# Process Heat Transfer

## 2nd Edition

### Principles, Applications and Rules of Thumb

**Authors:**Robert Serth Thomas Lestina

**Hardcover ISBN:**9780123971951

**eBook ISBN:**9780123977922

**Imprint:**Academic Press

**Published Date:**28th February 2014

**Page Count:**632

## Description

* Process Heat Transfer* is a reference on the design and implementation of industrial heat exchangers. It provides the background needed to understand and master the commercial software packages used by professional engineers in the design and analysis of heat exchangers. This book focuses on types of heat exchangers most widely used by industry: shell-and-tube exchangers (including condensers, reboilers and vaporizers), air-cooled heat exchangers and double-pipe (hairpin) exchangers. It provides a substantial introduction to the design of heat exchanger networks using pinch technology, the most efficient strategy used to achieve optimal recovery of heat in industrial processes.

## Key Features

- Utilizes leading commercial software. Get expert HTRI
Suite guidance, tips and tricks previously available via high cost professional training sessions.**X**changer - Details the development of initial configuration for a heat exchanger and how to systematically modify it to obtain an efficient final design.
- Abundant case studies and rules of thumb, along with copious software examples, provide a complete library of reference designs and heuristics for readers to base their own designs on.

## Readership

Chemical and Process Engineers, Mechanical Engineers, Plant Engineers; Graduate students.

## Table of Contents

- Dedication
- Preface to First Edition
- Preface to Second Edition
- Conversion Factors
- Physical Constants
- Acknowledgments
- 1. Heat Conduction
- 1.1. Introduction
- 1.2. Fourier’s Law of Heat Conduction
- Example 1.1
- 1.3. The Heat Conduction Equation
- Example 1.2
- Example 1.3
- Example 1.4
- Example 1.5
- 1.4. Thermal Resistance
- Example 1.6
- Example 1.7
- 1.5. The Conduction Shape Factor
- Example 1.8
- Example 1.9
- 1.6. Unsteady-State Conduction
- Example 1.10
- Example 1.11
- 1.7. Mechanisms of Heat Conduction

- 2. Convective and Radiative Heat Transfer
- 2.1. Introduction
- 2.2. Combined Conduction and Convection
- Example 2.1
- Example 2.2
- 2.3. Extended Surfaces
- Example 2.3
- Example 2.4
- 2.4. Forced Convection in Pipes and Ducts
- Example 2.5
- Example 2.6
- Example 2.7
- Example 2.8
- 2.5. Forced Convection in External Flow
- Example 2.9
- Example 2.10
- 2.6. Free Convection
- Example 2.11
- Example 2.12
- 2.7. Radiation
- Example 2.13

- 3. Heat Exchangers
- 3.1. Introduction
- 3.2. Double-Pipe Equipment
- 3.3. Shell-and-Tube Equipment
- 3.4. Plate Heat Exchangers
- 3.5. The Overall Heat-Transfer Coefficient
- Example 3.1
- 3.6. The LMTD Correction Factor
- Example 3.2
- 3.7. Analysis of Double-Pipe Exchangers
- Example 3.3
- 3.8. Preliminary Design of Shell-and-Tube Exchangers
- Example 3.4
- 3.9. Rating a Shell-and-Tube Exchanger
- Example 3.5
- 3.10. Heat-Exchanger Effectiveness
- Example 3.6

- 4. Design of Double-Pipe Heat Exchangers
- 4.1. Introduction
- 4.2. Heat-Transfer Coefficients for Exchangers without Fins
- 4.3. Hydraulic Calculations for Exchangers without Fins
- 4.4. Series/Parallel Configurations of Hairpins
- 4.5. Multi-Tube Exchangers
- 4.6. Over-Surface and Over-Design
- Example 4.1
- Example 4.2
- 4.7. Finned-Pipe Exchangers
- 4.8. Heat-Transfer Coefficients and Friction Factors for Finned Annuli
- 4.9. Wall Temperature for Finned Pipes
- Example 4.3
- 4.10. Computer Software
- Example 4.4
- HEXTRAN Input File for Example 4.4
- HEXTRAN Output Data for Example 4.4
- Example 4.5
- HEXTRAN Input File for Example 4.5
- HEXTRAN Output Data for Example 4.5
- Example 4.6
- HEXTRAN Input File for Example 4.6
- HEXTRAN Output Data for Example 4.6

- 5. Design of Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers
- 5.1. Introduction
- 5.3. Hydraulic Calculations
- 5.4. Finned Tubing
- 5.5. Tube-Count Tables
- 5.6. Factors Affecting Pressure Drop
- 5.7. Design Guidelines
- 5.8. Design Strategy
- Example 5.1
- Example 5.2
- 5.9. Computer Software
- Example 5.3
- HEXTRAN Input File for Example 5.3
- HEXTRAN Output Data for Example 5.3
- Example 5.4
- HEXTRAN Input File for Example 5.4, Run 1
- HEXTRAN Output Data for Example 5.4, Run 1
- HEXTRAN Output Data for Example 5.4, Run 3
- Example 5.5
- Temperature Profiles for Example 5.5: Design Conditions
- Temperature Profiles for Example 5.5: Clean Conditions

- 6. The Delaware Method
- 6.1. Introduction
- 6.2. Ideal Tube Bank Correlations
- 6.3. Shell-Side Heat-Transfer Coefficient
- 6.4. Shell-Side Pressure Drop
- 6.5. The Flow Areas
- 6.6. Correlations for the Correction Factors
- 6.7. Estimation of Clearances
- Example 6.1

- 7. The Stream Analysis Method
- 7.1. Introduction
- 7.2. The Equivalent Hydraulic Network
- 7.3. The Hydraulic Equations
- 7.4. Shell-Side Pressure Drop
- 7.5. Shell-Side Heat-Transfer Coefficient
- 7.6. Temperature Profile Distortion
- Example 7.1
- 7.7. Good Design Practice
- 7.8. The Wills-Johnston Method
- Example 7.2
- 7.9. Computer Software
- Example 7.3
*Xist*Output Summary for Example 7.3*Xist*Tube Layout for Example 7.3- Example 7.4
*Xist*Tube Layouts for Example 7.4*Xist*Output Summary for Example 7.4: Ribbon Tube Layout*Xist*Exchanger Drawing for Example 7.4- Example 7.5
- Solution
- Temperature Profiles for Modified E-shell Design under Clean Conditions
*Xist*Rating Data Sheet for Example 7.5: F-shell Design*Xist*Tube Layout for Example 7.5: F-shell Design*Xist*Output Summary for Example 7.5: Simulation Run for F-shell Design- Temperature Profiles for F-shell Design under Clean Conditions
- Example 7.6
*Xist*Output Summary for Example 7.6: Design Run*Xist*Exchanger Drawing Showing Poor Baffle Configuration*Xist*Output Summary for Example 7.6: Final Rating Run- Design Summary for Example 7.6
- Exchanger Drawing for Example 7.6: Final Design
- Tube Layout for Example 7.6

- 8. HEAT-Exchanger Networks
- 8.1. Introduction
- 8.2. An Example: TC3
- 8.3. Design Targets
- 8.4. The Problem Table
- 8.5. Composite Curves
- 8.6. The Grand Composite Curve
- 8.7. Significance of the Pinch
- 8.8. Threshold Problems and Utility Pinches
- 8.9. Feasibility Criteria at the Pinch
- 8.10. Design Strategy
- 8.11. Minimum-Utility Design for TC3
- 8.12. Network Simplification
- 8.13. Number of Shells
- 8.14. Targeting for Number of Shells
- 8.15. Area Targets
- 8.16. The Driving Force Plot
- 8.17. Super Targeting
- 8.18. Targeting by Linear Programming
- 8.19. Computer Software
- Example 8.1
- HEXTRAN Input File for Example 8.1, Part (a)
- HEXTRAN Results for Example 8.1, Part (a)
- HEXTRAN Results for Example 8.1, Part (b)
- Example 8.2
- HEXTRAN Input File for Example 8.2
- HEXTRAN Results for Example 8.2 with EMAT = 17°C
- HEN for TC3 Generated By HEXTRAN with EMAT= 17°C
- HEN for TC3 Generated By HEXTRAN with EMAT = 18°C
- Example 8.3
- Example 8.3: Targets Window in HX-Net
- Example 8.3: Super Targeting Results from HX-Net
- Example 8.3: Targeting Graphs Generated by HX-Net
- 8.20. A Case Study: Gasoline Production from Bio-Ethanol

- 9. Boiling Heat Transfer
- 9.1. Introduction
- 9.2. Pool Boiling
- 9.3. Correlations for Nucleate Boiling on Horizontal Tubes
- Example 9.1
- Example 9.2
- Example 9.3
- Example 9.4
- 9.4. Two-Phase Flow
- Example 9.5
- Example 9.6
- 9.5. Convective Boiling in Tubes
- Example 9.7
- Example 9.8
- Example 9.9
- 9.6. Film Boiling
- Example 9.10

- 10. Reboilers
- 10.1. Introduction
- 10.2. Types of Reboilers
- 10.3. Design of Kettle Reboilers
- Example 10.1
- Example 10.2
- 10.4. Design of Horizontal Thermosyphon Reboilers
- Example 10.3
- 10.5. Design of Vertical Thermosyphon Reboilers
- Example 10.4
- 10.6. Computer Software
- Example 10.5
- HEXTRAN Input File for Example 10.5
- HEXTRAN Output Data for Example 10.5
- Example 10.6
- HEXTRAN Input File for Example 10.6
- HEXTRAN Output Data for Example 10.6
- Example 10.7
*Xist*Output Summary for Example 10.7*Xist*Tube Layout for Kettle Reboiler- Example 10.8
*Xist*Output Summary for Example 10.8- Example 10.9
*Xist*Output Summary for Example 10.9- Design Summary for Example 10.9: Vertical Thermosyphon Reboiler
*Xist*Exchanger Drawing for Example 10.9*Xist*Tube Layout for Example 10.9- Example 10.10
*Xist*Output Summary for Re-rating of an Existing Naphtha Reboiler*Xist*Output Summary for Naphtha Reboiler Using 250 psia Steam

- 11. Condensers
- 11.1. Introduction
- 11.2. Condenser Geometries and Configurations
- 11.3. Condensation on a Vertical Surface: Nusselt Theory
- 11.4. Condensation on Horizontal Tubes
- Example 11.1
- 11.5. Modifications of Nusselt Theory
- Example 11.2
- Example 11.3
- 11.6. Condensation Inside Horizontal Tubes
- Example 11.4
- Example 11.5
- 11.7. Condensation on Finned Tubes
- 11.8. Pressure Drop
- 11.9. Mean Temperature Difference
- Example 11.6
- Example 11.7
- 11.10. Multi-Component Condensation
- Example 11.8
- 11.11. Computer Software
- Example 11.9
*Xist*Output Summary for Example 11.9- HEXTRAN Input File for Example 11.9
- HEXTRAN Output Data for Example 11.9
- Example 11.10
*Xist*Output Summary for Example 11.10: Design 1 (J-shell Condenser)*Xist*Output Summary for Example 11.10: Design 2 (X-shell Condenser)- Design Summaries for Example 11.10
- Exchanger Drawing and Tube Layout for Design 1 (J-shell Condenser)
- Exchanger Drawing and Tube Layout for Design 2 (X-shell Condenser)
- Example 11.11
- Tube Layout for Example 11.11: Design with Single Segmental Baffles
- Setting Plan for Example 11.11: Design with Single Segmental Baffles
- Tube Layout for Example 11.11: Design with Double Segmental Baffles
- Rating Data Sheet for Example 11.11: Design with Double Segmental Baffles

- 12. Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers
- 12.1. Introduction
- 12.2. Equipment Description
- 12.3. Air-Side Heat-Transfer Coefficient
- 12.4. Air-Side Pressure Drop
- 12.5. Overall Heat-Transfer Coefficient
- 12.6. Fan and Motor Sizing
- 12.7. Mean Temperature Difference
- 12.8. Design Guidelines
- 12.9. Design Strategy
- Example 12.1
- 12.10. Computer Software
- Example 12.2
- HEXTRAN Input File for Example 12.2
- HEXTRAN Output Data for Example 12.2
- Example 12.3
*Xace*Output Summary for Example 12.3*Xace*Exchanger Drawings for Example 12.3*Xace*Tube Layout for Example 12.3- Example 12.4
*Xace*Output Summary for Example 12.4: Design Run with 60 ft Tubes*Xace*Output Summary for Example 12.4: Rating Run for Design 2- Design Summaries for Example 12.4
- Fan Bay Layout for Design 1
- Fan Bay Layout for Design 2
- Tube Bundle Layout for Designs 2 and 3
- Exchanger Drawing for Design 2 (1 of 2 Bays)

- Appendix A. Thermophysical Properties of Materials
- Appendix B. Dimensions of Pipe and Tubing
- Appendix C. Tube-Count Tables
- Appendix D. Equivalent Lengths of Pipe Fittings
- Appendix E. Properties of Petroleum Streams
- Index

## Details

- No. of pages:
- 632

- Language:
- English

- Copyright:
- © Academic Press 2014

- Published:
- 28th February 2014

- Imprint:
- Academic Press

- Hardcover ISBN:
- 9780123971951

- eBook ISBN:
- 9780123977922

## About the Authors

### Robert Serth

Bob taught for more than 30 years in the Department of Chemical and Natural Gas Engineering at Texas A&M University-Kingsville. Prior to that, he was a senior research engineer at Monsanto and taught chemical engineering at the University of Puerto Rico in Mayaguez.

### Affiliations and Expertise

Previously Texas A&M University-Kingsville; Monsanto Research Corporation; University of Puerto Rico.

### Thomas Lestina

Vice President, Research & Engineering Services, Heat Transfer Research, Inc, TX, USA. Tom Lestina has more than 30 years of engineering and project management experience.

### Affiliations and Expertise

Vice President, Engineering Services, Heat Transfer Research, Inc, TX, USA