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Protein and Amino acid nutrition - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123956835, 9780323144452

Protein and Amino acid nutrition

1st Edition

Editor: Anthony Albanese
eBook ISBN: 9780323144452
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1959
Page Count: 616
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Protein and Amino Acid Nutrition describes the state of knowledge concerning the nutrition of proteins and amino acids. Topics range from the effect of some therapeutic agents on protein and amino acid nutrition, to species and age differences in amino acid requirements; utilization of D-amino acids; effect of proteins and amino acids on the growth of adult tissue in vitro; and amino acid requirements of animals and young adults.
This volume is organized into 16 chapters and begins with an overview of the nutritional implications of the metabolic interrelationships of amino acids. The next chapters discuss experiments that tested the differences in amino acid requirements due to the differences in age and in species among animals, the biochemical individuality of amino acid requirements, and the utilization of dietary proteins. This book explains the synthesis of tissue proteins in relation to the essential amino acids; the link between food energy and nitrogen metabolism; and the use of the repletion method to measure the nutritive value of proteins, protein hydrolyzates, and amino acid mixtures. The final chapter discusses the nutritional needs of the older age groups.
This book is intended for scientists, students, and researchers interested in human and animal nutrition.

Table of Contents



1. Introduction and Perspectives

I. Vitamins and Amino Acid Metabolism

II. Effect of Some Therapeutic Agents on Protein and Amino Acid Nutrition


2. Some Species and Age Differences in Amino Acid Requirements

I. Introduction

II. An Experimental Study

III. Keratin Synthesis in Protein Nutrition

IV. Composition of Tissue Proteins and Amino Acid Requirements for Growth

V. Amino Acid Requirements for Nitrogen Equilibrium in the Adult

VI. A Theory of Protein Metabolism

VII. A Schematic Representation of Protein Metabolism

VIII. Summary


3. Individuality of Amino Acid Needs

I. Introduction

II. Genetic Basis for Individuality in Needs

III. Anatomical and Compositional Basis for Individual Needs

IV. Distinctive Amino Acid Patterns

V. Quantitative Data With Respect to Individuality in Needs

VI. Do Individual Needs Differ Qualitatively?


4. Utilization of D-Amino Acids

I. Introduction

II. Availability of the D-Amino Acids for Maintenance and Growth

III. Inversion of the D-Amino Acids

IV. Oxidative Deamination as an Inversion Step

V. Dietary Replacement of Essential Amino Acids by α-Keto Acids

VI. Growth Response on Ample Mixtures of the DL-Amino Acids

VII. Toxicity of the D-Amino Acids

VIII. Growth Response on Marginal or Suboptimal Levels of DL- and D-Amino Acids

IX. Reanimation of α-Keto Acids

X. Factors Affecting the Degree of Availability of the D-Amino Acids


5. The Efficiency of Utilization of Dietary Proteins

I. Introduction

II. The Dynamic State of Protein Metabolism

III. Maintenance of Nitrogen Equilibrium

IV. Repletion of "Protein Stores"

V. Growth as a Measure of Nutritive Value of Dietary Proteins


6. Dietary Proteins and Synthesis of Tissue Proteins

I. Introduction

II. The Effect of Dietary Proteins on the Synthesis of Plasma Proteins

III. The Effect of Dietary Proteins on the Concentration of Plasma Cholinesterase of Rats

IV. The Effect of Dietary Proteins on Repletion of Liver Proteins

V. Discussion


7. The Effect of Proteins and Amino Acids on the Growth of Adult Tissue in Vitro

I. Introduction

II. Methods of Obtaining Data

III. Explanation of Tables

IV. Effect of Proteins, Physiological Materials, and Other Substances on Growth

V. Summary of Substances Favoring Adult Cell Growth (Table XI)

VI. Substances Related to Wound Healing (Table XII)

VII. Discussion and Summary


8. Food Energy and the Metabolism of Nitrogen

I. Introduction

II. Influence of Total Energy Value of Diets on Protein Metabolism

III. Influence of Nonprotein Calories on Endogenous Nitrogen Metabolism

IV. Summary and Comments


9. Methods of Measuring the Nutritive Value of Proteins, Protein Hydrolyzates, and Amino Acid Mixtures. The Repletion Method

I. Introduction

II. Protein Evaluation Methods — Growth and Nitrogen Balance

III. Assay Methods Based on Protein Regeneration

IV. Methods of Chemical Scoring

V. Specificity of Amino Acid Requirements

VI. Racemic Amino Acid Mixtures

VII. Recent Studies with L-Amino Acid Mixtures

VIII. Amino Acid Analogs

IX. Summary


10. An Integrated Essential Amino Acid Index for Predicting the Biological Value of Proteins

I. Introduction

II. Empirical Ratings of Proteins Based on Essential Amino Acid Content

III. The Standard of Reference

IV. Derivation of An Integrated Essential Amino Acid Index

V. Limitations of the Essential Amino Acid Index

VI. Special Applications of the Essential Amino Acid Index

VII. Summary


11. Criteria of Protein Nutrition

I. Anthropometry

II. Blood Proteins

III. Nitrogen Balance

IV. Other Methods


12. The Amino Acid Requirements of Animals

I. Introduction

II. Young Fowls

III. Adult Fowls

IV. Young Swine

V. Sheep

VI. Fishes

VII. Summary


13. Amino Acid Supplementation of Foods and Feeds

I. Introduction

II. General Principle of Amino Acid Supplementation of Foods and Feeds

III. Factors Affecting Amino Acid Supplementation of Foods and Feeds

IV. Methods for Evaluation of Amino Acid Supplementation of Foods and Feeds: Comments on Selected Procedures

V. Examples of Supplementation of Foods and Feeds with the First Limiting Amino Acid

VI. Conclusions


14. Protein and Amino Acid Requirements of Children

I. The First Year of Life

II. Preadolescence

III. Adolescence


15. Amino Acid Requirements of Young Adults

I. Introduction

II. Background

III. Quantitative Studies of Young Women

IV. Conclusion


16. Nutritional Needs of the Aged

I. Introduction

II. Physiology as Related to Aging in Man and Animals

III. Protein Nutrition in Old Age

IV. Carbohydrate Metabolism in the Aged and its Relation to Protein Metabolism

V. Blood Lipids and Cholesterol and Their Relation to Protein Metabolism

VI. General Discussion

VII. Summary


Author Index

Subject Index


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 1959
1st January 1959
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

Anthony Albanese

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