Processing and Impact on Antioxidants in Beverages - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124047389, 9780124046955

Processing and Impact on Antioxidants in Beverages

1st Edition

Editors: Victor Preedy
eBook ISBN: 9780124046955
Hardcover ISBN: 9780124047389
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 10th April 2014
Page Count: 336
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Description

Processing and Impact on Antioxidants in Beverages presents information key to understanding how antioxidants change during production of beverages, how production options can be used to enhance antioxidant benefit, and how to determine the production process that will result in the optimum antioxidant benefit while retaining consumer acceptability.

In the food industry, antioxidants are added to preserve the shelf life of foods and to prevent off-flavors from developing. These production-added components also contribute to the overall availability of essential nutrients for intake. Moreover, some production processes reduce the amount of naturally occurring antioxidants. Thus, in terms of food science, it is important to understand not only the physiological importance of antioxidants, but what they are, how much are in the different food ingredients, and how they are damaged or enhanced through the processing and packaging phases.

This book specifically addresses the composition and characterization of antioxidants in coffee, green tea, soft drinks, beer, and wine. Processing techniques considered here include fermentation and aging, high-pressure homogenization, enzymatic debittering, and more. Lastly, the book considers several selective antioxidant assays, such as Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) and Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) assays.

Key Features

  • Provides insights into processing options for enhanced antioxidant bioavailability
  • Presents correlation potentials for increased total antioxidant capacity
  • Includes methods for the in situ or in-line monitoring of antioxidants to reduce industrial loss of antioxidants in beverages
  • Proposes processing of concentrated fractions of antioxidants that can be added to foods

Readership

Food scientists, food technologists, crop scientists, food processors and packagers

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors
  • Preface
  • Biography
  • Section 1. Composition and Characterization of Antioxidants
    • Chapter 1. Anthocyanic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity in Fortified Wines
      • Introduction
      • Polyphenolic Content of Fortified Wines
      • Anthocyanic Compounds in Fortified Wines
      • Antioxidant Capacity in Fortified Wines
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 2. Endogenous Antioxidants and Antioxidant Activities of Beers
      • Introduction
      • Endogenous Antioxidants in Beers
      • Antioxidant Activities of Beers
    • Chapter 3. Antioxidants in Coffee
      • Introduction
      • Phenolic Compounds
      • Melanoidins
      • Caffeine
      • Trigonelline
      • Tocopherols
      • Heterocyclic Compounds Produced by Maillard Reaction
      • Diterpenes Cafestol and Kahweol
      • Influence of Extraction Process on Antioxidant Capacity of Coffee Residues
    • Chapter 4. Antioxidant Capacity of Green Tea (Camellia sinensis)
      • Introduction
      • Green Tea and its Composition
      • Bioavailability of Green Tea Catechins
      • In Vitro Antioxidant Activities of Catechins
      • Physiologic Antioxidant Activities
      • Protective Aspects of Green Tea in Obesity and Related Disorders
      • Safety of Green Tea
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 5. Antioxidant Capacities of Herbal Infusions
      • Introduction
      • Antioxidant Capacities of Herbal Infusions
      • Antioxidant Components in Herbal Infusions
    • Chapter 6. Antioxidant Capacity of Soft Drinks
      • Introduction
      • Origin of Soft Drinks
      • Caramel-Containing Soft Drinks
      • Antioxidant Activity of Caramel-Containing Soft Drinks
      • Soft Drinks Containing Fruit Juice
      • Antioxidant Activity of Fruit-Juice-Based Soft Drinks
      • Caffeine-Containing Soft Drinks
      • A Return to the Past?
      • Conclusion
  • Section 2. Effects of Production and Processing
    • Chapter 7. Antioxidants in Wine during Fermentation
      • Introduction
      • Grape Composition
      • Antioxidants in White and Red Grapes
      • Antioxidants in White Grape Juice During Processing
      • Antioxidants in White Wine During Alcoholic Fermentation
      • Antioxidants in Red Grape Juice During Processing
      • Antioxidants in Red Wine During Alcoholic Fermentation
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 8. Effects of Aging on the Antioxidant Capacity of Red Wines
      • Introduction
      • Factors Affecting the Phenol Content and In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Red Wines
      • Effects of Production and Processing
      • Effect of Barrel and/or Bottle Aging on the Phenol Content and Antioxidant Activity
      • Effect of Barrel and Bottle Aging on the Level of Potentially Valuable Phenols and Polyphenols
      • Relationship Between Antioxidant Capacity and Acceptance (Price) of Red Wines
    • Chapter 9. Effects of Varieties and Growing Conditions on Antioxidant Capacity of Coffee
      • Introduction
      • Influence of Coffee Varieties on the Content of Chlorogenic Acids
      • Influence of Environmental Factors on the Content of Chlorogenic Acids
      • Influence of Varieties and Environmental Factors on the Content of Other Antioxidant Constituents in Coffee
      • Influence of Primary Processing and Storage on Coffee Antioxidants
    • Chapter 10. Effects of Preparation Techniques on the Antioxidant Capacity of Coffee Brews
      • Introduction
      • Effects of Preparation Techniques on the Antioxidant Capacity of Coffee Brews
      • Effects of Preparation Techniques on the Content of Polyphenolic Compounds
      • Effects of Preparation Techniques on the Content of Melanoidins
      • Effects of Preparation Techniques on the Content of Caffeine
      • Effects of Preparation Techniques on the Content of Tocopherols
      • Effects of Preparation Techniques on the Content of Cafestol
      • Effects of Milk Addition on the Antioxidant Capacity of Coffee Brews
      • Antioxidant Potential of Instant Cappuccino Brews
    • Chapter 11. Applications of Enzymes in Processing Green Tea Beverages: Impact on Antioxidants
      • Introduction
      • Endo- and Exogenous Enzymes
      • Effects of Production and Processing
    • Chapter 12. Antioxidant Capacity of Tea: Effect of Processing and Storage
      • Introduction
      • Antioxidant Compounds of Tea
      • Effect of Production and Processing
      • Storage of Tea Leaves and Tea Beverages
    • Chapter 13. Antioxidant Quality of Tea (Camellia sinensis) as Affected by Environmental Factors
      • Introduction
      • Effects of Production and Processing
      • Concluding Remarks
    • Chapter 14. Antioxidants of Rooibos Beverages: Role of Plant Composition and Processing
      • Introduction
      • Phenolic Composition
      • Antioxidant Activity
      • Effects of Production and Processing
    • Chapter 15. Antioxidant Activity of Maté Tea and Effects of Processing
      • Introduction
      • Harvesting and Processing
      • Maté Tea Products
      • Maté Tea Composition
      • Antioxidant Activity
      • Effects of Production and Processing
    • Chapter 16. Antioxidants in Goji Berry Juice (Lycium barbarum) and Effects of Processing Steps
      • Introduction
      • Chemical Constituents
    • Chapter 17. Açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) Liquefied Pulp for Drinking and their Antioxidant Capacities During Processing
      • Introduction
      • Açaí Pulps and Their Antioxidant Capacities
      • Effects of Production and Processing
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 18. The Impact of Processing and Storage on the (Poly)Phenolic Fraction of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Juices
      • Introduction
      • (Poly)Phenolic Antioxidants of Pomegranate Juice
      • Effects of Production and Processing
    • Chapter 19. Influence of High-Pressure and Ultra-High-Pressure Homogenization on Antioxidants in Fruit Juice
      • High-Pressure Homogenization
      • High- and Ultra-High-Pressure Homogenization Equipment
      • Fruit Juices Preserved by HPH and UHPH
      • Effect of HPH and Thermal Treatment on Health-Related Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Fruit Juices
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 20. Enzymatic Debittering on Antioxidant Capacity of Grapefruit Juice
      • Introduction
      • Enzymes in Debittering of Citrus Juices
      • Immobilized Biocatalysts in Debittering of Juices
      • Effects of Production and Processing
    • Chapter 21. Production Processes of Orange Juice and Effects on Antioxidant Components
      • Introduction
      • The Orange Juice Production Process
      • Effects of Production and Processing on Antioxidant Components of Orange Juice
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 22. Total Antioxidant Capacity of Flavored Waters
      • Introduction
      • Flavored Waters: Effects of Production and Processing
      • Flavored Waters as an Antioxidant Source
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 23. Antioxidant Properties of Soy-Based Drinks and Effects of Processing
      • Introduction
      • Effects of Production and Processing
  • Section 3. Selective Assays for Antioxidants
    • Chapter 24. The CUPRAC Methods of Antioxidant Measurement for Beverages
      • Introduction
      • The Main Cuprac Method
      • The Modified Cuprac Methods
      • Preparation of Solutions
      • Procedures for the Main and Modified Cuprac Methods
      • Application of the Main and Modified Cuprac Methods to Beverages
    • Chapter 25. The Use of Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) and Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) Assays in the Assessment of Beverages’ Antioxidant Properties
      • Introduction
      • Background of Experimental Set-Up for Antioxidant Assays
      • Oxygen Radical Absorption Capacity Assay
      • Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) Assay
      • Consistency of ORAC and Teac Results Beyond the Paradox of Values Variability
    • Chapter 26. Methodology for the Measurement of Antioxidant Capacity of Coffee: A Validated Platform Composed of Three Complementary Antioxidant Assays
      • Introduction
      • Antioxidants—Definition
      • Assays for Antioxidants
      • Development of a Practical Analytical Platform for Measurement of Antioxidant Capacity of Coffee
      • Procedure used for Coffee Preparation
      • Assays Based on Electron Transfer Reactions
      • Assays Based on Hydrogen Atom Transfer Reactions
      • Validation of Results
      • Discussion and Conclusions
    • Chapter 27. Off-Line HPLC Integrated to Total Antioxidant Capacity Measurement of Beverages
      • Introduction
      • Off-line HPLC Integrated to Total Antioxidant Capacity Assays
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 28. Antioxidant Screening of Beverages using the Online HPLC–DPPH• Assay Incorporating Active Flow Technology Chromatography Columns
      • Introduction
      • The Analysis of Coffee Using Liquid Chromatographic Separation and DPPH• Antioxidant Detection: a Comparison Between Standard and Parallel Segmented Flow Chromatographies
      • The Analysis of Coffee Using Parallel Segmented Flow Chromatography Incorporating Multiplexed Fluorescence and DPPH• Antioxidant Detection
      • The Analysis of Coffee Using Reaction Flow Chromatography with Multiplexed Detection
      • General Conclusion
    • Chapter 29. Analytical Methods for Determination of Polyphenols in Beer
      • Introduction
      • Global Assays
      • Determination of Individual Phenolic Compounds
    • Chapter 30. Deriving a Global Antioxidant Score for Commercial Juices by Multivariate Graphical and Scoring Techniques: Applications to Blackcurrant Juice
      • Blackcurrants and Antioxidant Compounds
      • Consumption of Blackcurrants
      • Evaluation of Total Antioxidant Activity
      • Antioxidant Activities of Ten Blackcurrant Juices and Correlations
      • Statistical Analysis
      • Graphical Representations
      • Global Antioxidant Score (Gas) and Ranking
      • Clustering
      • Visualization of the Gas (Chernoff Faces and Stars)
      • Conclusions
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
336
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2014
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780124046955
Hardcover ISBN:
9780124047389

About the Editor

Victor Preedy

Victor R. Preedy BSc, PhD, DSc, FRSB, FRSPH, FRCPath, FRSC is a senior member of King's College London. He is also Director of the Genomics Centre and a member of the Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine.

Professor Preedy has longstanding academic interests in substance misuse especially in relation to health and well being. He is a member of the Editorial Board of Drug and Alcohol Dependence and a founding member of the Editorial Board of Addiction Biology. In his career Professor Preedy was Reader at the Addictive Behaviour Centre at The University of Roehampton, and also Reader at the School of Pharmacy (now part of University College London; UCL). Professor Preedy is Editor of the influential works The Handbook Of Alcohol Related Pathology, The Neuropathology of Drug Addictions and Substance Misuse and The Handbook of Cannabis and Related Pathologies (all published by Academic Press-Elsevier).

Professor Preedy graduated in 1974 with an Honours Degree in Biology and Physiology with Pharmacology. He gained his University of London PhD in 1981. In 1992, he received his Membership of the Royal College of Pathologists and in 1993 he gained his second doctoral degree (DSc). Professor Preedy was elected as a Fellow of the Institute of Biology in 1995 and also as a Fellow to the Royal College of Pathologists in 2000. He was then elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health (2004) and The Royal Institute of Public Health and Hygiene (2004). In 2009, Professor Preedy became a Fellow of the Royal Society for Public Health and in 2012 a Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry.

To his credit, Professor Preedy has published over 600 articles, which includes peer-reviewed manuscripts based on original research, abstracts and symposium presentations, reviews and numerous books and volumes.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Dietetics, King's College London, UK