Psychology

Psychology

Made Simple

1st Edition - August 31, 1982

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  • Editor: Kenneth Martin
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483106304

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Description

Psychology: Made Simple covers the development of psychology over the years and the basic psychological knowledge. The book describes the scientific approach to the study of the human nature, the physiological aspects of psychology, perception, and the processes of learning. The text also discusses John Dewey’s analysis of reasoning; creativity, logic, critical thinking, and divergent and convergent thinking; the nature of thinking; and the relationship between thinking and language. The process of remembering; intelligence and aptitudes and tests used to measure both; the basis of individual differences; and the psychology of infancy, childhood, and adolescence are also considered. The book tackles the theories of emotions and personality development, the role of motivation in personality development; personality adjustment and maladjustment; and the neurotic and abnormal personalities. Issues in social psychology are considered as well. Students taking psychology, social sciences and education will find the book invaluable.

Table of Contents


  • 1 A Scientific Approach to the Study of Human Nature

    Why Men Study Human Nature

    Sources of Knowledge about Human Nature

    Proverbs, Myths, and Generalizations

    Literature and Other Arts

    Personal Experience

    Scientific Method

    Cause and Correlation

    The Search for Causes

    Sciences of Human Nature

    Scientific Methods in Psychology

    Statistical Descriptions

    The Normal Distribution Curve

    Objective Observation

    Objectivity and Subjectivity

    Hypnosis and the Unconscious Mind

    The Era Before Scientific Psychology

    Some Schools of Psychology

    The Structuralists

    The Functionalists

    The Psychoanalysts

    The Behaviorists

    The Gestaltists

    Contemporary Psychology

    Table I. Historically Important Schools of Psychology

    The Plan of This Book

    Suggested Further Reading

    2 Sensation and Perception

    The Sense of Sight

    How We See

    How We See Colors

    Color Blindness

    Light and Dark Adaptations

    Night Vision and the Purkinje Phenomenon

    Night Blindness

    The Blind Spot

    After-images

    Eye Movements and Reading Efficiency

    Types of Eye Movements

    Eye Movements in Reading

    Reading Improvement

    The Sense of Hearing

    How We Hear

    Theories of Hearing

    What We Hear

    Our Range of Hearing

    Age and Hearing Loss

    Acuity of Hearing in infants and Children

    The 'Sixth Sense' or 'Facial Vision' of the Blind

    Our Sense of Taste and Smell

    Taste Receptors

    The Basic Taste Sensations

    Mingling of Sense Responses

    Changing Tastes

    Smell

    Classifying Smells

    Smell Capacities of Children

    Smell Adaptability

    The Feeling Senses

    Sensations of Hot and Cold

    The Sensitive Areas of the Skin

    Pain Sensation

    Sense of Balance

    Sense of Muscle Co-ordination

    Visceral Senses

    Suggested Further Reading

    3 Perception

    Perception versus Sensation

    Sensation Without Perception

    How We Perceive

    The Gestalt Concept of Perception

    Perception and the Nature of the Stimulus

    Similarity

    Proximity

    Continuity

    Closure

    Perception and the Background or Setting of the Stimulus

    Fluctuations of Perception

    Perception of Relationships

    Perception in Terms of Previous Related Experience

    Reaction to Cues and Symbols

    Illusions

    Illusion of Length

    Illusion of Area

    Illusion of Distortion

    Illusion of Direction

    The Illusion in Cinema Pictures

    Perception and Personal Feelings, Attitudes, Drives, etc.

    Perception and Emotion

    Effects of Enthusiasm on Perception

    Perceptual Distortions Due to Strong Drives

    Perception and Suggestion

    Sensory Deprivation

    Perception and Adjustment

    Suggested Further Reading

    4 Learning

    How We Respond to Stimuli

    The Prevalence of Learning

    How Animals Solve Problems

    Trial-and-Error Thinking

    How Animals Remember Solutions to Problems

    Reinforcing a Desired Response

    Conditioning

    Generalization and Differentiation

    Extinction and Reconditioning

    Operant Learning

    The Gestalt Approach to Learning

    Do Animals Form Concepts?

    Animal and Human Learning Compared

    Suggested Further Reading

    5 Thinking

    Trial-and-Error Thinking

    Insight, the 'AHA!' Experience

    Trial-and-Error, insight, and Reasoning

    Yerhes' Multiple-Choice Experiment

    Table II. A Multiple-Choice Experiment

    How We Form Concepts

    John Dewey's Analysis of Reasoning

    Creativity, the Third Stage of Reasoning

    A Check-list of Questions for Problem-Solvers

    Logic, the Fourth Stage of Reasoning

    Verification

    Convergent and Divergent Thinking

    The Nature of Thinking

    Thinking and Language

    Suggested Further Reading

    6 Remembering

    Four Kinds of Remembering

    Memory versus Habit

    The Laws of Learning

    Human Conditioning

    Ebbinghaus's Experiments on Memorizing

    Distributed Practice is More Effective than Massed Practice

    Whole Learning is Usually Better than Part Learning

    Search for Meaning

    The Value of Reciting

    Instruction

    Motives

    Imitation

    Knowledge of Results

    Reward and Punishment

    The Effect of Punishment on Learning

    Habit Formation and Control

    A Typical Learning Curve

    Remembering in Images

    Retaining What Has Been Acquired

    Why Do We Forget?

    Inhibition and Transfer of Learning

    Suggested Further Reading

    7 intelligence and Aptitudes

    The Meaning of intelligence

    Measuring General intelligence

    The British Ability Scales

    Mental Maturity

    Mental Age

    The intelligence Quotient, or 'I.Q.'

    Intelligence Levels

    The intellectually Gifted

    Helping the Gifted Child

    Some False Beliefs about Great intellect

    Can I.Q. Change?

    Qualities of a Good Test

    Using intelligence Test Results

    Aptitude Testing

    Group Factor Tests

    Scoring Aptitude Tests

    Conclusion

    Suggested Further Reading

    8 Heredity and Environment

    The Basis of individual Differences

    Limitation By Species

    Rearing a Boy With a Monkey

    Heredity

    What is Heredity?

    The Mechanics of Heredity in Reproduction

    The Role of the Genes

    How Two Sexes Produce Variation

    The Laws of Heredity

    Dominant versus Recessive Traits

    Dominance and Recessiveness of Human Traits

    inheritance of Unit Characters

    Blending of Traits

    Sex-Linked inheritance

    Eugenics

    Heredity versus Environment

    Can inherited Traits Be Changed?

    Inheritance of Physical Traits versus Environmental

    Influences

    Inherited Taste Abilities

    Inherited Smell Differences

    Stature Differences

    Nature and Nurture of internal Organs

    Is Musical Aptitude inherited?

    The Origin of Musical Genius

    Is Athletic Genius inherited?

    Inheritance of Great Artistic, Mathematical and Literary

    Talent

    No Greatness Without industriousness

    Influences on Temperament

    Is intelligence inherited or Developed?

    Summary of Views on Heredity versus Environmental influences

    Suggested Further Reading

    9 The Psychology of infancy

    Prenatal Life

    Prenatal Learning

    The Birth Experience

    Reflex Acts

    Maturation

    Table III. Stages of Motor Development

    Talking

    Toilet Training

    Feeding

    Thumbsucking

    The Importance of Play

    Masturbation

    The Child's Morality

    The Child's Understanding

    The Development of the Self

    The Psychological Effect of a Name

    The Desire for Love and Esteem

    Freudian Theory about infant Development

    Questions about Life and Sex

    Emotional Growth

    Acceptance by Parents

    Dominance by Parents

    The Effects of Deprivation

    Frustration of the Drives for independence

    Suggested Further Reading

    10 The Psychology of Childhood

    Early Social Behavior

    Childhood Jealousy

    Stuttering and Stammering

    The Young Child's Morality

    The Child's Conscience

    Play

    Real and Imaginary Companions

    Psychological Importance of Toys and Games

    Learning in School

    The Mental Development of the Child

    The Gang Age

    The Gang Leader

    Psychological Effect of the Gang

    Competition and Co-operation

    The Reason for the Gang

    The Older Child's Morality

    Suggested Further Reading

    11 Psychology of Adolescence

    How Adolescence is Studied

    Adolescent Phases

    Puberty

    Table IV. Ages of Sexual Maturation

    Sexual Maturity in Boys

    Table V. Percentage of Each Age Group First Experiencing Certain Sexual Characteristics

    Sexual Maturity in Girls

    Adolescent Problems

    Adolescent Masturbation

    Becoming independent of the Family

    Attaining Emotional Maturity

    Social Maturity

    Economic independence

    Table VI. Social Growth

    intellectual Adulthood

    intellectual Development

    A Mature Philosophy of Life

    Suggested Further Reading

    12 Motions and Personality Development

    Emotional Feelings

    Other Aspects of Emotion

    Theories of Emotion

    William James's instinct Theory of Emotion

    Are Emotions inborn or Learned?

    inborn Emotional Responses

    Reflex Responses

    The Crying Reflex

    The Startle Response

    Are Facial Expressions inborn?

    Facial Expression in Emotion

    Judging Emotion By Behavior

    internal Changes in Emotion

    The 'Lie Detector'

    Identity of Fear and Rage

    Cannon's 'Emergency' Theory

    The Anatomy of Emotion

    Antagonism of the Nerves

    The James-Lange Theory of Emotions

    Refuting the James-Lange Theory

    The Brain and Emotion

    Affectivity

    The Affective Tone

    Development of the Emotional Pattern

    The Role of Stimuli in Producing Emotion

    Emotional Habits in Everyday Life

    Conditioned Prejudices

    The Multiplication of Feelings

    Wundt's Three Dimensions of Feeling

    The Differentiation of Behavior

    Emotions and Disease

    Eliminating Emotions

    Controlling Emotions

    Some Rules for Controlling Emotion

    Suggested Further Reading

    13 Personality

    Kinds of Traits

    The Choice of Traits to Measure

    The Traits of Honesty

    Situation Tests of Personality

    Projective Tests of Personality

    Tests of Attitudes

    Rating Scales

    Extraversion and introversion

    The Primary Dimensions of Personality

    Table VII. Twelve Primary Dimensions of Personality

    Classifying Personalities

    The Personality Profile

    Personality and Physique

    Kretschmer's Critics

    Sheldon's Three Extremes

    Other Physical Traits

    The Four Humors

    The Theory of H. J. Eysenck

    Endocrinology

    Other Endocrine Glands

    The Thyroid Gland

    The Gonads

    The Pituitary Gland

    Endocrines and Personality

    Typing Personality by Glandular Function

    Criticism of Glandular Typing

    Suggested Further Reading

    14 Motivation and Personality

    Drives or Basic Needs

    Learning and Adjustment

    Other Basic Drives

    Positive Motives

    The Need for Sleep

    What Causes Sleep?

    Motives and Emotions

    The Social Motives

    Social Motives versus instinct

    The Development of Social Motives

    The Mastery Motive

    The Social Approval Motive

    Other Social Motives

    The Sexual Motives

    Habits as Motives

    Social Facilitation

    Mob Psychology

    Higher Motives and Conscience

    Choosing Between Alternative Acts

    Measuring Motives

    The Rank of Motives

    Other Factors in Choices

    Fallacies about 'Will Power'

    The Will and Voluntary Efforts

    Suggested Further Reading

    15 Personality Adjustment and Maladjustment

    Mechanisms of Adjustment

    Mature and Immature Adjustment Mechanisms

    Infantile Adjustment Mechanisms

    Anxiety

    Forms of Dependence

    Childish Mechanisms of Adjustment

    Approach

    Aggression

    Withdrawal

    Childish Reactions to the Fact of Failure

    Childish Reactions to Personal inadequacy

    Compensation

    Childish Reactions to Thwarted Motives

    Dreaming

    Some Facts about Dreams

    Fiction and Fantasy

    Inhibited Reactions to Motives

    The Good Adjustment

    The Mechanisms of Mature Adjustment

    Security and Confidence

    Improving One's Own Adjustment

    Suggested Further Reading

    16 Neurotic Personality

    Anxiety

    The Causes of Anxiety

    Detecting Repressed Stimuli

    Typical Repressed Material

    The School of Freud

    The Failure of Repression

    Phobias

    Obsessions

    Compulsions

    The Compulsive Personality

    Kleptomania and Other Manias

    Dissociated Personalities

    Somnambulism, or Sleep-walking

    Fugue, or Flight

    Amnesia, or Loss of Identity

    Double Personality

    Hysteria

    Neurasthenia

    Psychosomatic Medicine

    The Meaning of Neurosis

    Traumatic Neuroses

    Methods of Psychotherapy

    Systematic Desensitization

    Aversion Therapy

    Operant Conditioning

    Suggested Further Reading

    17 Abnormal Personality

    Delinquent Personalities

    Psychopathic Personality

    Psychosis and insanity

    Psychosis and Neurosis

    Hallucinations

    Delusions

    Disordered Emotions

    The Kinds of Psychoses

    The Organic Psychoses

    General Paresis

    Alcoholic Reactions

    The Problem Drinker

    The Pre-Alcoholic Stage

    Early-Stage Alcoholism

    Late-Stage Alcoholism

    Helping the Problem Drinker

    Senile Dementia

    Symptoms of Organic Psychoses

    Functional Psychoses

    Psychotic Depression

    Involutional Melancholia

    The Male Climacteric

    Manic-Depressive Psychosis

    Psychotic Mania

    Schizophrenia

    Simple Schizophrenia

    Acute Schizophrenic Panic

    Catatonic Schizophrenia

    Hebephrenic Schizophrenia

    Paranoid Schizophrenics

    Paranoid States

    Paranoia

    The Treatment of Psychotics

    Three Trends in Treatment

    The Tranquillizing Drugs

    Suggested Further Reading

    18 Issues in Social Psychology

    Where do Our Attitudes Come From?

    What Functions do Attitudes Serve?

    The Adjustive Function

    The Ego-defensive Function

    The Value-expressive Function

    The Knowledge Function

    Measuring Attitudes

    Can Attitudes be Changed?

    Explanations of Attitude Change

    Attitudes and Behavior

    The Roles we Play also influence our Attitudes and Behavior

    Prejudice—A Particular Kind of Attitude

    Several Terms Relate to the Concept of Prejudice

    Discrimination

    Stereotyping

    Explanations of Prejudice

    Syndrome Theories

    Authoritarian Personality Explanations of Prejudice

    Group Level Explanations

    Can Prejudice be Changed?

    General Effects of Group Pressure—The Conformity Issue

    Concluding Comments

    Suggested Further Reading

    Glossary

    Index




Product details

  • No. of pages: 300
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Made Simple 1982
  • Published: August 31, 1982
  • Imprint: Made Simple
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483106304

About the Editor

Kenneth Martin

About the Author

Abraham P. Sperling

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