Principles of Physiological Measurement - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780121569556, 9780323157438

Principles of Physiological Measurement

1st Edition

Authors: James Cameron
eBook ISBN: 9780323157438
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 17th April 1986
Page Count: 288
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Principles of Physiological Measurement examines the basic principles underlying the techniques and instruments used in making measurements, including tracer methods and compartmental analysis. It describes measurements of oxygen, carbon dioxide, pH, ammonia, and miscellaneous gases such as hydrogen and nitrogen. The book also describes the general concepts of electrical transduction, amplification, and recording.
Organized into 15 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of some fundamental concepts of measurement, including basic gas and solution concepts, electronics relevant to measurement methods, and error in designing experiments. Some chapters are dedicated to the measurement of oxygen in gases and in aqueous solutions, partial pressure measurement of carbon dioxide in liquids, measurement of intracellular pH, and measurement of ammonia in gases and in solutions. Other chapters discuss the blood gas measurement, problems of controlling the gaseous environment, and basic principles of flow, velocity, force, displacement, and pressure, along with common methods for their measurement. The final chapters deal with ions and solutions, radioisotope concepts and techniques, and tracer kinetics. This book will be of interest to natural scientists and students in physiology courses.

Table of Contents


Chapter 1 Making Measurements

1.1 Introduction

1.2 The Distribution of Error

1.3 Pipetting: A Basic Laboratory Technique

1.4 Acknowledging Error When Designing Experiments

Literature Cited

Chapter 2 Basic Gas and Solution Concepts

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Gases

2.3 Liquids

2.4 Dissolution of Gases in Liquids

2.5 Diffusion

2.6 The Atmosphere

2.7 Convection: The Bulk Flow of Fluids

2.8 The Properties of Water and Aqueous Solutions

Literature Cited

Suggested Further Reading

Chapter 3 Basic Electronics of Measurement

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Simple Circuits

3.3 Amplification

3.4 Power Supplies

3.5 The Wheatstone Bridge

3.6 Electrical Measurements: Voltage, Current, Resistance

3.7 Electrical Recording

3.8 The Oscilloscope

3.9 Digital Techniques

Literature Cited

Suggested Further Reading

Chapter 4 Oxygen Measurement

4.1 Basic Properties

4.2 History

4.3 Oxygen Measurement in Gases

4.4 Oxygen Measurement in Aqueous Solution

Literature Cited

Chapter 5 Carbon Dioxide Measurement

5.1 Basic Properties

5.2 The Chemistry of CO2 in Water

5.3 Useful Reactions of CO2

5.4 Measurement of CO2 in Gases

5.5 Partial Pressure Measurement in Liquids

5.6 Measurement in Liquids: Total Content

5.7 Conclusions

Literature Cited

Chapter 6 pH

6.1 The Concept of pH

6.2 Buffering

6.3 Measuring pH in Bulk Solutions

6.4 Measurement of Intracellular pH

6.5 Miscellaneous pH Methods

Literature Cited

Chapter 7 Ammonia

7.1 Basic Properties

7.2 Introduction

7.3 Ammonia Solubility

7.4 The Chemistry of Ammonia in Solution

7.5 Measurement of Ammonia in Gases

7.6 Measurement of Ammonia in Solution

7.7 Ammonia Contamination

Literature Cited

Suggested Further Reading

Chapter 8 Miscellaneous Gases

8.1 Hydrogen

8.2 Carbon Monoxide

8.3 Helium

8.4 Nitrogen

Literature Cited

Chapter 9 Controlling the Gaseous Environment

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Controlling Humidity (Water Vapor)

9.3 Mixing Gases

9.4 Gas Washout and Changeover

9.5 Controlling Gases in Solutions

Literature Cited

Chapter 10 Measurement of Physiological Gases in Blood

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Blood and Plasma Sampling

10.3 Oxygen in Blood

10.4 Carbon Dioxide in Blood

10.5 Other Gases

10.6 Dissociation Curve Measurement

Literature Cited

Suggested Further Reading

Chapter 11 Flow and Velocity Measurement

11.1 Flow Measurement in Gases

11.2 Measurement of Flow in Liquids

Literature Cited

Chapter 12 Force, Displacement, and Pressure Measurement

12.1 Basic Units

12.2 Displacement Transducers

12.3 Pressure Transducers

Literature Cited

Chapter 13 Measurement of Ions and Solution Properties

13.1 Osmotic Pressure

13.2 Salinity Measurement

13.3 Measurement of Water Content

13.4 Measurement of Specific Inorganic Ions

13.5 Specific Ion Electrodes

13.6 Ion Chromatography

Literature Cited

Chapter 14 Radioisotope Techniques

14.1 Types of Radiation

14.2 Detection of Radiation: Interaction with Matter

14.3 Radioactive Half-Life

14.4 Units of Radiation

14.5 Practical Aspects of Gamma Counting

14.6 Practical Aspects of Liquid Scintillation Counting

14.7 Quenching and Efficiency Correction

14.8 Radiation Safety and Handling

Literature Cited

Chapter 15 Tracer Methods and Compartmental Analysis

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Single Compartment Kinetics: The Dye Wash-Out Example

15.3 Single Compartment Analysis: A Chemical Pool Example

15.4 Two-Compartment Kinetics

15.5 The Use of Tracers for Ion Movements

15.6 Multi-Compartment Analyses

Literature Cited

Suggested Further Reading


Appendix 1 Units of Pressure and Conversion Factors

Appendix 2 Solubility of O2 and CO2 at Different Temperatures and Salinities

Appendix 3 Vapor Pressure of Water at Different Temperatures

Appendix 4 BASIC Computer Program for Calculating the Time Course of Washout or Changeover from One Concentration to Another

Appendix 5 Composition and Characteristics of Some Standard Buffers

Appendix 6 Nomograms for Assessment of Radiation Counting Errors

Appendix 7 Calculations for Dual-Isotope Counting

Appendix 8 Table of Electrical Symbols



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© Academic Press 1986
Academic Press
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About the Author

James Cameron

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