Principles, Methods, and General Applications - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780127843018, 9781483220819

Principles, Methods, and General Applications

1st Edition

Analytical Methods for Pesticides, Plant Growth Regulators, and Food Additives, Vol. 1

Editors: Gunter Zweig
eBook ISBN: 9781483220819
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1963
Page Count: 652
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Analytical Methods for Pesticides, Plant Growth Regulators, and Food Additives, Volume 1: Principles, Methods, and General Applications provides information on analytical techniques useful for the determination of pesticides, plant growth regulators, and food additives. The book discusses the potential hazard of minute residues to human and animal health; the principles of formulation and residue analyses; and the principles of food additive analysis. The text also describes the extraction and clean-up procedures; and the principles of toxicological testing methods. The methods for pesticide analysis in meat products; and the formulation and residue analysis in government laboratories are also considered. The book further tackles other methods, such as spectrophotometric methods, chromatography, isotope methods, enzymatic methods; and bioassay. Agricultural toxicologists and people studying pesticides and food additives will find the text invaluable.

Table of Contents

Cntributors to Volume I


1. Introduction

I. Regulatory Control

II. The Residue Chemist

III. The "Zero Tolerance"

IV. Conclusions


2. Principles of Formulation Analysis

I. Introduction

II. Philosophy of Formulation Analysis

III. Sample Handling and Storage

IV. Extraction and Separation Procedures

V. Types of Analysis

VI. Instrumentation

VII. Records and Reports

VIII. Future of Formulation Analysis


3. Principles of Residue Analysis

I. Field Experiment

II. Pre-Analysis

III. Analytical Measurement

IV. Interpretations and Recommendations


4. Principles of Food Additive Analysis

I. Introduction

II. General Considerations

III. Analysis of Direct Food Additives

IV. Analysis of Indirect Food Additives

Appendix I. Food Additives for Which Tolerances Are Established or Proposed

Appendix II. Summary of Polymer-Related F.D.A. Regulations

Appendix III. Examples of Analyses of Indirect Food Additives


5. Extraction and Clean-Up Procedures

I. Introduction

II. Solvent Extraction

III. Evaluation of Clean-Up Procedures

IV. Universal Type of Clean-Up

V. General Separation Procedures

VI. Chromatography


6. Principles of Toxicological Testing Methods

I. Introduction

II. General Principles in Toxicology

III. Specific Methodology

IV. Selection of Animals for Toxicological Studies

V. Interpretation of Results

VI. Future Trends in Toxicology


7. The Pesticide Residue Laboratory

I. The Problem

II. The Pesticide Residue Laboratory

III. Personnel

8. Spectrophotometric Methods

I. Ultraviolet and Visible

II. Infrared

III. Fluorescence


9. Gas Chromatography

I. Introduction

II. Basic Principles

III. Apparatus

IV. Interpretation of Analytical Results

V. Analytical Applications to Pesticide Problems

VI. Conclusions


10. Paper Chromatography

I. Insecticides

II. Fungicides

III. Herbicides

IV. Rodenticides


11. Total Halide Analysis

I. Combustion Techniques

II. Schöniger Technique. Oxygen Flask Combustion Method

III. Sodium Reduction

IV. Total Bromide


12. Neutron Activation Analysis

I. Introduction

II. Theory of Neutron Activation

III. Neutron Activation Procedure

IV. Sensitivities for Thermal-Neutron Activation

V. Application of Neutron Activation Analysis

VI. Instrumentation and Neutron Sources


13. Isotope Methods

I. Introduction

II. Definition of Terms

III. Establishing a Laboratory

IV. Selection of Compounds

V. Instrumentation

VI. Preparation of Samples

VII. Counting of Samples

VIII. Reporting Radioactive Data

IX. Special Techniques



14. Enzymatic Methods

I. Introduction

II. Kinetics of Cholinesterase Activity

III. Kinetics of Cholinesterase Inhibition

IV. Action of Cholinesterases

V. Methods of Measuring Cholinesterase Activity

VI. Activation of Cholinesterase Inhibitors

VII. Application of Cholinesterase Inhibition to Residue Analysis

VIII. Conclusions


15. Bioassay-Insects

I. Introduction

II. Principle of Bioassay

III. Test Insects and Sensitivity

IV. Factors Affecting Bioassay

V. Qualitative and Semiquantitative Bioassay

VI. Macrobioassay

VII. Microbioassay

VIII. Specific Bioassay

IX. Integration between Bioassay and Physicochemical Analysis

X. Application and Operation

XI. Summary and Discussion


16. Bioassay of Microbial Pesticides

I. Introduction

II. Microbial Pesticide Products and Federal Regulation

III. Quantitative Analytical Methods for Spore or Particle Determination

IV. Insect Bioassay of Microbial Pesticides


17. Bioassay-Plants

I. Introduction

II. Extraction of Regulating Substances from Plants and Preparation of Extracts for Bioassay

III. Responses to Growth-Regulating Substances, Principles Involved, and Suitability of These Responses for Bioassay

IV. Identification of Regulating Substances with Plant Assays

V. Conclusions


18. Screening Methods

I. The Selection of Methods

II. A Screening System for Insecticides Containing Chlorine and Those That Inhibit Cholinesterase


19. Statistical Evaluation of Results and Sampling Procedures

I. Introduction

II. Frequency Curves

III. Analysis of Variance

IV. Linear Regression

V. Sampling

VI. Concluding Remarks



20. Residue Analysis in the Food Industry

I. Introduction

II. Prevention of Over-Tolerance Residues

III. Formulation of Sprays and Dusts

IV. Analysis of Food Crops

V. Pesticide Laboratory for the Food Industry

VI. Degradation of Pesticides

VII. General Methods of Analysis

VIII. Validity of Results

IX. Summary


21. Residue Analysis in the Dairy Industry

I. The Place of Pesticides in Agriculture

II. Nature and Effects of Pesticides

III. Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Fat in Milk

IV. Methods Available for Pesticide Analysis in Dairy Products

V. Interpretation of Analytical Results

VI. Control of the Pesticide Problem


22. Methods for Pesticide Analysis in Meat Products

I. Sources of Residues in Meats

II. Residue Analysis in Meat and Meat Products—Problems Encountered

III. Screening Methods


23. Formulation and Residue Analysis in Government Laboratories

I. Introduction

II. Formulation Analysis

III. Residue Analyses

Author Index

Subject Index


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© Academic Press 1963
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

Gunter Zweig

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