Preface. Computers and industrial control: Introduction; Types of control strategies; Enter the computer; Input/output connections; Remote I/O; The advantages of PLC control. Programming Techniques: Introduction; The program scan; Identification of input/output and bit addresses; Programming methods; Bit storage; Timers; Counters; Numerical applications; Combinational and event-driven logic; Micro PLCs; IEC 1131-3, towards a common standard; Programming software; Programming software tools. Programming style: Introduction; Software engineering; Top-down design; Program structure in various PLCs; Housekeeping and good software practice; Speeding up the PLC scan time. Analog signals, closed loop control and intelligent modules: Introduction; Common analog signals; Signals and standards; Analog interfacing; Analog output signals; Analog-related program functions; Closed loop control; Specialist control processors; Bar codes; High-speed counters; Intelligent modules; Installation notes. Distributed systems: Parallel and serial communications; Serial standards; Area networks; The ISO/OSI model; Proprietary systems; Safety and practical considerations; Fibre optics. The man-machine interface: Introduction; Simple digital controls and indicators; Numerical outputs and inputs; Alarm annunciation; Analog indication; Computer graphics; Message displays; SCADA packages. Industrial control with conventional computers: Introduction; Bus-based machines; Programming for real time control; Soft PLCs. Practical aspects: Introduction; Safety; Design criteria; Constructional notes; Maintenance and fault finding; Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and CE marking; Other programmable devices. Sample ladder logic: Introduction; One shot; Toggle action; Alarm annunciator; First order filter; Level control; Linearisation; Flow totalisation; Scaling; Gray code conversion; BCD to binary conversion; Binary to BCD conversion; A hydraulic system. Appendix: Number systems. Index.