wave

    The Cardiac Dipole Traces a Closed Curve during Each Heart Beat

    The Largest Depolarization Defines the Mean Electrical Axis

    Unipolar Leads Record the Difference between an Electrode and a Zero Electrode

    Augmented Unipolar Limb Leads Use Combination of Only Two Electrodes for the Indifferent Electrode

    The Einthoven Triangle is Only Approximately Valid

    The Cardiac Cycle, Revisited

    Summary

    Review Questions

    5.7. The Cellular Basis of Cardiac Contractility

    Cardiac Muscle Shares Many Structural Features with Skeletal Muscle

    Intercalated Disks Electrically Couple Cardiomyocytes

    The Strength of Cardiac Muscle Contraction Is not Regulated by Recruitment or by Summation

    Cardiac Myofibrils Have Thick and Thin Filaments and Form the Cross-Striations

    Actin-Activated Myosin ATPase Activity Produces Force and Shortening

    Cytoplasmic [Ca2+] Controls Actomyosin Cross-Bridge Cycling

    Calcium-Induced Calcium Release Couples Excitation to Contraction in Cardiac Muscle

    Reuptake of Ca2+ by the SR and SL Extrusion of Ca2+ Cause Relaxation

    Mitochondria Can Take Up Ca2+

    Calsequestrin Augments SR Ca2+ Uptake and Release

    What Regulates Cardiac Contractility?

    The Force Generally Increases with the Frequency of the Heart Beat: The Force–Frequency Relation

    Sympathetic Stimulation Increases Force by Increasing the Ca2+ Transient

    Parasympathetic Stimulation Opposes Sympathetic Effects (see Figure 5.7.7)

    Cardiac Glycosides Increase Cardiac Contractility by Increasing the Ca2+ Transient

    Cardiac Contractile Force Is Powerfully Modulated by Stretch

    Summary

    Review Questions

    5.8. The Cardiac Function Curve

    Cardiac Output Is the Flow Produced by the Heart

    Stroke Volume Is Determined by Preload, Afterload, and Contractility

    The Integral of the Pressure–Volume Loop Is the PV Work

    Total Work of the Heart Includes Pressure, Kinetic, and Gravitational Terms

    Stretch of the Heart Determines the Stroke Volume: The Frank–Starling Law of the Heart

    The Ventricular Function Curve Plots Cardiac Function against Right Atrial Pressure

    Increasing Preload Increases the Stroke Volume, Increasing Afterload Decreases It

    Positive Inotropic Agents Shift the Cardiac Function Curve Up and to the Left

    Fick’s Principle Estimates Cardiac Output from O2 Consumption

    Cardiac Output can be Determined by the Indicator Dilution Method

    The Thermal Dilution Method

    Summary

    Review Questions

    Problem Set 5.2. Cardiac Work

    5.9. Vascular Function

    The Vascular System Distributes Cardiac Output to the Tissues

    The Circulatory System Uses Four Major Physical Principles

    Flow is Driven by a Pressure Difference

    Compliance Describes the Relation between Pressure and Volume in the Vessels

    The Heart’s Ejection of Blood into the Arterial Tree Causes the Arterial Pressure Pulse

    The Pulse Pressure Depends on the Stroke Volume and Compliance of the Arteries

    Diastolic Pressure Plus One-Third Pulse Pressure Estimates the Mean Arterial Pressure

    Pressure and Flow Waves Propagate Down the Arterial Tree

    Clinicians Use a Sphygmomanometer to Measure Blood Pressure

    Blood Vessels Branch Extensively, Reducing Their Diameter but Increasing the Overall Area

    The Major Pressure Drop in the Arterial Circulation Occurs in the Arterioles

    Poiseuille’s Law Only Approximately Describes Flow in the Vasculature

    The Ratio of ΔP to Qv Defines the Vascular Resistance

    Summary

    Review Questions

    5.10. The Microcirculation and Solute Exchange

    The Exchange Vessels Include Capillaries, Terminal Arterioles, and Venules

    Ultrastructural Studies Reveal Three Distinct Types of Capillaries

    Capillary Exchange Uses Passive Mechanisms

    Passive Diffusion Obeys Fick’s Law of Diffusion Across Multiple Barriers

    Either Flow or Diffusion Can Limit Delivery of Materials to Cells

    The Interstitial Fluid Concentration Is Set by the Balance Between Consumption and Delivery

    Regulation of Perfusion Regulates Solute Transfer

    Some Macromolecules Cross the Capillary Wall by Transcytosis

    Starling First Described the Forces That Drive Bulk Fluid Movement Across Capillaries

    In Most Organs, Net Filtration Pressure Drives Fluid Out of the Capillaries at the Arteriolar End

    The Lymphatics Drain the Fluid Filtered Through the Capillaries Back into the Blood

    Muscle Activity Helps Pump Lymph Through the Lymphatics

    Summary

    Review Questions

    5.11. Regulation of Perfusion

    For Any Given Input Pressure, the Caliber of the Arterioles Controls Perfusion of a Tissue

    Vasoconstriction Decreases Capillary Pressure

    Vascular Smooth Muscle Contracts by Activation of Myosin Light Chain Kinase

    Multiple Signals Regulate the Activity of MLCK and MLCP

    Multiple Mechanisms Cause Vasodilation

    Control of Blood Vessel Caliber Is Local (Intrinsic) and Systemic (Extrinsic)

    The Myogenic Response Arises from the Contractile Response to Stretch

    Endothelial Secretions Dilate Arterioles

    Metabolic Products Generally Vasodilate

    Paracrine Secretions Affect Vascular Caliber

    The Sympathetic Nervous System Predominantly Controls the Vascular System

    Circulating Hormones That Affect Vessel Caliber Include Epinephrine, Angiotensin, ANP, and Vasopressin

    Summary

    Review Questions

    5.12. Integration of Cardiac Output and Venous Return

    The Cardiovascular System Is Closed

    The Cardiovascular System Can Be Simplified for Analysis

    The Operating Point of the Cardiovascular System Matches Cardiac Function to Vascular Function

    The Mean Systemic Pressure Normally Equals the Mean Circulatory Pressure

    Filling the Empty Circulatory System Reveals Stressed and Unstressed Volumes

    The Vascular Function Curve Can Be Derived from Arterial and Venous Compliances and TPR

    The Experimentally Determined Vascular Function Curve Follows the Theoretical Result Only for Positive Right Atrial Pressures

    Simultaneous Solution of the Cardiac Function Curve and Vascular Function Curve Defines the Steady-State Operating Point of the Cardiovascular System

    Changing Arteriolar Resistance Rotates the Vascular Function Around PMS

    Changes in Blood Volume Shift the Vascular Function Curve Vertically

    Changes in the Cardiac Function Curve Change the Steady-State Operating Point

    Strenuous Exercise Alters Multiple Parts of the Cardiovascular System

    Summary

    Review Questions

    5.13. Regulation of Arterial Pressure

    Arterial Pressure Drives Flow but Arterial Pressure also Arises from Flow

    Regulation of Arterial Pressure Occurs on Three Separate Timescales Involving Three Distinct Types of Mechanisms

    Baroreceptors in the Carotid Sinus and Aortic Arch Sense Blood Pressure

    The Baroreflex Regulates Heart and Vasculature to Stabilize Blood Pressure

    The Baroreflex Mediates Parasympathetic and Sympathetic Output from Centers Located in the Medulla

    Inspiration Influences Heart Rate—The Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia

    Higher Centers Influence Blood Pressure and Heart Rate

    Long-Term Regulation of Blood Volume Determines Long-Term Regulation of Blood Pressure

    Sympathetic Tetralogy

    Hormonal Regulation of Blood Pressure

    Summary

    Review Questions

    Problem Set 5.3. Hemodynamics and Microcirculation

    UNIT 6. Respiratory Physiology

    6.1. The Mechanics of Breathing

    The Respiratory System Supplies O2 and Removes Waste CO2

    Four Core Aspects of Respiratory Physiology

    Air Flows Through an Extensive Airway System That Filters, Warms, and Humidifies the Air

    Gas Flows in Response to Pressure Differences

    Changes in Lung Volumes Produce the Pressure Differences That Drive Air Movement

    Skeletal Muscles Power Inspiration

    Resting Expiration Is Passive; Abdominal Muscles Aid in Forceful Expiration

    The Pleura and the Pleural Fluid Join the Lungs to the Chest Wall

    Compliance Measures the Ease of Expanding the Lungs

    The Compliance and Recoil Tendency of the Lung Is Produced by Elastic Fibers and by Surface Tension

    The Law of Laplace Predicts Alveolar Instability

    Pulmonary Surfactant Lowers the Surface Tension in the Alveoli

    The Lungs and Chest Wall Interact to Produce the Pressures That Drive Ventilation

    Breaking the Seal on the Intrapleural Space Collapses the Lungs

    Airway Resistance Partly Determines Dynamic Pressures

    Summary

    Review Questions

    6.2. Lung Volumes and Airway Resistance

    Spirometers Measure Lung Volumes and Allow Identification of Several Lung Volumes and Lung Capacities

    Lung Capacities Are Combinations of Two or More Lung Volumes

    Lung Volumes and Capacities Vary Mainly with Body Size

    Pulmonary Ventilation Is the Product of Respiratory Rate and TV

    During Exercise, Pulmonary Ventilation Increases Due to Increased RR and TV

    The Maximum Voluntary Ventilation Exceeds Pulmonary Ventilation During Exercise

    Spirometry Also Provides a Clinically Useful Measure of Airway Resistance

    Airway Resistance Depends on Whether Airflow Is Laminar or Turbulent

    The Poiseuille Equation Derived for Right Cylinders Does Not Model the Complicated Airways

    Airway Resistance Is the Slope Between ΔP and QV

    Turbulent and Laminar Flow Result in Resistances That Occur in Series and Add

    Airway Resistance Depends on Lung Volume

    Dynamic Compression of the Airways During Forceful Expiration Limits Airflow

    Airway Resistance Is Modified by Smooth Muscle Contraction of the Airways

    Summary

    Review Questions

    6.3. Gas Exchange in the Lungs

    The Respiratory System Exchanges Blood Gases with Atmospheric Gases

    The Partial Pressure of a Gas Is its Mole Fraction Times the Total Pressure

    The Vapor Pressure Is the Partial Pressure of Water in the Gas Phase That Is in Equilibrium with Liquid Water

    The Vapor Pressure at Body Temperature is 47 mmHg

    Henry’s Law Describes the Dissolution of Gases in Water

    Conversion of Partial Pressures and Volumes at STPD to Those at BTPS

    Gases Diffuse Across the Alveolar Membrane Passively

    The Diffusing Capacity Is the Flow Per Unit Partial Pressure

    The Anatomic Dead Space Reduces the Volume of Inspired Air That Exchanges with the Blood

    Physiologic Dead Space Is Larger than the Anatomic Dead Space

    The Rate of CO2 Production Allows Calculation of Alveolar Ventilation

    The Alveolar Gas Equation Allows Calculation of

    Blood Is in the Lungs for Less than a Second—But That Is Long Enough to Equilibrate the Gases

    Blood Flow to the Lung Varies with Position with Respect to Gravity

    Regulation of the Pulmonary Circulation Helps Restore the Ventilation/Perfusion Ratio

    Summary

    Review Questions

    Appendix 6.3.A1 Derivation of the Steady-State Gas Exchange Equations

    Appendix 6.3.A2 Conversion of Partial Pressures and Volumes Between STPD and BTPS

    Problem Set 6.1. Airway Resistance and Alveolar Gas Exchange

    6.4. Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Transport

    Dissolved Oxygen Content of Blood Is Small

    Most Oxygen in Blood Is Bound to Hemoglobin

    Oxygen Consumption Can Be Calculated by Blood Flow Times the A–V Difference in Oxygen

    Oxygen Consumption Can Be Calculated from the Difference between O2 Inspired and O2 Expired

    O2 Diffuses from Blood to the Interstitial Fluids and Then to the Cells

    Hemoglobin Delivers Oxygen to the Tissues

    Myoglobin Stores O2 in Oxidative Muscle and May Enhance Diffusion

    Shift of the O2 Dissociation Curve to the Right Helps Deliver O2 to Exercising Muscles

    Increased O2 Delivery in Exercise Is Caused by Increased Blood Flow and Shorter Diffusion

    Dissolved CO2 Accounts for a Small Fraction of Blood CO2 Transport

    Most CO2 Is Carried in the Blood as HCO3−

    Carbaminohemoglobin Accounts for a Small Fraction of Transported CO2

    Summary

    Review Questions

    6.5. Acid–Base Physiology I

    pH Is a Monotonically Decreasing Function of [H+]

    Plasma pH is Maintained within Narrow Limits

    The Body Uses Chemical Buffers, the Respiratory System, and the Renal System to Regulate pH

    Chemical Buffers Absorb or Desorb H+ According to the Law of Mass Action

    The Isohydric Principle States that All Buffers in a Solution Are in Equilibrium with the Same [H+]

    Expressing [H2CO3] in Terms of PCO2 Makes the Henderson–Hasselbalch Equation More Useful

    The Respiratory System Regulates pH by Adjusting Plasma PCO2

    Hypoventilation in Response to Alkalosis is Called Respiratory Compensation of Alkalosis

    Hyperventilation in Response to Acidosis is Called Respiratory Compensation of Acidosis

    Respiratory Acidosis and Respiratory Alkalosis

    The pH–HCO3− Diagram Depicts Acid–Base Balance Graphically

    Summary

    Review Questions

    6.6. Control of Ventilation

    Nerves Regulate Breathing

    Control of Breathing Involves Voluntary and Involuntary Components

    The Brain stem Contains a Pontine Respiratory Group in the Pons, an Apneustic Center in the Lower Pons, and Dorsal and Ventral Respiratory Groups in the Medulla

    The DRG Receives a Variety of Inputs and Excites Inspiratory Motor neurons

    The VRG Contains Both I and E Neurons

    Despite Progress, the Neural Mechanism of the Respiratory Pattern Remains Unknown

    Peripheral Chemosensors Modulate Respiration in Response to Changes in PaO2, PaCO2, and pH

    Peripheral Arterial Chemosensors Increase Firing Rates with Increased PaCO2, Decreased pH, and Decreased PaO2

    Peripheral Chemosensors for PaO2 are More Important than those for PaCO2

    The Ventilatory Response to Increased Chemoreceptor Firing Rate Is Increased Ventilation

    Central Chemosensors Provide the Major Response to Changes in PaCO2

    The Brain Adjusts the [HCO3−] of the CSF

    Ventilatory Drive Increases by Integrated Response to Elevated PaCO2, Metabolic Acidosis, or Hypoxia

    Airway and Lung Mechanoreceptors Alter Breathing Patterns

    Increased Respiration during Exercise May be Neural and May Involve Learning

    Summary

    Review Questions

    Problem Set 6.2. Gas Transport and pH Disturbances

    UNIT 7. Renal Physiology

    7.1. Body Fluid Compartments

    Fick’s Dilution Principle Allows Determination of Body Fluid Compartments

    Inulin Marks the Extracellular Fluid; Evans’ Blue Dye Marks Plasma

    The Main Fluid Compartments Are the Intracellular Compartment, the Interstitial Compartment, and the Plasma

    The TBW Varies with Body Composition

    Water Composition of the LBM Varies with Age and Sex

    The Fluid Compartments Correspond to Anatomic Compartments

    Body Fluids Obey the Principle of Macroscopic Electroneutrality

    The Gibbs–Donnan Equilibrium Arises from Unequal Distribution of Imperant Ions

    Changes of Plasma Volume and Composition Transfer to all Fluid Compartments

    Darrow–Yannet Diagrams Depict Fluid Compartment Composition and Volume

    The Kidneys Regulate Body Fluid Volume and Composition by Acting on the Plasma

    Summary

    Review Questions

    7.2. Functional Anatomy of the Kidneys and Overview of Kidney Function

    Function Follows form in Functional Units Called Nephrons

    The Paired Kidneys Have an Enormous Blood Supply and Drain Urine into the Bladder through the Ureters

    Intermediate Level of Kidney Structure Reveals Functional Areas

    The Renal Arteries Arise from the Abdominal Aorta

    The Functional Unit of the Kidney, the Nephron, Participates in all Elementary Renal Processes

    The Nephron Is a Tubule with Functionally and Microscopically Distinct Regions

    The Juxtaglomerular Apparatus Produces Renin

    Nonexcretory Functions of the Kidney

    Summary

    Review Questions

    7.3. Glomerular Filtration

    Morphological Studies First Led to the Idea of Glomerular Filtration

    Micropuncture Studies Showed That the Fluid in Bowman’s Space Is an Ultrafiltrate

    Tubular Reabsorption Explains the Lack of Nutrients in the Final Urine

    Tubular Secretion Adds Material to the Ultrafiltrate

    The Three Elementary Nephron Processes Are Ultrafiltration, Reabsorption, and Secretion

    The Clearance of Inulin Provides an Estimate of the Glomerular Filtration Rate

    The Clearance of Para Amino Hippuric Acid Allows Estimation of Renal Plasma Flow

    The Clearance of a Substance Depends on How It Is Handled by the Kidney

    Glomerular Filtration Is Like a Leaky Hose; about 20% of the Plasma Constituents End Up in the Filtrate

    Multiple Structures Contribute to the Selectivity of the Glomerular Filtrate

    The Endothelial Cell Layer Retains the Cellular Elements of Blood

    The Basement Membrane Excludes Some Proteins

    The Slit Membrane Retains Proteins 70 kDa or Larger

    The Sieving Coefficient Depends Mainly on the Slit Diaphragm

    The Glomerulus Selectively Excludes Proteins Based on Size and Charge

    The Starling Forces Drive Ultrafiltration

    Summary

    Review Questions

    Problem Set 7.1. Fluid Volumes, Glomerular Filtration, and Clearance

    7.4. Tubular Reabsorption and Secretion

    The Filtered Load of Water and Valuable Nutrients Is Enormous

    The Renal Titration Curve of Inulin Is Linear

    The Renal Titration of Glucose Shows Reabsorption and Saturation Kinetics

    Saturation Kinetics and Nephron Heterogeneity Causes Splay

    High Plasma Glucose in Diabetes Mellitus Causes Glucose Excretion

    The Kidneys Help Regulate Plasma Phosphate

    Renal Titration Curve of PAH Shows Secretion

    The Meaning of the Clearance Depends on the Renal Handling

    Endogenous Creatinine Clearance Approximates the GFR

    Plasma Creatinine Concentration Alone Indicates the GFR

    (TF/P)inulin Marks Water Reabsorption

    The Double Ratio (TF/P)x/(TF/P)inulin is the Fraction of the Filtered Load of x Remaining

    Micropuncture Studies Show that the Proximal Tubule Reabsorbs Two-Thirds of the Ultrafiltrate

    The Proximal Convoluted Tubule Contains Many Transport Mechanisms

    Absorption of Water and Salt across the Late Proximal Tubule

    Summary

    Review Questions

    7.5. Mechanism of Concentration and Dilution of Urine

    Life on Dry Land Struggles Against Desiccation

    Control of Urine Concentration Uses an Osmotic Gradient and Regulated Water Permeability

    Tubular Transport Mechanisms Differ Along the Length of the Nephron

    The Vasa Recta Are Counter-Current Exchangers

    Urea Contributes to the Osmotic Gradient in the Inner Medulla

    Transport by the Vasa Recta Is Essential to the Operation of the Loop of Henle

    Increased Solute Loads in the Distal Nephron Produce an Osmotic Diuresis

    ADH Controls Distal Nephron Permeability

    Summary

    Review Questions

    7.6. Regulation of Fluid and Electrolyte Balance

    Regulation of Glomerular Filtration Rate Affects Urine Output

    RBF and GFR Exhibit Autoregulation

    The Nephron Adjusts Reabsorption of Water and Salt to Match Changes in the GFR

    Water Balance in the Body Is Mediated by Antidiuretic Hormone

    ADH Secretion by the Brain Is Increased by Hypovolemia and Hyperosmolarity

    ADH Increases Water Permeability of the Distal Nephron

    The ADH-Renal System Forms Negative Feedback Loops

    Regulation of Na+ Balance Involves the Renin–Angiotensin–Aldosterone System

    Atrial Natriuretic Peptide and Endogenous Digitalis-Like Substance Increases Na+ Excretion in Hypervolemia

    The Integrated Response to Decreased Blood Volume

    Integrated Response to Increased Na+ Load or Volume Expansion

    Summary

    Review Questions

    7.7. Renal Component of Acid–Base Balance

    The Kidneys Eliminate the Acid Produced from Metabolism

    The Body Uses Chemical Buffers, the Respiratory System, and the Renal System to Regulate pH

    Acid Excretion by the Tubule Adjusts Blood pH

    The Kidney Links Acid Secretion to HCO3− Appearance in Plasma

    Secreted Acid Reclaims HCO3− or Combines with Titratable Acid or Ammonium

    Ammonia Does not Show up as Titratable Acid because its pK is too High

    New HCO3− Formed Is the Sum of Titratable Acid and NH4+ Minus the Excreted HCO3−

    Ammonium Originates from Amino Acids in Proximal Tubule Cells

    The Thick Ascending Limb Secretes Acid, Reabsorbs Bicarbonate and Ammonium

    Ion Transport in the Distal Nephron and Collecting Duct Show Reciprocal Relations between K+ and H+ Secretion and HCO3− and Cl− Secretion

    Tubular pH and Cellular Regulate HCO3− Reabsorption and H+ Secretion

    Excretion of NH4+ Increases with Chronic Acidosis

    The Kidneys Compensate for Respiratory Acidosis by Increasing [HCO3−]

    The Kidneys Compensate for Respiratory Alkalosis by Decreasing [HCO3−]

    The Overall Response to Metabolic Acidosis Involves Both Lungs and Kidneys

    The Overall Response to Metabolic Alkalosis Involves Both Lungs and Kidneys

    The Overall Picture

    Summary

    Review Questions

    Problem Set 7.2. Fluid and Electrolyte Balance and Acid–Base Balance

    UNIT 8. Gastrointestinal Physiology

    8.1. Mouth and Esophagus

    The Gastrointestinal System Secures Nutrients for Maintenance, Movement, and Growth

    The Gastrointestinal System Is a Tube Running from Mouth to Anus

    The Gastrointestinal System Propels Material between Defined Areas Demarcated by Sphincters

    The Liver and Pancreas Secrete Materials into the Intestine to Aid Digestion and Absorption

    Chewing Begins Digestion

    Chewing Has Multiple Purposes

    Saliva Moistens, Lubricates, Digests, and Protects

    Salivary Glands Produce an Isotonic Fluid that Is Subsequently Modified

    Saliva Composition Depends on the Flow Rate

    Parasympathetic Stimulation Results in High-Volume, Watery Saliva

    Na+ and Cl− are Reabsorbed in the Salivary Ducts, and K+ and HCO3− are Secreted

    The Salivary Nuclei of the Medulla Control Salivation

    A Swallowing Center in the Medulla Orchestrates Swallowing

    Swallowing Is a Complex Sequence of Events

    Swallowing Consists of a Pharyngeal Phase and an Esophageal Phase

    The Esophagus Contains an Inner Circular Smooth Muscle Layer and an Outer Longitudinal Smooth Muscle Layer

    The Gut Contains Two Ganglionic Plexuses of Nerve Cells, the Body’s “Little Brain”

    The LES Must Relax for Food to Enter the Stomach

    Summary

    Review Questions

    8.2. The Stomach

    The Stomach Stores Food and Releases it Gradually to the Small Intestine

    The Stomach Has Distinct Regions

    Extrinsic and Intrinsic Nerves Control Gastric Motility

    The Orad Stomach Relaxes to Accommodate Large Meals

    Pacemaker Cells along the Greater Curvature Determine Stomach Motility after a Meal

    Gastric Contractions Result in Propulsion, Grinding, or Retropulsion of Stomach Contents

    Stomach and Duodenal Contents Regulate Stomach Emptying

    Nerves and GI Hormones Alter Stomach Emptying

    The Migrating Motility Complex Clears the Stomach and Intestine during Fasting

    The Stomach Secretes HCl, Pepsinogen, Mucus, Gastric Lipase, and Intrinsic Factor

    Acid Secretion Is Regulated in Three Phases: The Cephalic Phase, Gastric Phase, and Intestinal Phase

    The Surface Membrane H+-K+-ATPase, or Proton Pump, Actively Secretes HCl

    Summary

    Review Questions

    8.3. Intestinal and Colonic Motility

    The Small Intestine Consists of Duodenum, Jejunum, and Ileum

    The Small Intestine Modulates Gastric Emptying

    Intrinsic Innervation of the Intestine Consists of the Myenteric Plexus, Submucosal Plexus, and the Interstitial Cells of Cajal

    Extrinsic Innervation of the Gut Arises from Parasympathetic and Sympathetic Nerves

    Slow Wave Activity Forms the Basis of Intestinal Smooth Muscle Contraction

    Intestinal Motility Has Several Different Patterns: Segmentations, Peristalsis, migrating motor complex or migrating myoelectric complex, and Reverse Peristalsis

    The Ileocecal Sphincter Prevents Reflux of Colonic Contents into the Ileum

    The Large Intestine or Colon Has Several Anatomic Regions

    Colonic Motility Shows Several Distinct Patterns

    Local and Extrinsic Nervous Innervation Controls Ileal and Colonic Motility

    Defecation Involves Voluntary and Involuntary Muscles

    Vomiting Removes Potentially Dangerous Material from the Gut

    Vomiting Is a Complicated Programmed Event

    Summary

    Review Questions

    8.4. Pancreatic and Biliary Secretion

    The Exocrine Pancreas Secretes Digestive Enzymes and HCO3−

    The Pancreas Secretes Four Classes of Enzyme

    The Pancreas Secretes Inactive Forms of the Proteolytic Enzymes

    Pancreatic Amylase Breaks Down Starches

    The Pancreas Secretes a Set of Lipolytic Enzymes

    The Pancreas Secretes Nucleolytic Enzymes

    Pancreatic Duct Cells Secrete an Alkaline Solution

    Postprandial Pancreatic Enzyme Secretion Is Regulated in Cephalic, Gastric, and Intestinal Phases

    Secretin Primarily Regulates Pancreatic Duct Secretion

    The Liver Produces Bile and Stores It in the Gallbladder in the Interdigestive Period

    Hepatocytes Are Polarized Cells with Special Access to Plasma

    Bile Consists of Bile Acids, Phospholipids, Cholesterol, Bile Pigments, Mucin, Xenochemicals, and Electrolytes

    The Liver Makes and Recycles Bile Acids as an Integral Part of Biliary Secretion

    The Liver Excretes Xenobiotics (Foreign Biologically Active Chemicals)

    ABCG5 and ABCG8 Secrete Cholesterol into the Bile

    The Gallbladder Stores and Concentrates Bile and Releases It during Digestion

    The Bile Duct Cells Secrete a HCO3−-Rich Solution Much Like Pancreatic Duct Cells

    Summary

    Review Questions

    8.5. Digestion and Absorption of the Macronutrients

    The Intestine Increases Its Surface Area by Folds upon Folds

    The Intestinal Lining Continuously Renews Itself

    Protein Digestion Occurs in a Gastric Phase and an Intestinal Phase

    Specific Carriers Move Amino Acids across the Brush Border and BasoLateral Membranes

    The Intestinal Peptide Transporter Has Broad Specificity and Cotransports H+

    Distinct Carriers Transport Amino Acids across the Basolateral Membrane

    Carbohydrates Are Mainly Digested in the Small Intestine

    Indigestible Carbohydrates Make Up Part of Dietary Fiber

    The Brush Border Completes Starch Digestion

    Glucose, Fructose, and Galactose Absorption is Carrier Mediated

    Lipid Digestion Begins with Emulsification

    Most Lipolytic Activity Occurs in the Small Intestine

    Hydrolysis Products of Lipids Are Absorbed and Then Repackaged into Lipoproteins

    Bile Acids Are Absorbed in the Terminal Ileum

    Summary

    Review Questions

    8.6. Energy Balance and Regulation of Food Intake

    Early Studies on Energy Balance Used Calorimeters

    “The Energy Content of Food” Is Its Heat of Combustion

    Measurement of Energy Expenditure by Indirect Calorimetry

    Indirect Calorimetry and Urinary Nitrogen Allows Estimation of Catabolism of Macronutrients

    Energy Expenditure Consists of Basal Metabolism Plus Activity Increment

    Empirical Formulas for BMR

    Eating Food Increases Metabolism

    Activity Adds the Greatest Increment to Metabolism

    The Body Homeostatically Regulates Its Weight

    The Central Nervous System Regulates Feeding Behavior

    Early Studies Showed That the Hypothalamus Drives Feeding Behavior

    The Simplistic Early View Is Supplanted by a Picture of Multiple Centers and Multiple Signals

    Short-Term Signals Limit the Size of Meals: They Are Satiety Signals

    Long-Term Signals Maintain Body Composition: They Are Adiposity Signals

    Integrated Mechanism of Food Intake Regulation

    Summary

    Review Questions

    Problem Set 8.1. Energy Balance

    UNIT 9. Endocrine Physiology

    9.1. General Principles of Endocrinology

    Endocrine Glands Release Signaling Molecules into the Blood

    Modern Definitions of Hormone Include Local and Distant Effects and Integration of the Endocrine and Neural Systems of Control

    The Neural System Provides Fast, Short-Lived Control; Endocrine Control Is Slower and Longer Lasting

    Hormones Can Be Classified by Their Chemical Structure and Source

    Polypeptide Hormones Are Typically Synthesized as Larger Precursors

    Steroid Hormones Are Metabolized from Cholesterol and Are Not Stored

    Blood Carries Hormones in Either Free or Bound Forms

    Only Target Cells with Receptors to the Hormone Respond to the Hormone

    Dose–Response Curves Derive from the Kinetics of Hormone Binding and Post-Receptor Events

    Dose–Response Curves Can Be “Upregulated” or “Downregulated”

    The Half-Life and Metabolic Clearance Rate Quantitatively Describe Hormone Metabolism

    The MCR Is Inversely Related to the Half-Life

    A Variety of Techniques Can Measure Hormone Levels

    Summary

    Review Questions

    Appendix 9.1.A1 Analysis of Ligand Binding

    9.2. Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland

    The Pituitary Gland Lies Below the Brain and Connects to the Hypothalamus by a Narrow Stalk

    Cells in the Hypothalamus Synthesize ADH and Oxytocin and Secrete them in the Posterior Pituitary

    Oxytocin and ADH are Chains of 9 Amino Acids

    Oxytocin Contracts the Uterus and Myoepithelial Cells of Alveoli Cells in the Breast

    Increased Plasma Osmolarity and Decreased Blood Volume Stimulate ADH Release

    The Hypothalamus Controls Release of Hormones from the Anterior Pituitary

    Multiple Signals Produces Pulsatile Release of GH

    The Complicated GH Secretion Pattern Is Produced by Complicated Neuronal Circuits

    GH Mediates Some of Its Effects Through Increased IGF-I

    Summary

    Review Questions

    9.3. The Thyroid Gland

    The Thyroid Gland Is One of the Largest Endrocrine Glands

    The Thyroid Gland Consists of Thousands of Follicles that Store Thyroglobulin

    The Thyroid Follicle Secretes Thyroxine and Triiodothyronine

    Follicular Cells Secrete Thyroglobulin Precursor into the Follicle

    Synthesis of Thyroxine Requires Four Steps

    Follicular Cells Proteolyze Thyroglobulin to Release T4 and T3

    TSH Regulates State of the Thyroid Gland

    The Hypothalamus Partly Controls TSH Release

    T4 and T3 Inhibit Secretion of TSH

    Almost all Circulating T4 and T3 Are Bound to Plasma Proteins

    The Tissues Metabolize T4 to T3 and rT3; T3 is the Active Metabolite

    T3 Alters Gene Expression

    Thyroid Hormone Plays A Crucial Role in Growth and Development and in General Metabolism

    Hypothyroidism Refers to Reduced Circulating Levels of T4 and T3

    The Clinical Symptoms of Hypothyroidism Are Manifold

    The Most Important Clinical Abnormality of Hyperthyroidism is Graves’ Disease

    Summary

    Review Questions

    9.4. The Endocrine Pancreas and Control of Blood Glucose

    The Pancreas Has Both Exocrine and Endocrine Functions

    β Cells Synthesize Insulin as a Prohormone and Secrete Insulin and C peptide 1:1

    High Plasma Glucose Stimulates Insulin Secretion

    Glucagon, GLP-1, and GIP Stimulate Insulin Secretion; Somatostatin Inhibits it

    Parasympathetic Stimulation Increases Insulin Secretion; Sympathetic Stimulation Inhibits It

    Amino Acids Stimulate Insulin Secretion

    Sulfonylureas Close the KATP Channel and Thereby Increase Insulin Secretion

    Insulin Release Is Pulsatile

    Insulin Phosphorylates Insulin Receptor Substrates via a Tyrosine Kinase

    Low Glucose Stimulates Glucagon Release from α Cells in the Islets of Langerhans

    Glucagon Stimulates Liver Glycogenolysis through a Gs and Gq Mechanism

    Blood Glucose Is Maintained Between 70 and 110 mg% in the Face of Constant Depletion

    Plasma Glucose Concentrations Are Maintained by Absorption, Glycogenolysis, and Gluconeogenesis

    Multiple Hormones and Nerves Control Glucose Flux

    Exercise Has an Insulin-Like Effect

    Summary

    Review Questions

    9.5. The Adrenal Cortex

    The Adrenal Glands Lie Atop the Kidneys, Are Richly Vascularized, and Secrete Many Hormones

    Steroid Hormones Derive from Cholesterol

    The Pituitary–Hypothalamus Axis Controls Adrenal Function through ACTH

    ACTH Increases Adrenal Cortical Steroid Secretion

    Cortisol Binding Protein Carries Glucocorticoids in Blood

    Cortisol Affects Target Cells through Regulation of Transcription

    Cortisol Affects Many Body Functions

    The Zona Glomerulosa Makes Aldosterone in Response to Angiotensin II, ACTH and K+

    Angiotensin II Exerts Multiple Effects

    Aldosterone Increases Na+ Reabsorption and K+ Secretion by Genomic and Nongenomic Mechanisms

    Summary

    Review Questions

    9.6. The Adrenal Medulla and Integration of Metabolic Control

    The Adrenal Medulla Is Part of the Sympathetic Nervous System

    Epinephrine Derives from Tyrosine

    Catecholamines Are Released in Response to Sympathetic Stimulation

    Catecholamines Are Degraded Rapidly

    Actions of Catecholamines Are Mediated by Adrenergic Receptor Types

    The Effects of Catecholamines Are to Prepare the Body for “Fight or Flight”

    Integration of Metabolic Control

    Summary

    Review Questions

    9.7. Calcium and Phosphorus Homeostasis I

    Calcium Homeostasis Is Required for Health

    About Half of Plasma Calcium Is Free: The Other Half Is Complexed or Bound to Plasma Proteins

    Failure to Regulate Plasma [Ca2+] Causes System Malfunction

    Plasma Ca2+ Homeostasis Results from a Balance of Sources and Sinks

    Plasma Ca2+ Homeostasis Is Linked to P homeostasis

    Plasma Pi Is Present in Multiple Ionized Forms

    Plasma [Pi] Is Set by a Balance Between Sources and Sinks

    Overall Ca2+ and Pi Homeostasis Is Controlled by Three Hormones Acting on Three Target Tissues

    Hypocalcemia Stimulates PTH Secretion

    PTH Secretion Is an Example of Derivative Control

    PTH Is Destroyed Rapidly After Secretion

    PTH Defends Against Hypocalcemia by Actions on Bone and Kidney

    CT Is Secreted in Response to Hypercalcemia and Gastrointestinal Hormones

    CT Tends to Lower Plasma [Ca2+]

    “Vitamin D” Is a Hormone, not a Vitamin, Synthesized in the Skin

    Vitamin D Does not Fit Standard Definitions of Either Vitamin or Hormone

    The Liver Activates Vitamin D by 25-Hydroxylation: The Kidney Activates It by 1-Hydroxylation

    Vitamin D Inactivation Begins with 24-Hydroxylation

    PTH Controls Metabolism of Vitamin D

    Vitamin D Has Two Forms of Equal Potency in Humans

    25(OH)2-D Is the Major Circulating Form of Vitamin D

    Vitamin D Maintains Conditions for Bone Mineralization

    Summary

    Review Questions

    9.8. Calcium and Phosphorus Homeostasis II

    The Skeleton Gives Us Form and Support

    Osteoblasts Are Surface Cells That Lay Down the Organic Matrix of Bone

    Osteocytes are Embedded Deep within Bone

    Osteoclasts Destroy the Organic Matrix of Bone and Release Both Ca2+ and Pi

    Bone Is Constantly Being Remodeled

    Osteoblasts Make Osteoid and Signal Bone Resorption

    Osteoclasts Resorb Bone

    Calcitonin Shuts Off Osteoclast Resorption

    Summary of Hormone Effects on Bone

    Only 1,25(OH)2-D Directly Affects Intestinal Ca2+ and Pi Absorption

    The Intestine Adapts to Diets Containing Differing Amounts of Ca2+ and Pi

    Regulation of Urinary Excretion of Ca2+ and Pi Is Achieved in the Distal Nephron

    The “Goals” of PTH, CT, and Vitamin D Are Distinct

    Integrated Control of Plasma [Ca2+] and Pi Involves Multiple Negative Feedback Loops

    Summary

    Review Questions

    9.9. Female Reproductive Physiology

    Sexual Reproduction Costs a Lot but it is Worth the Price

    The Anatomy of the Female Reproductive Tract

    Overiew of Female Reproductive Function

    Oogenesis Begins in the Fetus

    Puberty Initiates Ovulation and Development of Secondary Sex Characteristics

    LH and FSH Drive the Menstrual Cycle

    Overview of Follicular Development

    Cellular Aspects of Follicular Development

    Ovarian Steroidogenesis Requires Two Cell Types and Two Hormones

    Central Hormonal Control of the Menstrual Cycle

    LH and FSH Surge Induces Ovulation

    After Ovulation, the Follicle Forms the Corpus Luteum

    Summary

    Review Questions

    9.10. Male Reproductive Physiology

    Somatic Cells Divide by Mitosis; Germ Cells Divide by Meiosis

    Mitosis Produces Two Daughter Cells with the Same DNA Content as the Original Cell

    Meiosis Divides the Parent Genome in Half—But Crossing-Over Diversifies the Result

    Reassortment of Genetic Material Arises from Two Sources: Independence of Homologous Chromosome Sorting and Crossing-Over

    Testicles Produce Sperm and Testosterone

    The Hypothalamus and Anterior Pituitary Control Testicular Function

    Both LH and FSH Control Testicular Function

    The Male Sexual Response

    Summary

    Review Questions

    Problem Set 9.1. Ligand Binding

    APPENDIX I. Important Equations

    APPENDIX II. Important Physical Constants for Physiology

    Glossary

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 920
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2012
  • Published: February 7, 2012
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123821645

About the Author

Joseph Feher

Dr. Feher is Professor Emeritus of Physiology and Biophysics at Virginia Commonwealth University. He received his Ph.D. from Cornell University, and has research interests in the quantitative understanding of the mechanisms of calcium uptake and release by the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum, in the mechanisms of calcium transport across the intestine, and in muscle contraction and relaxation. Dr. Feher developed a course in Introductory Quantitative Physiology at VCU and has been course coordinator for more than a decade. He also teaches muscle and cell physiology to medical and graduate students and is course coordinator for the Graduate Physiology survey course in physiology given at VCU’s School of Medicine.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA

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