Process Heat Transfer

Process Heat Transfer

Principles, Applications and Rules of Thumb

1st Edition - March 28, 2007

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  • Authors: Robert Serth, Thomas Lestina, Robert Serth
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080544410

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Description

The First Law of Thermodynamics states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed. Heat exchangers are devices built for efficient heat transfer from one fluid to another. They are widely used in engineering processes and include examples such as intercoolers, preheaters, boilers and condensers in power plants. Heat exchangers are becoming more and more important to manufacturers striving to control energy costs. Process Heat Transfer Rules of Thumb investigates the design and implementation of industrial heat exchangers. It provides the background needed to understand and master the commercial software packages used by professional engineers for design and analysis of heat exchangers. This book focuses on the types of heat exchangers most widely used by industry, namely shell-and-tube exchangers (including condensers, reboilers and vaporizers), air-cooled heat exchangers and double-pipe (hairpin) exchangers. It provides a substantial introduction to the design of heat exchanger networks using pinch technology, the most efficient strategy used to achieve optimal recovery of heat in industrial processes.

Key Features

  • Utilizes leading commercial software important to professional engineers designing heat exchangers
  • Illustrates design procedures using complete step-by-step worked examples
  • Provides details on how to develop an initial configuration for a heat exchanger and how to systematically modify it to obtain a final design
  • Abundant example problems solved manually and with the integration of computer software

Readership

Practicing engineers involved with heat transfer equipment in chemical, petrochemical, petroleum processing, and engineering services and consulting firms; students

Table of Contents



  • CHAPTER 1. HEAT CONDUCTION
    1. Introduction
    2. Fourier’s Law of Heat Conduction
    3. The Heat Conduction Equation
    4. Thermal Resistance5
    5. The Conduction Shape Factor
    6. Unsteady-State Conduction
    7. Mechanisms of Heat Conduction
    References
    Notation
    Problems

    CHAPTER 2. CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER
    1. Introduction
    2. Combined Conduction and Convection
    3. Extended Surfaces
    4. Forced Convection in Pipes and Ducts
    5. Forced Convection in External Flow
    6. Free Convection
    References
    Notation
    Problems

    CHAPTER 3. HEAT EXCHANGERS
    1. Introduction
    2. Double-Pipe Equipment
    3. Shell-And-Tube Equipment
    4. The Overall Heat-Transfer Coefficient
    5. The LMTD Correction Factor
    6. Analysis of Double-Pipe Exchangers
    7. Preliminary Design of Shell-And-Tube Exchangers
    8. Rating A Shell-And-Tube Exchanger
    9. Heat Exchanger Effectiveness
    References
    Appendix 3-A. Derivation of the Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference
    Notation
    Problems

    CHAPTER 4. DESIGN OF DOUBLE-PIPE HEAT EXCHANGERS
    1. Introduction
    2. Heat-Transfer Coefficients for Exchangers Without Fins
    3. Hydraulic Calculations for Exchangers Without Fins
    4. Series/Parallel Configurations of Hairpins
    5. Multi-Tube Exchangers
    6. Over-Surface and Over-Design
    7. Finned-Pipe Exchangers
    7.1. Finned-Pipe Characteristics
    7.2. Fin Efficiency
    7.3. Overall Heat-Transfer Coefficient
    7.4. Flow Area and Equivalent Diameter
    8. Heat-Transfer Coefficients and Friction Factors for Finned Annuli
    9. Wall Temperature for Finned Pipes
    10. Computer Software
    10.1 HEXTRAN
    10.2 HTFS/Aspen
    References
    Appendix 4-A. Hydraulic Equations in SI Units
    Appendix 4-B. Incremental Analysis
    Notation
    Problems

    CHAPTER 5. DESIGN OF SHELL-AND-TUBE HEAT EXHANGERS
    1. Introduction
    2. Heat-Transfer Coefficients
    3. Hydraulic Calculations
    3.1. Tube-Side Pressure Drop
    3.2. Shell-Side Pressure Drop
    4. Finned Tubing
    5. Tube-Count Tables
    6. Factors Affecting Pressure Drop
    6.1. Tube-Side Pressure Drop
    6.2. Shell-Side Pressure Drop
    7. Design Guidelines
    7.1. Fluid Placement
    7.2. Tubing Selection
    7.3. Tube Layout
    7.4. Tube Passes
    7.5. Shell and Head Types
    7.6. Baffles and Tubesheets
    7.7. Nozzles
    7.8. Sealing Strips
    8. Design Strategy
    9. Computer Software
    References
    Appendix 5-A. Hydraulic Equations in SI Units
    Appendix 5-B. Maximum Tube-Side Fluid Velocities
    Appendix 5-C. Maximum Unsupported Tube Lengths
    Appendix 5-D. Comparison of Head Types for Shell-and-Tube Exchangers
    Notation
    Problems
    CHAPTER 6. THE DELAWARE METHOD
    1. Introduction
    2. Ideal Tube Bank Correlations
    3. Shell-Side Heat-Transfer Coefficient
    4. Shell-Side Pressure Drop
    4.1. Calculation of
    4.2. Calculation of
    4.3. Calculation of
    4.4. Summary
    5. The Flow Areas
    5.1. The Cross-Flow Area
    5.2. Tube-to-Baffle Leakage Area
    5.3. Shell-to-Baffle Leakage Area
    5.4. The Bundle Bypass Flow Area
    5.5. The Window Flow Area
    6. Correlations for the Correction Factors
    6.1. Correction Factor for Baffle Window Flow
    6.2. Correction Factors for Baffle Leakage
    6.3. Correction Factors for Bundle Bypass Flow
    6.4. Correction Factors for Unequal Baffle Spacing
    6.5. Laminar Flow Correction Factor
    7. Estimation of Clearances
    References
    Notation
    Problems

    CHAPTER 7. THE STREAM ANALYSIS METHOD
    1. Introduction
    2. The Equivalent Hydraulic Network
    3. The Hydraulic Equations
    3.1. Stream Pressure Drops
    3.2. Balanced Pressure Drop Requirements
    3.3. Mass Conservation
    3.4. Correlations for Flow Resistance Coefficients
    3.5. Window Pressure Drop
    3.6. Window Friction Factor
    3.7. Summary
    4. Shell-Side Pressure Drop
    5. Shell-Side Heat-Transfer Coefficient
    6. Temperature Profile Distortion
    7. The Wills-Johnston Method
    7.1. Streams and Flow Areas
    7.2. Pressure Drops and Stream Flow Rates
    7.3. Flow Resistances
    7.3.1. The Cross Flow Resistance
    7.3.2. The Bypass Flow Resistance

    CHAPTER 7. (CONT’D)
    7.3.3. The Tube-to-Baffle Leakage Flow Resistance
    7.3.4. The Shell-to-Baffle Leakage Flow Resistance
    7.3.5. The Window Flow Resistance
    7.4. Inlet and outlet Baffle Spaces
    7.5. Total Shell-Side Pressure Drop
    8. Computer Software
    8.1. HTRI
    8.2. HTFS/Aspen
    References
    Notation
    Problems

    CHAPTER 8. HEAT EXCHANGER NETWORKS
    1. Introduction
    2. An Example
    3. Design Targets
    4. The Problem Table
    5. Composite Curves
    6. The Grand Composite Curve
    7. Significance of the Pinch
    8. Threshold Problems and Utility Pinches
    9. Feasibility Criteria at the Pinch
    9.1. Number of Process Streams and Branches
    9.2. The CP Inequality
    9.3. The CP Difference
    9.4. The CP Table
    10. Design Strategy
    11. Minimum Utility Design for TC3
    11.1. Hot End Design
    11.2. Cold End Design
    11.3. Complete Network Design
    12. Network Simplification
    12.1. Heat Load Loops
    12.2. Heat Load Paths
    13. Number of Shells
    14. Targeting for Number of Shells
    14.1. Graphical Method
    14.2. Analytical Method
    15. Area Targets
    16. The Driving Force Plot
    17. Super Targeting
    18. Targeting by Linear Programming
    19. Computer Software
    19.1. HEXTRAN
    19.2. HX-Net
    References
    Notation
    Problems


    CHAPTER 9. BOILING HEAT TRANSFER
    1. Introduction
    2. Pool Boiling
    3. Correlations for Nucleate Boiling on Horizontal Tubes
    3.1. Heat-Transfer Coefficients for Pure Component Nucleate Boiling
    on a Single Tube
    3.1.1. The Forster-Zuber Correlation
    3.1.2. The Mostinski Correlation
    3.1.3. The Cooper Correlation
    3.1.4. The Stephan-Abdelsalam Correlation
    3.2. Mixture Effects
    3.3. Convective Effects in Tube Bundles
    3.4. Critical Heat Flux
    4. Two-Phase Flow
    4.1. Two-Phase Flow Regimes
    4.2. Pressure Drop Correlations
    4.2.1. The Lockhart-Martinelli Correlation
    4.2.2. The Chisholm Correlation
    4.2.3. The Friedel Correlation
    4.2.4. The Müller-Steinhagen and Heck (MSH) Correlation
    4.3. Void Fraction and Two-Phase Density
    4.3.1. Void Fraction
    4.3.2. Homogeneous Flow Model
    4.3.3. Lockhart-Martinelli Correlation
    4.3.4. The Chisholm Correlation
    4.3.5. The CISE Correlation
    4.4. Other Losses
    4.5. Recommendations
    5. Convective Boiling in Tubes
    5.1. Boiling Regimes in a Vertical Tube
    5.2. The Chen Correlation
    5.3. The Gungor-Winterton Correlation
    5.4. The Liu-Winterton Correlation
    5.5. Other Correlations
    5.6. Critical Heat Flux
    5.6.1. Vertical Tubes
    5.6.2. Horizontal Tubes
    6. Film Boiling
    References
    Notation
    Problems

    CHAPTER 10. REBOILERS
    1. Introduction
    2. Types of Reboilers
    2.1. Kettle Reboilers
    2.2. Vertical Thermosyphon Reboilers
    2.3. Horizontal Thermosyphon Reboilers
    2.4. Forced Flow Reboilers
    2.5. Internal Reboilers
    2.6. Recirculating Versus Once-Through Operation
    2.7. Reboiler Selection
    3. Design of Kettle Reboilers
    3.1. Design Strategy
    3.2. Mean Temperature Difference
    3.3. Fouling Factors
    3.4. Number of Nozzles
    3.5. Shell Diameter
    3.6. Liquid Overflow Reservoir
    3.7. Finned Tubing
    3.8. Steam as Heating Medium
    3.9. Two-Phase Density Calculation
    4. Design of Horizontal Thermosyphon Reboilers
    4.1. Design Strategy
    4.2. Design Guidelines
    5. Design of Vertical Thermosyphon Reboilers
    5.1. Introduction
    5.2. Pressure Balance
    5.3. Sensible Heating Zone
    5.4. Mist Flow Limit
    5.5. Flow Instabilities
    5.6. Size Limitations
    5.7. Design Strategy
    5.7.1. Preliminary Design
    5.7.2. Circulation Rate
    5.7.3. Stepwise Calculations
    6. Computer Software
    6.1. HEXTRAN
    6.2. HTFS/Aspen
    6.3. HTRI
    References
    Appendix 10-A. Areas of Circular Segments
    Notation
    Problems

    CHAPTER 11. CONDENSERS
    1. Introduction
    2. Types of Condensers
    2.1. Horizontal Shell-Side Condenser

    CHAPTER 11. (CONT’D)
    2.2. Horizontal Tube-Side Condenser
    2.3. Vertical Shell-Side Condenser
    2.4. Vertical Tube-Side Downflow Condenser
    2.5. Reflux Condenser
    3. Condensation on a Vertical Surface: Nusselt Theory
    3.1. Condensation on a Plane Wall
    3.2. Condensation on Vertical Tubes
    4. Condensation on Horizontal Tubes
    5. Modifications of Nusselt Theory
    5.1. Variable Fluid Properties
    5.2. Inclined Surfaces
    5.3. Turbulence in Condensate Film
    5.4. Superheated Vapor
    5.5. Condensate Subcooling
    5.6. Interfacial Shear
    5.6.1. Condensation in Vertical Tubes with Vapor Upflow
    5.6.2. Condensation in Vertical Tubes with Vapor Downflow
    5.6.3. Condensation Outside Horizontal Tubes
    6. Condensation Inside Horizontal Tubes
    6.1. Flow Regimes
    6.2. Stratified Flow
    6.3. Annular Flow
    6.4. Other Flow Regimes
    7. Condensation on Finned Tubes
    8. Pressure Drop
    9. Mean Temperature Difference
    10. Multicomponent Condensation
    10.1. The General Problem
    10.2. The Bell-Ghaly Method
    11. Computer Software
    References
    Appendix 11-A. LMTD Correction Factors for TEMA J- and X-Shells
    Appendix 11-B. Other Design Considerations
    Notation
    Problems

    CHAPTER 12. AIR-COOLED HEAT EXCHANGERS
    1. Introduction
    2. Equipment Description
    2.1. Overall Configuration
    2.2. High-fin Tubing
    2.3. Tube Bundle Construction
    2.4. Fans and Drivers
    2.5. Equipment for Cold Climates
    3. Air-Side Heat-Transfer Coefficient
    4. Air-Side Pressure Drop 5. Overall Heat-Transfer Coefficient
    6. Fan and Motor Sizing
    7. Mean Temperature Difference
    8. Design Guidelines
    8.1. Tubing
    8.2. Air flow Distribution
    8.3. Design Air Temperature
    8.4. Outlet Air Temperature
    8.5. Air Velocity
    8.6. Construction Standards
    9. Design Strategy
    10. Computer Software
    10.1. HEXTRAN
    10.2. HTFS/Aspen
    10.3. HTRI
    References
    Appendix 12-A. LMTD Correction Factors for Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers
    Appendix 12-B. Standard U. S. Motor Sizes
    Appendix 12-C. Correction of Air Density for Elevation
    Notation
    Problems

    APPENDIX A. THERMOPHSICAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS
    APPENDIX B. DIMENSIONS OF PIPE AND TUBING
    APPENDIX C. TUBE-COUNT TABLES
    APPENDIX D. EQUIVALENT LENGTHS OF PIPE FITTINGS
    APPENDIX E. PROPERTIES OF PETROLEUM STREAMS

Product details

  • No. of pages: 770
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2007
  • Published: March 28, 2007
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080544410

About the Authors

Robert Serth

Bob taught for more than 30 years in the Department of Chemical and Natural Gas Engineering at Texas A&M University-Kingsville. Prior to that, he was a senior research engineer at Monsanto and taught chemical engineering at the University of Puerto Rico in Mayaguez.

Affiliations and Expertise

Previously Texas A&M University-Kingsville; Monsanto Research Corporation; University of Puerto Rico.

Thomas Lestina

Thomas Lestina
Vice President, Research & Engineering Services, Heat Transfer Research, Inc, TX, USA. Tom Lestina has more than 30 years of engineering and project management experience.

Affiliations and Expertise

Vice President, Engineering Services, Heat Transfer Research, Inc, TX, USA

Robert Serth

Bob taught for more than 30 years in the Department of Chemical and Natural Gas Engineering at Texas A&M University-Kingsville. Prior to that, he was a senior research engineer at Monsanto and taught chemical engineering at the University of Puerto Rico in Mayaguez.

Affiliations and Expertise

Previously Texas A&M University-Kingsville; Monsanto Research Corporation; University of Puerto Rico.

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