Principles of Tumors

Principles of Tumors

1st Edition - August 18, 2015

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  • Author: Leon Bignold
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128017531
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128015650

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Principles of Tumors covers all of the fundamental aspects of tumors, including their definitions, incidences, causation, pathogenesis, treatments, and prevention. The book provides a unique approach, integrating a wide range of basic bioscience findings with clinico-pathological observations and phenomena encountered in their treatment. As tumors are studied in fairly separate, broad areas, such as basic biological sciences, pathology, oncology, and epidemiology, this book brings together these perspectives, providing an all-inclusive text that benefits all researchers, while also providing an avenue for translational research.

Key Features

  • Integrates both cell mechanisms and tumor physiopathology
  • Brings together research and perspectives from basic biological sciences, pathology, oncology, and epidemiology, providing an all-inclusive text
  • Provides a concise tumor reference for the tumor researcher and oncologist
  • Includes appendices for foundational material
  • Brings out the cell detail of tumors


Early researchers in all areas of tumour practice, research, epidemiology and related disciplines, established practitioners and researchers in tumours, oncologists

Table of Contents

    • Preface and Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 1. Introduction
      • 1.1 Essential Aspects of the Nature, Types, and Rates of Incidence of Tumors
      • 1.2 Basic Aspects of Etiopathogenesis
      • 1.3 Abnormalities in Morphology and “Molecular Pathology”
      • 1.4 Fundamental Aspects of Clinical Features and Treatments
      • 1.5 Prevention
      • References
    • Chapter 2. Theories and Definitions of Tumors
      • 2.1 Distinguishing Tumors from Other Swellings
      • 2.2 Early Definitions of Tumors Emphasized Uncontrolled Growth
      • 2.3 Theories Involving Disordered Biological Processes
      • 2.4 The First Genomic Theories Related to Abnormal Chromosomes
      • 2.5 Contributions of R.A. Willis
      • 2.6 Acceptance of the Somatic Genomic Events Theory
      • 2.7 The Suggested Limited Polyclonality of Tumor Cell Populations
      • 2.8 The “Mutator Phenotype” (Heterogeneously Heterogenizing Cell Population) Theory
      • 2.9 Other Theories and Concepts
      • 2.10 Current Definitions
      • 2.11 Lack of Theories for the Precise Genomic Events and the Thousand or So Different Types of Tumors—and All Their Complex Features—All from the One Genome
      • References
    • Chapter 3. Incidences, Mortality, and Classifications of Tumors
      • 3.1 General Aspects of the Reported Incidences and Prevalence of Tumor Types
      • 3.2 Medical Activity and the Incidence and Prevalence Rates of Tumor Types
      • 3.3 Mortality
      • 3.4 Classifications of Tumors
      • References
    • Chapter 4. Etio-pathogenesis I: Causative Agents of Tumors
      • 4.1 General Issues in Tumor Formation
      • 4.2 General Aspects of Etiological Agents and Their Effects
      • 4.3 Radiations
      • 4.4 Chemicals
      • 4.5 Viruses
      • 4.6 Other Microorganisms as Carcinogens
      • 4.7 Hormones as Carcinogens
      • 4.8 “Solid” Carcinogens In Vivo
      • References
    • Chapter 5. Etio-Pathogenesis II: Genomic Events and Processes Potentially Caused by Etiological Agents
      • 5.1 Uninucleotide Events and Processes
      • 5.2 Intermediate Genomic Events (Small Chromosomal Aberrations)
      • 5.3 Fixed and Unstable Chromosomal Abnormalities in Tumor Cell Populations
      • 5.4 Other Kinds of Genomic Instability in Tumors
      • 5.5 Potential Effects of the Genomic Instabilities in Tumor Cell Populations
      • 5.6 Abnormal Regulation of Genes in Tumor Cell Genomes
      • 5.7 Genomic Lesions Potentially Inducible by Viruses and Other Agents
      • References
    • Chapter 6. Etio-Pathogenesis III: Growth, Invasion, and Metastasis
      • 6.1 General Perspective of Cell Accumulation
      • 6.2 General Aspects of Growth Factors and Oncogenes
      • 6.3 Growth Factors and Oncogenes Relating to Cell Signaling Pathways
      • 6.4 Other Aspects of Cell Signaling, Growth Factors, and Oncogenes
      • 6.5 Tumor Suppressor Genes
      • 6.6 Pathological Observations, Cell Biology, and Possible Genomic Pathogenesis of Invasion
      • 6.7 Pathological Observations, Cell Biology, and Pathogenesis of Metastasis
      • 6.8 Possible Genomic Bases of Invasion and Metastasis
      • References
    • Chapter 7. Etio-Pathogenesis IV: Heredity
      • 7.1 General Aspects of High-Penetrance Hereditary Predispositions to Tumors in Humans
      • 7.2 Phenotype–Genotype Relationship I: A single Tumor Type Deriving from One Parent-Cell Type with One Gene or More Involved
      • 7.3 Phenotype–Genotype Relationship II: Several Tumor Types Deriving from One (or Closely Related) Parent-Cell Type with One Gene Involved
      • 7.4 Phenotype–Genotype Relationship III: Multiple Tumor Types and Even Nontumor Lesions Arising in Different Kinds of Parent Cells in the One Individual: SINGLE GENE
      • 7.5 Phenotype–Genotype Relationship IV: Multiple Tumor Types and Even Nontumor Lesions Arising in Different Kinds of Parent Cells: Multiple Genes
      • 7.6 Phenotype–Genotype Relationship V: Predispositions to Different Syndromes According to Position of Germ-Line Event in A SINGLE Gene
      • 7.7 Genomic Models for the Inherited Predispositions
      • 7.8 Low-Penetrance Inherited Susceptibility Syndromes in Humans
      • 7.9 Hereditary Predispositions to Tumors in Experimental Animals
      • References
    • Chapter 8. Morphology, Type Characteristics, and Related Features of Tumors
      • 8.1 Morphological and Other Features of Tumor Cells
      • 8.2 Characterization of the Tumor Types in Terms of Combinations of Behavioral, Morphological, and Other Features
      • 8.3 Details of Variabilities in Tumors
      • 8.4 “Progression” in Tumor Cell Populations
      • 8.5 Possible Genomic Mechanisms of Variations Combined with Associations of Features, as CharacterizeD BY the Tumor Types
      • 8.6 Are Hematopoietic Tumors Similar in Principle to “Solid” Tumors?
      • References
    • Chapter 9. Molecular Abnormalities in Tumors: “Molecular Pathology” and “Biomarkers”
      • 9.1 General Terms Used in the Study of Molecular Abnormalities in Tumors
      • 9.2 Background to the Identification and Localization of Specific Chemicals in Tissues
      • 9.3 Antigens and Related Non-Nucleic Acid Materials in Human Tumor Cells
      • 9.4 Nucleotide Sequences in RNA and DNA in Human Tumor Cells
      • 9.5 Chromosomal (“Cytogenetic”) Abnormalities Detected in Tumors
      • 9.6 Correlations between the Molecular Pathological Data and the Clinical Behavior of the Tumor Masses
      • 9.7 “Biomarkers”
      • References
    • Chapter 10. Sublethal Injuries and Deaths of Cells and Tissues
      • 10.1 Sublethal Nongenopathic Effects in Cells: “Degenerations,” “Cell Stress,” and “Cell Stress Responses”
      • 10.2 Sublethal Genopathic Injuries to Cells
      • 10.3 Cell Deaths in Normal Cell Populations In Vivo
      • 10.4 Necrosis
      • 10.5 Apoptosis
      • 10.6 Other Forms of Cell Death
      • 10.7 Inflammation and Other Tissue Effects of Noxins
      • References
    • Chapter 11. Therapies I: General Principles
      • 11.1 Objectives
      • 11.2 Principles of Surgical Therapy
      • 11.3 Principles of Nonsurgical Therapies
      • 11.4 Partial Responses of Tumors to Nonsurgical Anticancer Agents
      • 11.5 Other Aspects of Nonsurgical Therapies
      • References
    • Chapter 12. Therapies II: Specific Non-surgical Treatments
      • 12.1 Aspects of Radiation Therapy
      • 12.2 Aspects of Cytotoxic Anti-cancer Chemotherapy
      • 12.3 “Selective”/“Targeted” Drugs
      • 12.4 Aspects of Personalized Medicine
      • 12.5 Other Modes of Non-surgical Therapy
      • 12.6 Assessing Effects of Therapies in the Individual Case
      • 12.7 Palliative and Supportive Care
      • 12.8 “Alternative”/“Complementary” Regimens
      • References
    • Chapter 13. Therapies III: Development of Therapies, Costs, and Ethics
      • 13.1 Developing New Therapeutic Agents: Chemical and Laboratory Phases
      • 13.2 Developing New Therapies: Individual Clinical Trials and Meta-Analyses of Multiple Trials
      • 13.3 The Cancer Burden and Costs
      • 13.4 Ethical Issues
      • References
    • Chapter 14. Aspects of the Prevention of Tumors
      • 14.1 Epidemiological Methods for Identifying Unknown Environmental Carcinogens
      • 14.2 Laboratory Methods in the Identification of Environmental Carcinogens
      • 14.3 Human Lesion-Screening Programs and Their Efficacies in Preventing Deaths from Tumors
      • 14.4 Cancer Preventive Drugs: Benefits and Potential Dangers
      • References
    • Appendix 1. Principles of Normal Histology and Related Cell Biology
      • A1.1 Aspects of Normal Development and Organs and Tissues of the Adult
      • A1.2 Aspects of Normal Cells
      • A1.3 Growth in Normal Tissues and Cells
      • A1.4 Different Susceptibilities and Responses of Normal Cells to Injuries
      • A1.5 Invasions and Metastases by Normal Individual Cells and Populations of Cells
      • References
    • Appendix 2. Aspects of the Normal Genome
      • A2.1 General Aspects
      • A2.2 Aspects of the Production of Proteins and RNAs from Genes
      • A2.3 Particular Disturbances of Regulation of Gene Activity Which Are Potentially Relevant to Tumors
      • A2.4 Aspects of Enzymatic Processes Relating to the Functioning of the Genome
      • References
    • Appendix 3. “Pre-Target,” “Target,” and “Post-Target” Factors in the Defense of Cells Against Carcinogens and Cytotoxic Agents
      • A3.1 “Pre-Target” Defenses
      • A3.2 “Target” Defenses
      • A3.3 “Post-Target” Defenses
      • A3.4 Possible Roles of Defensive Factors in False-Negative and False-Positive Results of Animal Tests for Carcinogens and Anticancer Drugs
      • References
    • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 468
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2015
  • Published: August 18, 2015
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128017531
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128015650

About the Author

Leon Bignold

Dr. Leon Bignold teaches pathology to medical undergraduates and post graduates and has for the last 30 years. He also works as a diagnostic histopathologist in a hospital environment for the last 30 years. He has published 3 oncology books with Springer in the last 10 years. Leon Bignold is a regularly invited speaker at international oncology conferences.

Affiliations and Expertise

Senior Consultant Histopathologist, SA Pathology, Adelaide, and Clinical Senior Lecturer, Discipline of Pathology, University of Adelaide, Australia

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