Principles of Cloning

Principles of Cloning

2nd Edition - September 24, 2013

Write a review

  • Editors: Jose Cibelli, Ian Wilmut, Rudolf Jaenisch, John Gurdon, Robert Lanza, Michael West, Keith Campbell
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123865410
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123865427

Purchase options

Purchase options
Available
DRM-free (EPub, PDF, Mobi)
Sales tax will be calculated at check-out

Institutional Subscription

Free Global Shipping
No minimum order

Description

  Principles of Cloning, Second Edition is the fully revised edition of the authoritative book on the science of cloning. The book presents the basic biological mechanisms of how cloning works and progresses to discuss current and potential applications in basic biology, agriculture, biotechnology, and medicine. Beginning with the history and theory behind cloning, the book goes on to examine methods of micromanipulation, nuclear transfer, genetic modification, and pregnancy and neonatal care of cloned animals. The cloning of various species—including mice, sheep, cattle, and non-mammals—is considered as well.  The Editors have been involved in a number of breakthroughs using cloning technique, including the first demonstration that cloning works in differentiated cells done by the Recipient of the 2012 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine – Dr John Gurdon; the cloning of the first mammal from a somatic cell – Drs Keith Campbell and Ian Wilmut; the demonstration that cloning can reset the biological clock - Drs Michael West and Robert Lanza; the demonstration that a terminally differentiated cell can give rise to a whole new individual – Dr Rudolf Jaenisch and the cloning of the first transgenic bovine from a differentiated cell – Dr Jose Cibelli. The majority of the contributing authors are the principal investigators on each of the animal species cloned to date and are expertly qualified to present the state-of-the-art information in their respective areas.

Key Features

  • First and most comprehensive book on animal cloning, 100% revised
  • Describes an in-depth analysis of current limitations of the technology and research areas to explore
  • Offers cloning applications on basic biology, agriculture, biotechnology, and medicine

Readership

Bioengineers, biochemists, cell biologists, bone biologists, and geneticists.

Table of Contents

  • Editorial Advisory Board

    Foreword to the Second Edition

    References

    Foreword to the First Edition

    Preface to the First Edition

    In remembrance of Keith Henry Stockman Campbell (23 May 1954–5 October 2012)

    List of Contributors

    Part I: Basics

    Chapter 1. Artificial Activation of Mammalian Oocytes for Cloning: Present Status and Future Perspectives

    Introduction

    Egg Activation Protocols

    Common Activation Procedures for Mouse Eggs

    Common Activation Procedures for Bovine and Porcine Eggs

    Common Activation Procedures for Human Eggs

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter 2. Epigenetic Reprogramming of Somatic Nuclei via Cell Fusion

    Introduction

    Epigenetic Reprogramming of Somatic Cells by Hybridization with Embryonic Stem Cells

    Epigenetic Reprogramming of Somatic Cells by Hybridization with Embryonic Germ Cells

    Role of Cell Fusion In Vivo

    Cloning by Somatic Cell Transplantation into Oocytes

    Molecular Mechanisms of Epigenetic Reprogramming Mediated by Cell Fusion

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 3. Nuclear Origins and Clone Phenotype: What Cloning Tells Us about Embryonic Development

    Introduction

    Aberrant Properties of Cloned Embryos

    Effects of Developmental Stage of Donor Nucleus

    Effects of Cell Type of Donor Nucleus

    Effects of Donor Nucleus Cell Cycle Stage

    Effects of Recipient Cell Type and Stage

    Effects of Genotype and Sex of Donor Nucleus

    Effects of Species Origin of Donor and Recipient – Challenges of Inter-Species Nuclear Transfer

    Remediation of Aberrant Properties

    Mysteries yet to be Solved

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Part II: Methods

    Chapter 4. Micromanipulation Techniques for Cloning

    Introduction

    Making Manipulation Tools

    Microscopy and Equipment for Micromanipulation

    Micromanipulation Procedures

    Piezoelectric Assisted Nuclear Transfer

    Technical Improvements

    References

    Chapter 5. Nuclear Transfer with Germ Cells: Germ Cell Cloning Contributes to Current Understanding of Genomic Imprinting in Mammals

    Introduction

    The Absence of Genomic Imprinting in Germ Cell (GC) Embryos

    Detection of Erasure Process of Genomic Imprinting in Cloned Embryos Using Day 11.5 PGCs

    Establishment of Genomic Imprinting Using Gonocyte Clone Embryos

    Why is a Monoallelic Expression System of Imprinted Genes from Both Parental Alleles Essential for Mammalian Development?

    Perspective

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter 6. Culture of Viable Mammalian Embryos In Vitro

    Introduction

    Dynamics of Embryo and Maternal Physiology

    Metabolism of the Embryo

    Impact of Intracellular Stress to the Embryo

    Development of Sequential Embryo Culture Media

    Inherent Problems of Co-Culture

    Send in the Clones

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 7. Genetic and Phenotypic Similarity Among Members of Mammalian Clonal Sets

    Introduction

    Definition of Cloning

    Cytoplasmic Genetics

    Epigenetic Effects

    Uterine Effects

    Neonatal Environment

    Large Offspring Syndrome

    Mutations

    Cultural Inheritance

    How Similar?

    Summary and Perspective

    References

    Chapter 8. Advances in the Generation of Transgenic Domestic Species via Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

    Introduction

    Methods to Generate Transgenic Animals

    Methods to Generate “Loss-Of-Function” Mutations Through SCNT

    Additional Considerations

    References

    Chapter 9. Pregnancy and Neonatal Care of SCNT Animals

    Overview of Cloning Efficiency

    Health and Care of SCNT Cattle

    Health and Care of SCNT Pigs

    Health and Care of Other Species

    Conclusion

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter 10. Donor Cell Type and Cloning Efficiency in Mammals

    Developmental Potential of Germline Nuclei at Various Cell Cycle Stages

    Developmental Potential of Somatic Cell Line Nuclei from Different Tissues

    Acknowledgement

    References

    Chapter 11. Enhancing SCNT with Chromatin Remodeling Agents

    Introduction

    Establishment of a Concept for Direct Treatment of SCNT Embryos with Chemical Agents

    Discovery of the Optimal Treatment of SCNT Embryos with Trichostatin A

    SCNT using HDACi Treatment

    The Possible Mechanism Underlying HDACi Treatment to Enhance Reprogramming

    The Targets of HDACi to Enhance Nuclear Reprogramming

    Why do Cloned Embryos Require HDACi Treatment for Better Genomic Reprogramming?

    Further Studies of Agents that may Improve SCNT

    Concluding Remarks

    References

    Chapter 12. Cell Cycle Regulation in Cloning

    Introduction

    Initial Events

    Oocyte Development and the Cell Cycle

    Cell Cycle Effects of Oocyte-Derived Cytoplast Recipients

    Other Factors Related to the Recipient Cell Cycle Phase

    Effects of Cell Cycle Combinations on Development

    Effects of the Donor Cell Cycle Stage on Development

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 13. Clone-Specific X-Linked Gene Repression Caused by Ectopic Xist Transcripts from the Active X Chromosome

    Introduction

    Aberrantly Expressed Genes In Pre-Implantation-Stage SCNT Embryos

    Global Gene Expression Analysis and X-Chromosome Gene Repression in Cloned Embryos

    Role of Xist in Pre-Implantation Embryos

    Improvement of Cloning Efficiency Using Gene Knockout (KO) and Knockdown (KD) Animals

    Why is Xist Expressed Ectopically in Scnt Pre-Implantation Embryos?

    Xist-Independent Non-Random Errors in Cloned Embryos

    Future Perspectives

    References

    Part III: Cloning by Species

    Chapter 14. Cloning of Amphibia

    Introduction and Background

    Development of Nuclear Transfer Embryos Using Second Meiotic Metaphase Eggs

    Immediate Changes in Transplanted Nuclei

    Mechanisms of Nuclear Reprogramming by Meiotic Prophase Oocytes

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter 15. Cloning of Medaka Fish

    Introduction

    Study of Cloning in Medaka

    Transfer of Adult Somatic Cell Nuclei into Diploidized Eggs

    Successful Generation of Adult NTs

    Mechanisms Requiring Investigation

    Perspective

    References

    Chapter 16. Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer in Zebrafish

    Introduction

    The Recipient Egg

    The Donor Cells

    Egg Activation Following Nuclear Transfer

    Cloning Efficiency in Zebrafish

    Conclusion and Closing Remarks

    References

    Chapter 17. Cloning of Mice

    Introduction

    Abnormalities Found in Cloned Mice

    Where Are the Genomic Reprogramming Factors?

    Improving Mouse Cloning by Technical Advances

    Improvement of Mouse Cloning by Finding the Best Donor Cells

    Combination of ntes Cell Approaches for Mouse Cloning

    A New Tool for the Study of Basic Biology

    Perspectives

    References

    Chapter 18. Cloning of Rabbits

    Introduction

    Background of Rabbit Embryo Embryology

    State of the Art

    Applications of Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer in Rabbits

    Appendix: Protocol for Rabbit Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter 19. Cloning Pigs by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

    Introduction

    HIstory of SCNT in Swine

    Applications of Genetically Engineered Pigs Produced Through SCNT

    Culture of Pig Embryos

    Uniqueness of SCNT Embryos

    Reprogramming of Donor Cells

    Methods to Improve the Efficiency of SCNT by Altering Epigenetic Marks

    The Search for the Ideal Donor Cell Type

    Future Direction

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter 20. A Historical Perspective of the Cloning of Cattle

    Introduction

    History

    Cloning from Fetal Cells

    Fetal Germ Line-Derived Cells

    Fetal Somatic Cells

    Cloning from Adult Somatic Cells

    Aggregation of NT Embryos During Culture

    Telomeres

    Large-Offspring Syndrome

    Food Safety of Milk and Meat Products Derived from the Use of Cloned Cattle for Milk or Meat Production

    References

    Chapter 21. Cloning of Canines

    Introduction

    History of Dog Cloning

    Methodology of Canine Cloning

    Postnatal Characteristics of cloneD Dogs

    Applications of Nuclear Transfer

    Acknowledgement

    References

    Chapter 22. Cloning of Equines

    Procedures for Cloning Equines

    Application of Cloning and Final Considerations

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter 23. Cloning Primates

    Introduction

    Overview of SCNT in Primates

    Challenges in Primate SCNT

    Note

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Part IV: Applications

    Chapter 24. Nuclear Transfer for Stem Cells

    Introduction

    Reprogramming Pluripotentiality by Nuclear Transfer

    Reprogramming Pluripotentiality Using Transcription Factors

    Human Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer – What is the Difficulty?

    The Future for SCNT Embryonic Stem Cells

    References

    Chapter 25. Current Research and Commercial Applications of Cloning Technology

    Introduction

    Cloning Research Animals

    Previous and Present Obstacles to Commercial Cloning in Animal Agriculture

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 26. Transgenic Cloned Goats and the Production of Recombinant Therapeutic Proteins

    Introduction

    Mammary Gland-Specific Transgenes for SCNT

    Early Applications of SCNT for the Generation of Transgenic Goats

    Oocyte Source, Cell Source, and SCNT Parameters

    Generation of Transgenic Founders by Transfected SCNT

    Production of Transgenic Goats by Adult SCNT

    Detail Morbidity and Mortality

    Transgenically Derived Recombinant Monoclonal Antibodies

    Conclusion

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter 27. Commercializing Genetically Engineered Cloned Cattle

    Research and Development

    Cell Banking and Founder Animals

    Animal Sourcing

    Production Facilities

    Quality and Risk

    Animal Regulatory Oversight and Compliance in the United States

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 28. Cloning Endangered Species

    Introduction

    Improving the Reproductive Potential of Endangered Animals

    Pros and Cons of Using Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer as a Bioremediation Tool

    Zygotic Genome Activation Failure

    Inbreeding

    The Neglected Issue: Lack of Foster Mothers for Cloned Embryos

    The State of the Art of Inter-Species Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer for Multiplying Endangered Animals

    Land Preservation

    Establishing Biobanks for Endangered Animals

    Improving Inter-Species Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

    Removing Immunological Barriers to Embryo Transfer: Making the “Universal” Foster Mother

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Part V: Complementary Technologies

    Chapter 29. Genome Editing in Somatic Cells Using Zinc Finger Nucleases and Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nucleases

    Setting the Stage for Genome Editing

    The Power of the DSB

    Making the Cut: ZFNs and TALENs

    The Process of Creating a Modified Mammalian Somatic Cell

    Acknowledgement

    References

    Chapter 30. Targeted Chromosome Elimination from ES-Somatic Hybrid Cells

    Introduction

    Homologous Recombination-Based Chromosome Engineering

    Site-Specific Recombination

    Systems to Introduce DNA Fragments

    The Need for Techniques to Delete Large DNA Fragments

    Chromosome Elimination Cassette

    Conclusion

    References

    Part VI: SCNT as a Tool to Answer Biological Questions

    Chapter 31. How Cell Division Facilitates Nuclear Reprogramming

    Introduction

    Nuclear Factors are Required for Reprogramming

    Reprogramming Factors Localize to the Cytoplasm During Meiosis and Mitosis

    Reprogramming Factors are Cell Type-Specific Regulators of Gene Expression

    Transcriptional Reprogramming Depends on Mitotic Remodeling of the Nuclear Structure

    Cell Division Correlates with Reprogramming to Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Nuclear Structure is Involved in the Regulation of Cell Type-Specific Gene Expression

    Reprogramming of DNA Replication

    Conclusion

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter 32. Proteomic Approach to the Reprogramming Machinery of the Mouse Oocyte

    Introduction

    Results

    Discussion

    Materials and Methods

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter 33. Biological Age of Cloned Animals

    Introduction

    Production of Embryos Cloned from Tissues Preserved for a Short Period

    Cloning Regeneration of an Elite Bull from an Organ Frozen for more than a Decade Without Cryoprotectants

    Concluding Remarks

    References

    Chapter 34. Mitochondrial DNA: Its Transmission from Gametes and Embryos

    Introduction

    The Mitochondrial Genome

    Oxidative Phosphorylation

    Mitochondrial DNA Replication

    Segregation, Transmission, and Inheritance of Mitochondrial DNA

    The Control of Mitochondrial DNA Replication During Development

    How do Nuclear Transfer Embryos Control These Processes?

    Mixing of Mitochondrial DNA Genotypes

    Why Does the Donor Cell Mitochondrial DNA Persist?

    Toxicity of Somatic Mitochondrial DNA

    Is There a Relationship between Donor Cell and Recipient Oocyte Mitochondrial DNA that Affects Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Outcome?

    Conclusion

    Acknowledgement

    References

    Chapter 35. Interspecies Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

    Introduction

    Historical Perspective of Nuclear Transplantation (NT)

    Interspecies Nuclear Transfer

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 36. Epigenetics of Cloned Livestock Embryos and Offspring

    Introduction

    DNA Methylation Profiles in Cloned Embryos and Fetuses

    Imprinted Gene Expression in Cloned Embryos and Fetuses

    X-Chromosome Inactivation After Somatic Cloning

    Telomere Length and Somatic Cloning

    Conclusions and Perspectives

    References

    Chapter 37. Comparing SCNT-Derived ESCs and iPSCs

    Introduction

    Known Differences Between SCNT-ESCs and iPSCs

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 38. Role of iPSC-Producing Factors in Pre-Implantation Embryos

    Introduction

    Expression Patterns and Functions of Reprogramming Factors in Pre-Implantation Embryos

    Conclusions

    References

    Part VII: Ethical and Legal Affairs

    Chapter 39. Genome Exchange in Human Oocytes

    Introduction

    Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells or Nuclear Transfer Embryonic Stem Cells?

    A Source of Oocytes for Research

    Human Oocytes Contain Reprogramming Activities

    Genome Transfer to Prevent the Transmission of Mitochondrial Disease

    Pronuclear Transfer in Zygotes

    Genome Transfer in Unfertilized Human Oocytes

    Acknowledgement

    References

    Chapter 40. Ethical Implications of Reproductive Cloning

    Introduction

    Reproductive Cloning

    Nightmare Scenarios

    Serious Ethical Concerns

    Physiological Harms to Offspring

    Psychological Harms

    Social Harms

    References

    Chapter 41. An Overview of the Regulatory Considerations for Animal Cloning

    Introduction

    The US Process

    Scientific Findings from other Competent Bodies

    Statements Regarding Cloning from Scientific and Professional Organizations

    Regulatory Status

    What Does the Future Hold?

    Future Developments and Expectations for Additional Research

    Concluding Observations

    References

    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 572
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2013
  • Published: September 24, 2013
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123865410
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123865427

About the Editors

Jose Cibelli

Dr. Jose Cibelli is internationally recognized as one of the pioneers in the area of cloning for the production of animals and embryonic stem cells. Dr. Cibelli and his colleagues were responsible for the generation of the world's first transgenic cloned calves, the first stem cells by nuclear transfer in bovine, and the first embryonic stem cells by parthenogenesis in primates. His work has been published in numerous scientific journals including Science, Nature Biotechnology, Nature Medicine, Nature Methods, PNAS, and JAMA. He has testified about cloning in public forums sponsored by the US Food and Drug administration, the USA National Academy of Sciences, Canadian House of Commons, the USA Department of Agriculture, the United Nations Commission for Human Rights and the British Royal Society. He is currently Professor of Animal Biotechnology at Michigan State University, USA.

Affiliations and Expertise

Cellular Reprogramming Laboratory Michigan State University Ann Arbor, MI, USA

Ian Wilmut

Affiliations and Expertise

Director, MRC Centre for Regenerative Medicine, Edinburgh, UK

Rudolf Jaenisch

Affiliations and Expertise

Whitehead Institute Cambridge, MA, USA

John Gurdon

Affiliations and Expertise

The Wellcome Trust/ Cancer Research UK Cambridge, UK

Robert Lanza

Robert Lanza
Robert Lanza is an American scientist and author whose research spans the range of natural science, from biology to theoretical physics. TIME magazine recognized him as one of the “100 Most Influential People in the World,” and Prospect magazine named him one of the Top 50 “World Thinkers.” He has hundreds of scientific publications and over 30 books, including definitive references in the fields of stem cells, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine. He is a former Fulbright Scholar and studied with polio-pioneer Jonas Salk and Nobel laureates Gerald Edelman (known for his work on the biological basis of consciousness) and Rodney Porter. He also worked closely (and co-authored papers in Science on self-awareness and symbolic communication) with noted Harvard psychologist BF Skinner. Dr. Lanza was part of the team that cloned the world’s first human embryo, the first endangered species, and published the first-ever reports of pluripotent stem cell use in humans. Currently Dr. Lanza is the Head of Astellas Global Regenerative Medicine and Chief Scientific Officer of the Astellas Institute for Regenerative Medicine. He is also an Adjunct Professor at Wake Forest University School of Medicine and has authored over 200+ articles and over a dozen books.

Affiliations and Expertise

Astellas Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Westborough, MA, USA

Michael West

Affiliations and Expertise

BioTime Inc. Alameda, CA, USA

Keith Campbell

Affiliations and Expertise

The University of Nottingham, UK

Ratings and Reviews

Write a review

There are currently no reviews for "Principles of Cloning"