Principles of Soil and Plant Water Relations - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780124200227, 9780124200784

Principles of Soil and Plant Water Relations

2nd Edition

Authors: M.B. Kirkham
eBook ISBN: 9780124200784
Hardcover ISBN: 9780124200227
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 6th May 2014
Page Count: 598
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Description

Principles of Soil and Plant Water Relations, 2e describes the principles of water relations within soils, followed by the uptake of water and its subsequent movement throughout and from the plant body.   This is presented as a progressive series of physical and biological interrelations, even though each topic is treated in detail on its own. The book also describes equipment used to measure water in the soil-plant-atmosphere system.  At the end of each chapter is a biography of a scientist whose principles are discussed in the chapter.  In addition to new information on the concept of celestial time, this new edition also includes new chapters on methods to determine sap flow in plants dual-probe heat-pulse technique to monitor water in the root zone.

Key Features

  • Provides the necessary understanding to address advancing problems in water availability for meeting ecological requirements at local, regional and global scales
  • Covers plant anatomy: an essential component to understanding soil and plant water relations

Readership

Upper-undergraduates & graduates, professional interested in soil-plant-water relations

Table of Contents

  • Dedication
  • Preface to the First Edition
  • Preface to the Second Edition
  • Chapter 1. Introduction
    • 1.1. Why Study Soil–Plant–Water Relations?
    • 1.2. Plant Growth Curves
    • 1.3. Appendix: Biography of John Napier
  • Chapter 2. Definitions of Physical Units and the International System
    • 2.1. Definitions
    • 2.2. Le Système International d'unités
    • 2.3. Example: Applying Units of Work and Pressure to a Root
    • 2.4. Appendix: Biography of Isaac Newton
  • Chapter 3. Structure and Properties of Water
    • 3.1. Structure of Water
    • 3.2. Forces that Bind Water Molecules Together
    • 3.3. Properties of Water
    • 3.4. Appendix: Biography of Johannes van der Waals
  • Chapter 4. Soil–Water Terminology and Applications
    • 4.1. Water Content
    • 4.2. Water Potential
    • 4.3. Heads in a Column of Soil
    • 4.4. Movement of Water between Tensiometers
    • 4.5. Appendix: Biography of William L. Powers
  • Chapter 5. Tensiometers
    • 5.1. Description of a Tensiometer
    • 5.2. Types of Tensiometers
    • 5.3. Temperature Effects on Tensiometers
    • 5.4. Applications of Tensiometers
    • 5.5. Appendix: Biography of L.A. Richards
  • Chapter 6. Static Water in Soil
    • 6.1. Surface Tension
    • 6.2. Examples of Surface Tension
    • 6.3. Rise and Fall of Water in Soil Pores
    • 6.4. Appendix: Biography of Marquis de Laplace
  • Chapter 7. Water Movement in Saturated Soil
    • 7.1. Darcy's Law
    • 7.2. Hydraulic Conductivity
    • 7.3. Laplace's Equation
    • 7.4. Ellipse Equation
    • 7.5. Linear Flow Laws
    • 7.6. Appendix: Biography of Apollonius of Perga
    • 7.7. Appendix: Biography of Henry Darcy
  • Chapter 8. Time Domain Reflectometry
    • 8.1. Definitions
    • 8.2. Dielectric Constant, Frequency Domain, and Time Domain
    • 8.3. Theory for the Use of the Dielectric Constant to Measure Soil Water Content
    • 8.4. Coaxial Cable and Waveguides
    • 8.5. Measurement of Soil Water Content Using TDR
    • 8.6. Practical Information When Using TDR to Measure Soil Water Content
    • 8.7. Example of Using TDR to Determine Root Water Uptake
    • 8.8. Commercially Available Equipment
    • 8.9. Appendix: Biography of Heinrich Hertz
    • 8.10. Appendix: Biography of Sergei Schelkunoff
  • Chapter 9. Dual Thermal Probes
    • 9.1. Introduction
    • 9.2. Thermal Properties of Soils
    • 9.3. Theory of the Dual-Probe Heat-Pulse Method
    • 9.4. Example Calculation
    • 9.5. Meaning of Q
    • 9.6. Measurements of Differences of Water Content, Δθ
    • 9.7. Errors
    • 9.8. Advantages
    • 9.9. Calibration
    • 9.10. Measurements Near the Soil Surface
    • 9.11. Convection and Its Effect on Measurements
    • 9.12. Measurement of Electrical Conductivity
    • 9.13. Determination of Soil Water Movement
    • 9.14. Measurements with Roots in Soil
    • 9.15. Hydraulic Lift
    • 9.16. Commercially Available Equipment
    • 9.17. Summary
    • 9.18. Appendix: Biography of John Jaeger
  • Chapter 10. Field Capacity, Wilting Point, Available Water, and the Nonlimiting Water Range
    • 10.1. Field Capacity
    • 10.2. Wilting Point
    • 10.3. Available Water
    • 10.4. Nonlimiting Water Range
    • 10.5. Biographies of Briggs and Shantz
  • Chapter 11. Penetrometers
    • 11.1. Definition, Types of Penetrometers, and Uses
    • 11.2. Types of Tests
    • 11.3. What Penetrometer Measurements Depend upon
    • 11.4. Cone Penetrometer
    • 11.5. Appendix: Biography of Champ Tanner
  • Chapter 12. Oxygen Diffusion Rate
    • 12.1. The Oxygen Diffusion Rate Method
    • 12.2. Electrolysis
    • 12.3. Model and Principles of the ODR Method
    • 12.4. Method
    • 12.5. Appendix: Biography of Michael Faraday
  • Chapter 13. Infiltration
    • 13.1. Definition of Infiltration
    • 13.2. Four Models of One-Dimensional Infiltration
    • 13.3. Two- and Three-Dimensional Infiltration
    • 13.4. Redistribution
    • 13.5. Tension Infiltrometer or Disc Permeameter
    • 13.6. Minidisk Infiltrometer
    • 13.7. Measurement of Unsaturated Hydraulic Conductivity and Sorptivity with the Tension Infiltrometer
    • 13.8. Measurement of Repellency with the Tension Infiltrometer
    • 13.9. Measurement of Mobility with the Tension Infiltrometer
    • 13.10. Ellipsoidal Description of Water Flow into Soil from a Surface Disc
    • 13.11. Appendix: Biography of John Philip
  • Chapter 14. Pore Volume
    • 14.1. Definitions
    • 14.2. Illustration of Breakthrough Curves and Pore Volumes
    • 14.3. Mathematical Analysis of Pore Volume
    • 14.4. Calculation of a Pore Volume
    • 14.5. Pore Volumes Based on Length Units
    • 14.6. Miscible Displacement
    • 14.7. Relation between Mobile Water Content and Pore Volume
    • 14.8. Appendix: Biography of Donald Nielsen
  • Chapter 15. Root Anatomy and Poiseuille's Law for Water Flow in Roots
    • 15.1. Root Anatomy
    • 15.2. Poiseuille’s Law
    • 15.3. Assumptions of Poiseuille’s Law
    • 15.4. Calculations of Flow Based on Poiseuille's Law
    • 15.5. Agronomic Applications of Poiseuille’s Law
    • 15.6. Appendix: Biography of J.L.M. Poiseuille
    • 15.7. Appendix: Biography of Osborne Reynolds
    • 15.8. Appendix: Biography of Katherine Esau
  • Chapter 16. Gardner's Equation for Water Movement to Plant Roots
    • 16.1. Description of the Equation
    • 16.2. Assumptions
    • 16.3. Values for the Rate of Water Uptake
    • 16.4. Examples
    • 16.5. Effect of Wet and Dry Soil
    • 16.6. Effect of Root Radius
    • 16.7. Comparison of Matric Potential at Root and in Soil for Different Rates of Water Uptake
    • 16.8. Effect of Root Distribution on Wilting
    • 16.9. Final Comment
    • 16.10. Appendix: Biography of Wildford Gardner
  • Chapter 17. Stem Anatomy and Pressure–Volume Curves
    • 17.1. Stem Anatomy
    • 17.2. Measurement of the Components of the Water Potential
    • 17.3. Osmotic Potential (Ψs)
    • 17.4. Theory of Scholander Pressure–Volume Curves
    • 17.5. How to Analyze a Pressure–Volume Curve
    • 17.6. Turgor Potential (Ψp)
    • 17.7. Measurement of Plant Water Content and Relative Water Content
    • 17.8. Osmometer
    • 17.9. Appendix: Biography of Wilhelm Pfeffer
    • 17.10. Appendix: Biography of Jacobus van't Hoff
    • 17.11. Appendix: Biography of Rudolf Clausius
  • Chapter 18. Thermocouple Psychrometers
    • 18.1. Relation between Water Potential and Relative Humidity
    • 18.2. Thermoelectric Effects
    • 18.3. Joule Heating
    • 18.4. Thermoelectric Power
    • 18.5. Relationship between Vapor Pressure and Temperature
    • 18.6. Calibration
    • 18.7. Importance of Isothermal Conditions when Making Measurements
    • 18.8. Types of Thermocouple Psychrometers
    • 18.9. Appendix: Biography of J.C.A. Peltier
    • 18.10. Appendix: Biography of James Prescott Joule
    • 18.11. Appendix: Biography of William Thomson, Baron Kelvin
  • Chapter 19. Pressure Chambers
    • 19.1. Comparison of Measurements Made with the Pressure Chamber and the Thermocouple Psychrometer
    • 19.2. Advantages and Disadvantages of the Pressure Chamber
    • 19.3. Hydraulic Press
    • 19.4. Pump-up Pressure Chamber
    • 19.5. Appendix: Biography of Per Scholander
    • 19.6. Appendix: Biography of John Boyer
  • Chapter 20. The Ascent of Water in Plants
    • 20.1. The Problem
    • 20.2. How Water Gets to the Top of Tall Buildings and Animals
    • 20.3. Cohesion Theory
    • 20.4. Limitations of the Cohesion Theory
    • 20.5. Alternative Theories to the Cohesion Theory
    • 20.6. New Techniques to Confirm the Cohesion Theory
    • 20.7. Controversy about the Cohesion Theory
    • 20.8. Potentials in the Soil–Plant–Atmosphere Continuum
    • 20.9. Appendix: Biography of Henry Dixon
    • 20.10. Appendix: Biography of John Joly
  • Chapter 21. Sap Flow
    • 21.1. Heat-Pulse Method
    • 21.2. Heat-Balance Method
    • 21.3. Appendix: Biography of C.H.M. van Bavel
  • Chapter 22. Electrical Analogs for Water Movement through the Soil–Plant–Atmosphere Continuum
    • 22.1. The Analogy
    • 22.2. Measurement of Resistance with the Wheatstone Bridge
    • 22.3. Law of Resistance
    • 22.4. Units of Electrical Conductivity
    • 22.5. Example of an Electrical Analog Applied to Soil with Wormholes
    • 22.6. van den Honert's Equation
    • 22.7. Proof of van den Honert's Equation
    • 22.8. Appendix: Biography of Georg Ohm
    • 22.9. Appendix: Biography of Charles Wheatstone
    • 22.10. Appendix: Biographies of Members of the Siemens Family
  • Chapter 23. Leaf Anatomy and Leaf Elasticity
    • 23.1. Leaf Anatomy
    • 23.2. Internal Water Relations
    • 23.3. Elasticity
    • 23.4. Elasticity Applied to Plant Leaves
    • 23.5. Appendix: Biography of Robert Hooke
    • 23.6. Appendix: Biography of Thomas Young
  • Chapter 24. Stomatal Anatomy and Stomatal Resistance
    • 24.1. Definition of Stomata and Their Distribution
    • 24.2. Stomatal Anatomy of Dicots and Monocots
    • 24.3. Stomatal Density
    • 24.4. Diffusion of Gases through Stomatal Pores
    • 24.5. Guard Cells
    • 24.6. Mechanism of Stomatal Opening
    • 24.7. Boundary Layer
    • 24.8. Leaf Resistances
    • 24.9. Measurement of Stomatal Aperture and Stomatal Resistance
    • 24.10. Theory of Mass-Flow and Diffusion Porometers
    • 24.11. Appendix: Biography of Adolf Fick
  • Chapter 25. Solar Radiation, Black Bodies, Heat Budget, and Radiation Balance
    • 25.1. Solar Radiation
    • 25.2. Terrestrial Radiation
    • 25.3. Definition of a Black Body
    • 25.4. Example of a Black Body
    • 25.5. Temperature of a Black Body
    • 25.6. Gray Body
    • 25.7. Spectrum of a Black Body
    • 25.8. Sun's Temperature
    • 25.9. Earth's Temperature
    • 25.10. Comparison of Solar and Terrestrial Radiation
    • 25.11. Heat Budget
    • 25.12. Radiation Balance
    • 25.13. Appendix: Biography of Gustav Kirchhoff
    • 25.14. Appendix: Biography of Josef Stefan
    • 25.15. Appendix: Biography of Ludwig Boltzmann
    • 25.16. Appendix: Biography of Wilhelm Wien
  • Chapter 26. Infrared Thermometers
    • 26.1. Infrared Thermometers
    • 26.2. Definitions
    • 26.3. Principles of Infrared Thermometry
    • 26.4. Use of a Portable Infrared Thermometer
    • 26.5. Calibration of Infrared Thermometers
    • 26.6. Advantages of Infrared Thermometers
    • 26.7. Appendix: Biography of Ray Jackson
  • Chapter 27. Stress-Degree-Day Concept and Crop Water Stress Index
    • 27.1. SDD Procedure
    • 27.2. Canopy-Minus-Air Temperature and Evapotranspiration
    • 27.3. Crop Water Stress Index
    • 27.4. How to Calculate the Crop Water Stress Index
    • 27.5. Crop Water Stress Index for Alfalfa, Soybeans, and Cotton
    • 27.6. Importance of a Wide Range of Vapor Pressure Deficit Values
    • 27.7. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index
    • 27.8. Appendix: Biography of Sherwood Idso
  • Chapter 28. Potential Evapotranspiration
    • 28.1. Definition of Potential Evapotranspiration
    • 28.2. Factors that Affect Potential Evapotranspiration
    • 28.3. Advection
    • 28.4. Example Calculation to Determine Potential Evapotranspiration
    • 28.5. Appendix: Biography of Howard Penman
  • Chapter 29. Water and Yield
    • 29.1. de Wit's Analysis
    • 29.2. Relationship Between Yield and Transpiration and Yield and Evapotranspiration
    • 29.3. Water and Marketable Yield
    • 29.4. Water and Quality
    • 29.5. Crop Water-use Efficiency
    • 29.6. Water-use Efficiency Under Elevated Carbon Dioxide
    • 29.7. Appendix: Biography of Cornelius de Wit
  • Chapter 30. Solar Time and Interception of Direct-Beam Solar Radiation
    • 30.1. Time of Day
    • 30.2. Interception of Direct-Beam Solar Radiation
    • 30.3. How to Measure Altitude and Azimuth Angles of Sun
    • 30.4. Appendix: Biography of Johannes Kepler
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
598
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2014
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780124200784
Hardcover ISBN:
9780124200227

About the Author

M.B. Kirkham

M. B. Kirkham is a Professor in the Department of Agronomy at Kansas State University. Her research involves two areas: soil-plant-water relations and uptake of heavy metals by crops grown on polluted soil (called “phytoremediation”). Dr. Kirkham is currently collaborating with colleagues at the Kansas State University Northwest Research-Extension Center in Colby, Kansas to study yield and water relations of sorghum grown under the semi-arid conditions of far western Kansas. Dr. Kirkham serves on several editorial boards: Soil Science; Journal of Crop Improvement; International Agrophysics; Crop Science; Australian Journal of Soil Research; Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment; Agricultural Water Management; Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research; Agricultural, Food and Analytical Bacteriology; and Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science. In addition, Dr. Kirkham has received the CSSA Crop Science Research Award and the 2010-11 Iman Outstanding Faculty Award for Research.

Affiliations and Expertise

Kansas State University, Manhattan, USA