Principles, Methods, and General Applications

Principles, Methods, and General Applications

Analytical Methods for Pesticides, Plant Growth Regulators, and Food Additives, Vol. 1

1st Edition - January 1, 1963

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  • Editor: Gunter Zweig
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483220819

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Analytical Methods for Pesticides, Plant Growth Regulators, and Food Additives, Volume 1: Principles, Methods, and General Applications provides information on analytical techniques useful for the determination of pesticides, plant growth regulators, and food additives. The book discusses the potential hazard of minute residues to human and animal health; the principles of formulation and residue analyses; and the principles of food additive analysis. The text also describes the extraction and clean-up procedures; and the principles of toxicological testing methods. The methods for pesticide analysis in meat products; and the formulation and residue analysis in government laboratories are also considered. The book further tackles other methods, such as spectrophotometric methods, chromatography, isotope methods, enzymatic methods; and bioassay. Agricultural toxicologists and people studying pesticides and food additives will find the text invaluable.

Table of Contents

  • Cntributors to Volume I


    1. Introduction

    I. Regulatory Control

    II. The Residue Chemist

    III. The "Zero Tolerance"

    IV. Conclusions


    2. Principles of Formulation Analysis

    I. Introduction

    II. Philosophy of Formulation Analysis

    III. Sample Handling and Storage

    IV. Extraction and Separation Procedures

    V. Types of Analysis

    VI. Instrumentation

    VII. Records and Reports

    VIII. Future of Formulation Analysis


    3. Principles of Residue Analysis

    I. Field Experiment

    II. Pre-Analysis

    III. Analytical Measurement

    IV. Interpretations and Recommendations


    4. Principles of Food Additive Analysis

    I. Introduction

    II. General Considerations

    III. Analysis of Direct Food Additives

    IV. Analysis of Indirect Food Additives

    Appendix I. Food Additives for Which Tolerances Are Established or Proposed

    Appendix II. Summary of Polymer-Related F.D.A. Regulations

    Appendix III. Examples of Analyses of Indirect Food Additives


    5. Extraction and Clean-Up Procedures

    I. Introduction

    II. Solvent Extraction

    III. Evaluation of Clean-Up Procedures

    IV. Universal Type of Clean-Up

    V. General Separation Procedures

    VI. Chromatography


    6. Principles of Toxicological Testing Methods

    I. Introduction

    II. General Principles in Toxicology

    III. Specific Methodology

    IV. Selection of Animals for Toxicological Studies

    V. Interpretation of Results

    VI. Future Trends in Toxicology


    7. The Pesticide Residue Laboratory

    I. The Problem

    II. The Pesticide Residue Laboratory

    III. Personnel

    8. Spectrophotometric Methods

    I. Ultraviolet and Visible

    II. Infrared

    III. Fluorescence


    9. Gas Chromatography

    I. Introduction

    II. Basic Principles

    III. Apparatus

    IV. Interpretation of Analytical Results

    V. Analytical Applications to Pesticide Problems

    VI. Conclusions


    10. Paper Chromatography

    I. Insecticides

    II. Fungicides

    III. Herbicides

    IV. Rodenticides


    11. Total Halide Analysis

    I. Combustion Techniques

    II. Schöniger Technique. Oxygen Flask Combustion Method

    III. Sodium Reduction

    IV. Total Bromide


    12. Neutron Activation Analysis

    I. Introduction

    II. Theory of Neutron Activation

    III. Neutron Activation Procedure

    IV. Sensitivities for Thermal-Neutron Activation

    V. Application of Neutron Activation Analysis

    VI. Instrumentation and Neutron Sources


    13. Isotope Methods

    I. Introduction

    II. Definition of Terms

    III. Establishing a Laboratory

    IV. Selection of Compounds

    V. Instrumentation

    VI. Preparation of Samples

    VII. Counting of Samples

    VIII. Reporting Radioactive Data

    IX. Special Techniques



    14. Enzymatic Methods

    I. Introduction

    II. Kinetics of Cholinesterase Activity

    III. Kinetics of Cholinesterase Inhibition

    IV. Action of Cholinesterases

    V. Methods of Measuring Cholinesterase Activity

    VI. Activation of Cholinesterase Inhibitors

    VII. Application of Cholinesterase Inhibition to Residue Analysis

    VIII. Conclusions


    15. Bioassay-Insects

    I. Introduction

    II. Principle of Bioassay

    III. Test Insects and Sensitivity

    IV. Factors Affecting Bioassay

    V. Qualitative and Semiquantitative Bioassay

    VI. Macrobioassay

    VII. Microbioassay

    VIII. Specific Bioassay

    IX. Integration between Bioassay and Physicochemical Analysis

    X. Application and Operation

    XI. Summary and Discussion


    16. Bioassay of Microbial Pesticides

    I. Introduction

    II. Microbial Pesticide Products and Federal Regulation

    III. Quantitative Analytical Methods for Spore or Particle Determination

    IV. Insect Bioassay of Microbial Pesticides


    17. Bioassay-Plants

    I. Introduction

    II. Extraction of Regulating Substances from Plants and Preparation of Extracts for Bioassay

    III. Responses to Growth-Regulating Substances, Principles Involved, and Suitability of These Responses for Bioassay

    IV. Identification of Regulating Substances with Plant Assays

    V. Conclusions


    18. Screening Methods

    I. The Selection of Methods

    II. A Screening System for Insecticides Containing Chlorine and Those That Inhibit Cholinesterase


    19. Statistical Evaluation of Results and Sampling Procedures

    I. Introduction

    II. Frequency Curves

    III. Analysis of Variance

    IV. Linear Regression

    V. Sampling

    VI. Concluding Remarks



    20. Residue Analysis in the Food Industry

    I. Introduction

    II. Prevention of Over-Tolerance Residues

    III. Formulation of Sprays and Dusts

    IV. Analysis of Food Crops

    V. Pesticide Laboratory for the Food Industry

    VI. Degradation of Pesticides

    VII. General Methods of Analysis

    VIII. Validity of Results

    IX. Summary


    21. Residue Analysis in the Dairy Industry

    I. The Place of Pesticides in Agriculture

    II. Nature and Effects of Pesticides

    III. Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Fat in Milk

    IV. Methods Available for Pesticide Analysis in Dairy Products

    V. Interpretation of Analytical Results

    VI. Control of the Pesticide Problem


    22. Methods for Pesticide Analysis in Meat Products

    I. Sources of Residues in Meats

    II. Residue Analysis in Meat and Meat Products—Problems Encountered

    III. Screening Methods


    23. Formulation and Residue Analysis in Government Laboratories

    I. Introduction

    II. Formulation Analysis

    III. Residue Analyses

    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 652
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1963
  • Published: January 1, 1963
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483220819

About the Editor

Gunter Zweig

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