Psychology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780434985289, 9781483106304

Psychology

1st Edition

Made Simple

Editors: Kenneth Martin
Authors: Abraham P. Sperling
eBook ISBN: 9781483106304
Imprint: Made Simple
Published Date: 31st August 1982
Page Count: 300
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Description

Psychology: Made Simple covers the development of psychology over the years and the basic psychological knowledge.
The book describes the scientific approach to the study of the human nature, the physiological aspects of psychology, perception, and the processes of learning. The text also discusses John Dewey’s analysis of reasoning; creativity, logic, critical thinking, and divergent and convergent thinking; the nature of thinking; and the relationship between thinking and language. The process of remembering; intelligence and aptitudes and tests used to measure both; the basis of individual differences; and the psychology of infancy, childhood, and adolescence are also considered.
The book tackles the theories of emotions and personality development, the role of motivation in personality development; personality adjustment and maladjustment; and the neurotic and abnormal personalities. Issues in social psychology are considered as well.
Students taking psychology, social sciences and education will find the book invaluable.

Table of Contents


1 A Scientific Approach to the Study of Human Nature

Why Men Study Human Nature

Sources of Knowledge about Human Nature

Proverbs, Myths, and Generalizations

Literature and Other Arts

Personal Experience

Scientific Method

Cause and Correlation

The Search for Causes

Sciences of Human Nature

Scientific Methods in Psychology

Statistical Descriptions

The Normal Distribution Curve

Objective Observation

Objectivity and Subjectivity

Hypnosis and the Unconscious Mind

The Era Before Scientific Psychology

Some Schools of Psychology

The Structuralists

The Functionalists

The Psychoanalysts

The Behaviorists

The Gestaltists

Contemporary Psychology

Table I. Historically Important Schools of Psychology

The Plan of This Book

Suggested Further Reading

2 Sensation and Perception

The Sense of Sight

How We See

How We See Colors

Color Blindness

Light and Dark Adaptations

Night Vision and the Purkinje Phenomenon

Night Blindness

The Blind Spot

After-images

Eye Movements and Reading Efficiency

Types of Eye Movements

Eye Movements in Reading

Reading Improvement

The Sense of Hearing

How We Hear

Theories of Hearing

What We Hear

Our Range of Hearing

Age and Hearing Loss

Acuity of Hearing in infants and Children

The 'Sixth Sense' or 'Facial Vision' of the Blind

Our Sense of Taste and Smell

Taste Receptors

The Basic Taste Sensations

Mingling of Sense Responses

Changing Tastes

Smell

Classifying Smells

Smell Capacities of Children

Smell Adaptability

The Feeling Senses

Sensations of Hot and Cold

The Sensitive Areas of the Skin

Pain Sensation

Sense of Balance

Sense of Muscle Co-ordination

Visceral Senses

Suggested Further Reading

3 Perception

Perception versus Sensation

Sensation Without Perception

How We Perceive

The Gestalt Concept of Perception

Perception and the Nature of the Stimulus

Similarity

Proximity

Continuity

Closure

Perception and the Background or Setting of the Stimulus

Fluctuations of Perception

Perception of Relationships

Perception in Terms of Previous Related Experience

Reaction to Cues and Symbols

Illusions

Illusion of Length

Illusion of Area

Illusion of Distortion

Illusion of Direction

The Illusion in Cinema Pictures

Perception and Personal Feelings, Attitudes, Drives, etc.

Perception and Emotion

Effects of Enthusiasm on Perception

Perceptual Distortions Due to Strong Drives

Perception and Suggestion

Sensory Deprivation

Perception and Adjustment

Suggested Further Reading

4 Learning

How We Respond to Stimuli

The Prevalence of Learning

How Animals Solve Problems

Trial-and-Error Thinking

How Animals Remember Solutions to Problems

Reinforcing a Desired Response

Conditioning

Generalization and Differentiation

Extinction and Reconditioning

Operant Learning

The Gestalt Approach to Learning

Do Animals Form Concepts?

Animal and Human Learning Compared

Suggested Further Reading

5 Thinking

Trial-and-Error Thinking

Insight, the 'AHA!' Experience

Trial-and-Error, insight, and Reasoning

Yerhes' Multiple-Choice Experiment

Table II. A Multiple-Choice Experiment

How We Form Concepts

John Dewey's Analysis of Reasoning

Creativity, the Third Stage of Reasoning

A Check-list of Questions for Problem-Solvers

Logic, the Fourth Stage of Reasoning

Verification

Convergent and Divergent Thinking

The Nature of Thinking

Thinking and Language

Suggested Further Reading

6 Remembering

Four Kinds of Remembering

Memory versus Habit

The Laws of Learning

Human Conditioning

Ebbinghaus's Experiments on Memorizing

Distributed Practice is More Effective than Massed Practice

Whole Learning is Usually Better than Part Learning

Search for Meaning

The Value of Reciting

Instruction

Motives

Imitation

Knowledge of Results

Reward and Punishment

The Effect of Punishment on Learning

Habit Formation and Control

A Typical Learning Curve

Remembering in Images

Retaining What Has Been Acquired

Why Do We Forget?

Inhibition and Transfer of Learning

Suggested Further Reading

7 intelligence and Aptitudes

The Meaning of intelligence

Measuring General intelligence

The British Ability Scales

Mental Maturity

Mental Age

The intelligence Quotient, or 'I.Q.'

Intelligence Levels

The intellectually Gifted

Helping the Gifted Child

Some False Beliefs about Great intellect

Can I.Q. Change?

Qualities of a Good Test

Using intelligence Test Results

Aptitude Testing

Group Factor Tests

Scoring Aptitude Tests

Conclusion

Suggested Further Reading

8 Heredity and Environment

The Basis of individual Differences

Limitation By Species

Rearing a Boy With a Monkey

Heredity

What is Heredity?

The Mechanics of Heredity in Reproduction

The Role of the Genes

How Two Sexes Produce Variation

The Laws of Heredity

Dominant versus Recessive Traits

Dominance and Recessiveness of Human Traits

inheritance of Unit Characters

Blending of Traits

Sex-Linked inheritance

Eugenics

Heredity versus Environment

Can inherited Traits Be Changed?

Inheritance of Physical Traits versus Environmental

Influences

Inherited Taste Abilities

Inherited Smell Differences

Stature Differences

Nature and Nurture of internal Organs

Is Musical Aptitude inherited?

The Origin of Musical Genius

Is Athletic Genius inherited?

Inheritance of Great Artistic, Mathematical and Literary

Talent

No Greatness Without industriousness

Influences on Temperament

Is intelligence inherited or Developed?

Summary of Views on Heredity versus Environmental influences

Suggested Further Reading

9 The Psychology of infancy

Prenatal Life

Prenatal Learning

The Birth Experience

Reflex Acts

Maturation

Table III. Stages of Motor Development

Talking

Toilet Training

Feeding

Thumbsucking

The Importance of Play

Masturbation

The Child's Morality

The Child's Understanding

The Development of the Self

The Psychological Effect of a Name

The Desire for Love and Esteem

Freudian Theory about infant Development

Questions about Life and Sex

Emotional Growth

Acceptance by Parents

Dominance by Parents

The Effects of Deprivation

Frustration of the Drives for independence

Suggested Further Reading

10 The Psychology of Childhood

Early Social Behavior

Childhood Jealousy

Stuttering and Stammering

The Young Child's Morality

The Child's Conscience

Play

Real and Imaginary Companions

Psychological Importance of Toys and Games

Learning in School

The Mental Development of the Child

The Gang Age

The Gang Leader

Psychological Effect of the Gang

Competition and Co-operation

The Reason for the Gang

The Older Child's Morality

Suggested Further Reading

11 Psychology of Adolescence

How Adolescence is Studied

Adolescent Phases

Puberty

Table IV. Ages of Sexual Maturation

Sexual Maturity in Boys

Table V. Percentage of Each Age Group First Experiencing Certain Sexual Characteristics

Sexual Maturity in Girls

Adolescent Problems

Adolescent Masturbation

Becoming independent of the Family

Attaining Emotional Maturity

Social Maturity

Economic independence

Table VI. Social Growth

intellectual Adulthood

intellectual Development

A Mature Philosophy of Life

Suggested Further Reading

12 Motions and Personality Development

Emotional Feelings

Other Aspects of Emotion

Theories of Emotion

William James's instinct Theory of Emotion

Are Emotions inborn or Learned?

inborn Emotional Responses

Reflex Responses

The Crying Reflex

The Startle Response

Are Facial Expressions inborn?

Facial Expression in Emotion

Judging Emotion By Behavior

internal Changes in Emotion

The 'Lie Detector'

Identity of Fear and Rage

Cannon's 'Emergency' Theory

The Anatomy of Emotion

Antagonism of the Nerves

The James-Lange Theory of Emotions

Refuting the James-Lange Theory

The Brain and Emotion

Affectivity

The Affective Tone

Development of the Emotional Pattern

The Role of Stimuli in Producing Emotion

Emotional Habits in Everyday Life

Conditioned Prejudices

The Multiplication of Feelings

Wundt's Three Dimensions of Feeling

The Differentiation of Behavior

Emotions and Disease

Eliminating Emotions

Controlling Emotions

Some Rules for Controlling Emotion

Suggested Further Reading

13 Personality

Kinds of Traits

The Choice of Traits to Measure

The Traits of Honesty

Situation Tests of Personality

Projective Tests of Personality

Tests of Attitudes

Rating Scales

Extraversion and introversion

The Primary Dimensions of Personality

Table VII. Twelve Primary Dimensions of Personality

Classifying Personalities

The Personality Profile

Personality and Physique

Kretschmer's Critics

Sheldon's Three Extremes

Other Physical Traits

The Four Humors

The Theory of H. J. Eysenck

Endocrinology

Other Endocrine Glands

The Thyroid Gland

The Gonads

The Pituitary Gland

Endocrines and Personality

Typing Personality by Glandular Function

Criticism of Glandular Typing

Suggested Further Reading

14 Motivation and Personality

Drives or Basic Needs

Learning and Adjustment

Other Basic Drives

Positive Motives

The Need for Sleep

What Causes Sleep?

Motives and Emotions

The Social Motives

Social Motives versus instinct

The Development of Social Motives

The Mastery Motive

The Social Approval Motive

Other Social Motives

The Sexual Motives

Habits as Motives

Social Facilitation

Mob Psychology

Higher Motives and Conscience

Choosing Between Alternative Acts

Measuring Motives

The Rank of Motives

Other Factors in Choices

Fallacies about 'Will Power'

The Will and Voluntary Efforts

Suggested Further Reading

15 Personality Adjustment and Maladjustment

Mechanisms of Adjustment

Mature and Immature Adjustment Mechanisms

Infantile Adjustment Mechanisms

Anxiety

Forms of Dependence

Childish Mechanisms of Adjustment

Approach

Aggression

Withdrawal

Childish Reactions to the Fact of Failure

Childish Reactions to Personal inadequacy

Compensation

Childish Reactions to Thwarted Motives

Dreaming

Some Facts about Dreams

Fiction and Fantasy

Inhibited Reactions to Motives

The Good Adjustment

The Mechanisms of Mature Adjustment

Security and Confidence

Improving One's Own Adjustment

Suggested Further Reading

16 Neurotic Personality

Anxiety

The Causes of Anxiety

Detecting Repressed Stimuli

Typical Repressed Material

The School of Freud

The Failure of Repression

Phobias

Obsessions

Compulsions

The Compulsive Personality

Kleptomania and Other Manias

Dissociated Personalities

Somnambulism, or Sleep-walking

Fugue, or Flight

Amnesia, or Loss of Identity

Double Personality

Hysteria

Neurasthenia

Psychosomatic Medicine

The Meaning of Neurosis

Traumatic Neuroses

Methods of Psychotherapy

Systematic Desensitization

Aversion Therapy

Operant Conditioning

Suggested Further Reading

17 Abnormal Personality

Delinquent Personalities

Psychopathic Personality

Psychosis and insanity

Psychosis and Neurosis

Hallucinations

Delusions

Disordered Emotions

The Kinds of Psychoses

The Organic Psychoses

General Paresis

Alcoholic Reactions

The Problem Drinker

The Pre-Alcoholic Stage

Early-Stage Alcoholism

Late-Stage Alcoholism

Helping the Problem Drinker

Senile Dementia

Symptoms of Organic Psychoses

Functional Psychoses

Psychotic Depression

Involutional Melancholia

The Male Climacteric

Manic-Depressive Psychosis

Psychotic Mania

Schizophrenia

Simple Schizophrenia

Acute Schizophrenic Panic

Catatonic Schizophrenia

Hebephrenic Schizophrenia

Paranoid Schizophrenics

Paranoid States

Paranoia

The Treatment of Psychotics

Three Trends in Treatment

The Tranquillizing Drugs

Suggested Further Reading

18 Issues in Social Psychology

Where do Our Attitudes Come From?

What Functions do Attitudes Serve?

The Adjustive Function

The Ego-defensive Function

The Value-expressive Function

The Knowledge Function

Measuring Attitudes

Can Attitudes be Changed?

Explanations of Attitude Change

Attitudes and Behavior

The Roles we Play also influence our Attitudes and Behavior

Prejudice—A Particular Kind of Attitude

Several Terms Relate to the Concept of Prejudice

Discrimination

Stereotyping

Explanations of Prejudice

Syndrome Theories

Authoritarian Personality Explanations of Prejudice

Group Level Explanations

Can Prejudice be Changed?

General Effects of Group Pressure—The Conformity Issue

Concluding Comments

Suggested Further Reading

Glossary

Index




Details

No. of pages:
300
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Made Simple 1989
Published:
Imprint:
Made Simple
eBook ISBN:
9781483106304

About the Editor

Kenneth Martin

About the Author

Abraham P. Sperling