Protein and Amino acid nutrition

Protein and Amino acid nutrition

1st Edition - January 1, 1959

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  • Editor: Anthony Albanese
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323144452

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Protein and Amino Acid Nutrition describes the state of knowledge concerning the nutrition of proteins and amino acids. Topics range from the effect of some therapeutic agents on protein and amino acid nutrition, to species and age differences in amino acid requirements; utilization of D-amino acids; effect of proteins and amino acids on the growth of adult tissue in vitro; and amino acid requirements of animals and young adults. This volume is organized into 16 chapters and begins with an overview of the nutritional implications of the metabolic interrelationships of amino acids. The next chapters discuss experiments that tested the differences in amino acid requirements due to the differences in age and in species among animals, the biochemical individuality of amino acid requirements, and the utilization of dietary proteins. This book explains the synthesis of tissue proteins in relation to the essential amino acids; the link between food energy and nitrogen metabolism; and the use of the repletion method to measure the nutritive value of proteins, protein hydrolyzates, and amino acid mixtures. The final chapter discusses the nutritional needs of the older age groups. This book is intended for scientists, students, and researchers interested in human and animal nutrition.

Table of Contents

  • Contributors


    1. Introduction and Perspectives

    I. Vitamins and Amino Acid Metabolism

    II. Effect of Some Therapeutic Agents on Protein and Amino Acid Nutrition


    2. Some Species and Age Differences in Amino Acid Requirements

    I. Introduction

    II. An Experimental Study

    III. Keratin Synthesis in Protein Nutrition

    IV. Composition of Tissue Proteins and Amino Acid Requirements for Growth

    V. Amino Acid Requirements for Nitrogen Equilibrium in the Adult

    VI. A Theory of Protein Metabolism

    VII. A Schematic Representation of Protein Metabolism

    VIII. Summary


    3. Individuality of Amino Acid Needs

    I. Introduction

    II. Genetic Basis for Individuality in Needs

    III. Anatomical and Compositional Basis for Individual Needs

    IV. Distinctive Amino Acid Patterns

    V. Quantitative Data With Respect to Individuality in Needs

    VI. Do Individual Needs Differ Qualitatively?


    4. Utilization of D-Amino Acids

    I. Introduction

    II. Availability of the D-Amino Acids for Maintenance and Growth

    III. Inversion of the D-Amino Acids

    IV. Oxidative Deamination as an Inversion Step

    V. Dietary Replacement of Essential Amino Acids by α-Keto Acids

    VI. Growth Response on Ample Mixtures of the DL-Amino Acids

    VII. Toxicity of the D-Amino Acids

    VIII. Growth Response on Marginal or Suboptimal Levels of DL- and D-Amino Acids

    IX. Reanimation of α-Keto Acids

    X. Factors Affecting the Degree of Availability of the D-Amino Acids


    5. The Efficiency of Utilization of Dietary Proteins

    I. Introduction

    II. The Dynamic State of Protein Metabolism

    III. Maintenance of Nitrogen Equilibrium

    IV. Repletion of "Protein Stores"

    V. Growth as a Measure of Nutritive Value of Dietary Proteins


    6. Dietary Proteins and Synthesis of Tissue Proteins

    I. Introduction

    II. The Effect of Dietary Proteins on the Synthesis of Plasma Proteins

    III. The Effect of Dietary Proteins on the Concentration of Plasma Cholinesterase of Rats

    IV. The Effect of Dietary Proteins on Repletion of Liver Proteins

    V. Discussion


    7. The Effect of Proteins and Amino Acids on the Growth of Adult Tissue in Vitro

    I. Introduction

    II. Methods of Obtaining Data

    III. Explanation of Tables

    IV. Effect of Proteins, Physiological Materials, and Other Substances on Growth

    V. Summary of Substances Favoring Adult Cell Growth (Table XI)

    VI. Substances Related to Wound Healing (Table XII)

    VII. Discussion and Summary


    8. Food Energy and the Metabolism of Nitrogen

    I. Introduction

    II. Influence of Total Energy Value of Diets on Protein Metabolism

    III. Influence of Nonprotein Calories on Endogenous Nitrogen Metabolism

    IV. Summary and Comments


    9. Methods of Measuring the Nutritive Value of Proteins, Protein Hydrolyzates, and Amino Acid Mixtures. The Repletion Method

    I. Introduction

    II. Protein Evaluation Methods — Growth and Nitrogen Balance

    III. Assay Methods Based on Protein Regeneration

    IV. Methods of Chemical Scoring

    V. Specificity of Amino Acid Requirements

    VI. Racemic Amino Acid Mixtures

    VII. Recent Studies with L-Amino Acid Mixtures

    VIII. Amino Acid Analogs

    IX. Summary


    10. An Integrated Essential Amino Acid Index for Predicting the Biological Value of Proteins

    I. Introduction

    II. Empirical Ratings of Proteins Based on Essential Amino Acid Content

    III. The Standard of Reference

    IV. Derivation of An Integrated Essential Amino Acid Index

    V. Limitations of the Essential Amino Acid Index

    VI. Special Applications of the Essential Amino Acid Index

    VII. Summary


    11. Criteria of Protein Nutrition

    I. Anthropometry

    II. Blood Proteins

    III. Nitrogen Balance

    IV. Other Methods


    12. The Amino Acid Requirements of Animals

    I. Introduction

    II. Young Fowls

    III. Adult Fowls

    IV. Young Swine

    V. Sheep

    VI. Fishes

    VII. Summary


    13. Amino Acid Supplementation of Foods and Feeds

    I. Introduction

    II. General Principle of Amino Acid Supplementation of Foods and Feeds

    III. Factors Affecting Amino Acid Supplementation of Foods and Feeds

    IV. Methods for Evaluation of Amino Acid Supplementation of Foods and Feeds: Comments on Selected Procedures

    V. Examples of Supplementation of Foods and Feeds with the First Limiting Amino Acid

    VI. Conclusions


    14. Protein and Amino Acid Requirements of Children

    I. The First Year of Life

    II. Preadolescence

    III. Adolescence


    15. Amino Acid Requirements of Young Adults

    I. Introduction

    II. Background

    III. Quantitative Studies of Young Women

    IV. Conclusion


    16. Nutritional Needs of the Aged

    I. Introduction

    II. Physiology as Related to Aging in Man and Animals

    III. Protein Nutrition in Old Age

    IV. Carbohydrate Metabolism in the Aged and its Relation to Protein Metabolism

    V. Blood Lipids and Cholesterol and Their Relation to Protein Metabolism

    VI. General Discussion

    VII. Summary


    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 616
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1959
  • Published: January 1, 1959
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323144452

About the Editor

Anthony Albanese

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