Professional Issues in Forensic Science - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128005675, 9780128006238

Professional Issues in Forensic Science

1st Edition

Editors: Max Houck
eBook ISBN: 9780128006238
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128005675
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 23rd April 2015
Page Count: 390
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Table of Contents

  • Editor: Biography
  • List of Contributors
  • Foreword
  • Overview
  • Section 1. Introduction
    • Introduction
    • History of Forensic Sciences
      • Glossary
      • See also
    • Principles of Forensic Science
      • Glossary
      • What Is Forensic Science?
      • The Trace as the Basic Unit of Forensic Science
      • Two Native Principles
      • Nonnative Principles
      • See also
    • Transfer
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Transfer
      • Factors Affecting Transfer
      • Differential Shedding
      • Primary and Secondary Transfer
      • Special Cases
      • Mechanism of Fiber Transfer
      • Fiber Transfer: A Dynamic Process
      • Fiber Transfer Modeling
      • Concluding Comments
      • See also
    • Persistence and Recovery
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Persistence
      • Factors Affecting Persistence
      • Effect of Fiber Size and Morphology
      • Differential Loss
      • Effect of Garment Cleaning
      • Fiber Binding
      • Fiber Redistribution
      • Methods of Recovery
      • Choice of Recovery Method
      • Documentation and Packaging
      • Contamination Issues
      • Conclusion
      • See also
    • Key Terms
    • Review Questions
    • Discussion Questions
  • Section 2. Analysis
    • Introduction
    • Collection and Chain of Evidence
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Scene Examination
      • Evidence Collection
      • Control Samples
      • Chain of Custody
      • See also
    • Contamination
      • Glossary
      • Definition
      • Background
      • Steps to Avoid Contamination
      • Choosing Who Should Examine the Scene (Location, Person, or Item)
      • Actions within the Examination
      • The Use of Blanks and Controls
      • Demonstrating the Integrity of Items and Investigations
      • Conclusion
      • See also
    • Packaging
      • Background
      • Paper as a Packaging Medium
      • Infested Material
      • Collection of Items
      • Labeling
      • Collection
      • Summary
      • Appendix 1 Collection and Packaging
      • Ammunition
      • Bite Marks
      • Suspect
      • Blood
      • Whole Blood
      • Bloodstain Pattern Interpretation
      • Cigarette Butts
      • Clothing
      • Documents
      • Fibers
      • Fire Debris
      • Firearms Discharge Residue
      • Projectile Hole in Clothing
      • Projectile Hole in Dead Skin
      • Glass
      • Hairs
      • Control Samples
      • Insects: Flies
      • Paint
      • Postmortem Samples
      • Safe Insulation and Safe Surface Paint
      • Saliva
      • Seminal Stains
      • Soil from Scene and Suspect's Clothing and/or Environment
      • Tools
      • Toolmark(s)
      • Vegetation
      • Wires
      • Notes
      • See also
    • Preservation
      • Preservation: A Time Frame Process
      • Threats to Evidence
      • See also
    • Recording
      • Background
      • Notes
      • Photographs
      • Digital Photography
      • Video Recording
      • Plans
      • Computer-Aided Design
      • Photogrammetry
      • Sketch Plan
      • Coordinate and Triangulation Methods of Measuring Crime Scenes
      • Procedure for Measuring Crime Scenes
      • Scale Plan
      • Computers
      • Summary
      • See also
    • Standard Methods
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Why Standards Are Required?
      • The United States National Academy of Sciences Report 2009
      • Global Standard Environment
      • Challenges in Developing Standards
      • See Also
    • Measurement Uncertainty
      • Glossary
      • Measurement
      • Measurement to Meaning
      • Measurement Uncertainty
      • Meaning Requires Uncertainty
      • See also
    • Principles of Quality Assurance
      • Quality Assurance
      • General Principles
      • Essential Elements of a QA Program
      • ISO, ISO 17025, and ISO 17020
      • Standard Procedures
      • Conclusions
      • See also
    • Forensic Classification of Evidence
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Methods of Classification
      • Class-Level Information
      • Uniqueness and Individualization
      • Relationships and Context
      • See also
    • Interpretation/The Comparative Method
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Analogy and Comparison within a Forensic Process
      • The Comparative Method within Forensic Science
      • See also
    • Overview and Meaning of Identification/Individualization
      • The Identification Process: A Reduction Process to a Single Source
      • The Inferential Schemes
      • Relationship with Probabilities
      • The Bayesian Framework for Evaluating Identification Findings
      • Conclusion
      • See also
    • Semiotics, Heuristics, and Inferences Used by Forensic Scientists
      • Glossary
      • General Consideration and Semiotics
      • Inferences
      • Heuristics
      • Hypothetico-Deductive Reasoning
      • Investigation and Evaluation
      • Bayesian Reasoning
      • Synthesis
      • The Interest of a Coordination
      • Conclusion
      • See also
    • The Frequentist Approach to Forensic Evidence Interpretation
      • Glossary
      • Example
      • Range Tests
      • Formal Hypothesis Tests
      • Significance Levels and Small or Big Values
      • The Two-Sample t-Test
      • Confidence Intervals
      • Controversies and Issues
      • See also
    • Statistical Interpretation of Evidence: Bayesian Analysis
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Bayes' Rule
      • The Value of Evidence
      • Categorical Data and Discrete Hypotheses
      • Continuous Data and Discrete Hypotheses
      • Principles of Evidence Evaluation
      • Interpretation
      • Pitfalls of Intuition
      • See also
    • Forensic Intelligence
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Traces as Forensic Case Data, Sign, Information, Evidence, and Intelligence
      • Intelligence-Led Policing
      • Intelligence-Led Systems and Examples of Forensic Intelligence Activities
      • Tactical Intelligence and Investigative Leads
      • Operational Intelligence through Sustained Crime Analysis
      • Strategic Intelligence through the Integration and Analysis of Forensic Links
      • Forensic Science Performance
      • Limits of Forensic Intelligence and Requirements
      • Challenges and Tensions
      • Conclusion
      • See also
    • Forensic Intelligence Analysis
      • Glossary
      • Intelligence Analysis and Forensic Science
      • What Is Forensic Intelligence Analysis?
      • Similarities between Forensic Science and Intelligence Analysis
      • Intelligence Failures
      • The Benefits of Structured Analytic Techniques
      • See also
    • Key Terms
    • Review Questions
    • Discussion Questions
  • Section 3. Management Issues
    • Introduction
    • Principles for the Organization of Forensic Support
      • Scope of Forensic Support
      • An Ideal Organizational Model?
      • Organizational Theory
      • Forensic Organizations—A Special Case?
      • Public versus Private Providers
      • People Are Our Most Valuable Asset!
      • Conclusions
    • Laboratory Automation and LIMS in Forensics
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Selection of an ALH
      • Validation of Automated Systems and Laboratory Processes
      • Operation and Maintenance of Automated Instruments in Forensic Environments
      • Summary
      • See also
    • DNA Databases
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Criteria for the Inclusion of DNA Profiles in National DNA Databases
      • Genetic Typing Systems
      • Privacy Rights, Ethical Considerations, and New Directions
      • See also
    • Effectiveness
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Knowledge Workers
      • Effectiveness and Efficiency
      • The Foresight Project
      • See also
    • Risk Management
      • Introduction—Why Do We Need Risk Management?
      • Defining Risk
      • Risk Appetite or Attitude
      • Risk Management Principles, Process, and Framework
      • Risk Considerations for the Forensic Industry
      • Conclusions
      • See also
    • Ethics
      • Introduction
      • Forensic Science Ethics and Personal Ethics
      • Organizational Forensic Science Ethics
      • Basic Minimal Ethics and Aspirational Ethics
      • Codes of Ethics in Forensic Science Practice
      • Standards for Good Forensic Practice
      • Ethical Problems in the Forensic Sciences
      • Foundations of Ethics
      • Ethical Dilemmas
      • Conclusion
      • See also
    • Major Incident Scene Management
      • Background
      • Scene Control and Coordination
      • Approach to Crime Scene Investigation
      • Initial Assessment
      • Scene Security
      • Occupational Health and Safety
      • Systematic Collection of Potential Evidence
      • Systematic and Sequential Approach to the Search and Recovery of Potential Evidence
      • Examination Records
      • Ongoing Case Management
      • Summary
      • See also
    • Key Terms
    • Review Questions
    • Discussion Questions
  • Section 4. Accreditation and Certification
    • Introduction
    • Accreditation
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Defining Accreditation
      • Competence
      • Cost of Accreditation
      • Certification and Registration
      • Validation
      • See also
    • Certification
      • Introduction—What Is Certification?
      • First-, Second-, and Third-Party Certification
      • Certification of Individuals
      • Certification Versus Accreditation
      • International Certification Schemes
      • Certification Overview and Conclusions
      • Certification of Objects
      • See also
    • Certification and Licensing
      • Glossary
      • Certifying Bodies
      • Latent Print
      • Crime Scene
      • Footwear
      • Forensic Photography
      • Tenprint Identification
      • Forensic Art
      • Bloodstain Pattern
      • Forensic Video
      • Other Certification Programs
      • See also
    • Accreditation in Forensic DNA Analysis
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Accreditation or Certification?
      • A Short Guide to Accreditation for ISO/IEC 17025
      • Control of Records
      • Personnel
      • Accommodation and Environmental Conditions
      • Test and Calibration Methods and Method Validation
      • Assuring the Quality of Test and Calibration Results
      • See also
    • Accreditation of Educational Programs
      • Introduction
      • What Is Accreditation?
      • Accreditation of Educational Programs in North America
      • Accreditation of Educational Programs in the United Kingdom
      • See also
    • Key Terms
    • Review Questions
    • Discussion Questions
  • Section 5. Education and Training
    • Introduction
    • Health and Safety
      • Glossary
      • Occupational Health and Safety Policy
      • Specific Laboratory Hazards
      • Hazards in the Field
      • See also
    • Education and Accreditation in Forensic Science
      • Historical Perspectives
      • Forensic Science as a Recognized Discipline
      • 1999 NIJ Review of Forensic Science
      • Technical Working Group on Education and Training in Forensic Science
      • Undergraduate Curriculum
      • Graduate Curriculum
      • Forensic Science Education Programs Accreditation Commission
      • NAS Report—Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States
      • Future Educational Needs
      • See also
    • Training to Competence
      • Introduction
      • What Is Competence?
      • What Is Training?
      • What Are Standards of Competence?
      • What Should a Standard of Competence Do?
      • How Are National Standards of Competence Developed?
      • What Should Standards of Competence Look Like?
      • How Can Competence Standards be Used?
      • Training to Competence
      • Identifying a Training Need Using a Competence Standard
      • Writing Learning Outcomes Using Standards of Competence
      • Delivering Training Based on Standards of Competence
      • How to Assess Standard-Based Training Outcomes
      • How Can You Measure Ongoing Competence?
      • See also
    • Continuing Professional Development
      • Glossary
      • Types of Continuing Professional Development
      • Continuing Education
      • Training
      • Sources of Continuing Professional Development
      • Administration of Continuing Professional Development
      • See also
    • Research and Publishing
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Research
      • Publication
      • The Publication Process
      • Types of Publications
      • See also
    • Key Terms
    • Review Questions
    • Discussion Questions
  • Section 6. Legal Issues
    • Introduction
    • History of the Law’s Reception of Forensic Science
      • Origins
      • Legal Reception Generally
      • Legal Control over Admission of Expert Evidence
      • Reception of Science-Based Forensic Sciences and Semi-Science-Based Forensic Sciences
      • Reception of Individualization Claims
      • Lessons of Legal History for Future Law—Forensic Science Interaction
      • See also
    • Legal Systems: Adversarial and Inquisitorial
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Some Historical Watersheds in Criminal Procedure Reform
      • The Adversarialization of the Inquisitorial Preliminary Investigation
      • The Decline of the Inquisitorial Trial Judge
      • The Eclipse of Adversarial and Inquisitorial Procedure?
      • See also
    • Legal Aspects of Forensic Science
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Chain of Custody: Collection, Transport, Handling, and Storage of Samples
      • Admissibility of Forensic Science
      • Expert Evidence at Trial
      • Appellate Review and Postconviction
      • Lay Assessment of Forensic Science
      • Plea Bargains and Interrogations
      • Wrongful Convictions
      • Expert Witness Immunity
      • See also
    • Evidence/Classification
      • Introduction
      • Relevant Evidence
      • Direct and Circumstantial Evidence
      • Real Evidence
      • Parole Evidence
      • Class and Individual Evidence
      • Reliable Evidence
      • Hearsay Evidence
      • Tendency, Coincidence, and Propensity Evidence
      • Expert and Lay Evidence
      • Fact and Opinion Evidence
      • See also
    • Crime Scene to Court
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Task
      • Models
      • Forensic Strategies
      • Integrated Case Management
      • Summary
      • See also
    • Forensic Laboratory Reports
      • Contents of a Report—A “Science” Standard
      • Contents of a Report: Legal Standards
      • Reports: Stand-Alone Evidence or Support for a Testifying Expert
      • Ethical Considerations and Forensic Reports
      • Conclusion
      • See also
    • Expert Witness Qualifications and Testimony
      • Introduction
      • Selecting an Expert
      • Qualifications
      • Experience as an Expert Witness
      • Education and Training
      • Membership in Professional Associations
      • Increased Scrutiny of Experts
      • Weight of the Evidence
      • Conclusion
    • The Innocence Project
      • Overview of the Innocence Project and Innocence Network
      • History
      • The Educational Mission
      • The Policy Mission
      • See also
    • DNA Exonerations
      • Glossary
      • Discovery of Wrongful Convictions through DNA Testing
      • Emergence of DNA as a Forensic Tool
      • Preservation of and Access to DNA Evidence
      • DNA Exonerations Today
      • See also
    • When Science Changes, How Does Law Respond
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • The Filtering of Scientific Evidence into Courtrooms
      • Law as an Adversarial System
      • Law's Reliance on Past Decisions
      • Law as an Arbiter of Disputes
      • The Law Requires Binary Decisions
      • Judges May Lack the Scientific Expertise to Judge the Reliability of Scientific Evidence
      • Conclusion
      • See also
    • International Courts and Forensic Science
      • Glossary
      • The Current Contribution of Forensic Science to the ICTs
      • Problems for Forensic Science in ICTs
      • The Future of Forensic Science within ICTs
      • See also
    • Key Terms
    • Review Questions
    • Discussion Questions
  • Section 7. Professional Organizations and Groups
    • Introduction
    • International Organizations and Cooperation
      • Introduction
      • A History Lesson—The Road to IFSA
      • Challenges for Success
      • Progress
      • United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
      • Twinning
      • The International Forensic Summit
      • Business Networks
      • Project Quadrupol
      • The International Forensic Business and Economics Colloquium
      • Obstacles to Cooperation—The Gill Report
      • See also
    • American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS)
      • Introduction
      • See also
    • Australian and New Zealand Forensic Science Society (ANZFSS)
      • Introduction
      • See also
    • European Network of Forensic Science Institutes (ENFSI)
      • Introduction
      • See also
    • International Association for Identification (IAI)
      • Introduction
      • The IAI Collection
      • See also
    • American Society of Crime Laboratory Directors (ASCLD)
      • Introduction
      • Accreditation
      • See also
    • Senior Managers of Australian and New Zealand Forensic Laboratories (SMANZFL)
      • Introduction
      • See also
    • National Association of Medical Examiners (NAME)
      • Introduction
      • See also
    • Forensic DNA Advisory Groups: DAB, SWGDAM, ENFSI, and BSAG
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • The United States
      • Europe
      • Australia/New Zealand
      • Asia
      • International Cooperation and Coordination
      • See also
    • History of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG)
      • Executive Board of the ISFG
      • Honorary Members
      • Membership
      • The Biannual ISFG Congresses
      • Proceedings of the ISFG Congresses
      • Scientific ISFG Prizes
      • The Language-Based Working Parties
      • The DNA Commission
      • The European DNA Profiling Group
      • Compliance with Statutes
      • See also
    • The National Missing and Unidentified Persons System (NamUs)
      • Introduction
      • See also
    • Key Terms
    • Review Questions
    • Discussion Questions
  • Index

Description

Professional Issues in Forensic Science will introduce students to various topics they will encounter within the field of Forensic Science. Legal implications within the field will focus on expert witness testimony and procedural rules defined by both legislative statute and court decisions. These decisions affect the collection, analysis, and court admissibility of scientific evidence, such as the Frye and Daubert standards and the Federal Rules of Evidence. Existing and pending Forensic Science legislation will be covered, including laws governing state and national DNA databases. Ethical concerns stemming from the day-to-day balancing of competing priorities encountered by the forensic student will be discussed. Such competing priorities may cause conflicts between good scientific practice and the need to expedite work, meet legal requirements, and satisfy client’s wishes. The role of individual morality in Forensic Science and competing ethical standards between state and defense experts will be addressed. Examinations of ethical guidelines issued by various professional forensic organizations will be conducted. Students will be presented with examples of ethical dilemmas for comment and resolution. The management of crime laboratories will provide discussion on quality assurance/quality control practices and the standards required by the accreditation of laboratories and those proposed by Scientific Working Groups in Forensic Science. The national Academy of Sciences report on Strengthening Forensic Science will be examined to determine the impact of the field.

Professional Issues in Forensic Science is a core topic taught in forensic science programs. This volume will be an essential advanced text for academics and an excellent reference for the newly practicing forensic scientist. It will also fit strategically and cluster well with our other forensic science titles addressing professional issues.

Key Features

  • Introduces readers to various topics they will encounter within the field of Forensic Science
  • Covers legal issues, accreditation and certification, proper analysis, education and training, and management issues
  • Includes a section on professional organizations and groups, both in the U.S. and Internationally
  • Incorporates effective pedagogy, key terms, review questions, discussion question and additional reading suggestions

Readership

Graduate level forensic science students and educators, as well as entry level forensic professionals and law students


Details

No. of pages:
390
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2015
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780128006238
Hardcover ISBN:
9780128005675

About the Editors

Max Houck Editor

Dr. Max M. Houck is an international forensic expert with over 25 years of experience. Houck has experience in the private sector, academia, local government, and worked at the Federal Bureau of Investigation Laboratory Division. He has worked as a forensic anthropologist, a trace evidence analyst, a researcher, and has managed millions of dollars in grants and awards. Most recently, he was the inaugural Director of the Department of Forensic Sciences in Washington, D.C., overseeing 150 employees and managing the forensic science laboratory, the public health laboratory, and crime scene sciences for the nation’s capital. Houck has worked on a number of mass casualty scenes, including the Branch Davidian Investigation and the September 11, 2001 attack on the Pentagon. Widely published, Houck has dozens of peer-reviewed journal articles and is the author and editor of numerous books. He is co-author of the best-selling Fundamentals of Forensic Science, Science of Crime Scenes, and Success with Expert Testimony, among others. He is the editor of the Advanced Forensic Science series of books. Houck is also founding co-editor of Forensic Science Policy and Management (the official journal of ASCLD), the only journal that addresses the management, policy, and administration of forensic science. Houck has served on numerous committees, including for the National Academies of Science, NIST, Interpol, The Royal Society, the Director of the FBI, and the White House. He is a popular public speaker and has given presentations at NASA, the Max Planck Institute, an Oxford Roundtable, as well as keynote talks at numerous international conferences. Houck has taught at several universities, including West Virginia University and University of Tampa. His research topics include management, leadership, and policy implications for forensic organizations. Houck has a Bachelors and Masters degree in anthropology from Michigan State University. He received his Ph.D. in Applied Chemistry Summa Cum Laude from Curtin University in Perth, Australia. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry.

Affiliations and Expertise

Vice President, Forensic and Intelligence Services, LLC, Virginia, USA