I. Theory and Techniques. Historical Notes. Optical Microscopy. Conventional Transmission Electron Microscopy and Related Techniques. Analytical Electron Microscopy. Surface Techniques. Special Beam Techniques for the Characterization of Microelectronic Devices. X-Ray Photoelectron and Auger Electron Spectroscopy. Ion Beam Techniques. Multitechnique Surface Analysis Systems. Molecular Microprobes. Strategy: Fitting the Technique to the Problem. References. II. Case Histories and Applications. Synthetic Polymers. Microelectronics. Miscellaneous Case Histories and Applications. References. Subject index.