Primate Ecology: Studies of Feeding and ranging Behavior in Lemurs, Monkey and apes  - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780121768508, 9780323143899

Primate Ecology: Studies of Feeding and ranging Behavior in Lemurs, Monkey and apes

1st Edition

Editors: T.H. Clutton-Brock
eBook ISBN: 9780323143899
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1977
Page Count: 654
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Description

Primate Ecology: Studies of Feeding and Ranging Behavior in Femurs, Monkeys and Apes describes the behavioral aspects of ecology, including activity patterning, food selection, and ranging behavior.
The book is composed of 19 chapters; 17 of which are concerned with the ecology or behavior of particular social groups of primates, arranged in the taxonomic order of the species concerned. The final two chapters review some of the generalizations emerging from comparison of inter- and intraspecific differences in feeding and ranging behavior. The book aims to suggest areas of particular interest where research can be usefully developed.

Table of Contents


Contributors

Preface

Acknowledgements

1 Feeding Behavior of Lemur catta and Lemur fulvus

1. Introduction

2. Study areas

2.1. Antserananomby

2.2. Tongobato

2.3. Berenty

3. Sampling methods

3.1. General methodology

3.2. Data collection on feeding behavior

4. Feeding behavior

4.1. Feeding techniques

4.2. Feeding heights and feeding sites

4.3. Diurnal activity patterns and percentage of time spent feeding

4.4. Species composition of the diet

4.5. Parts of plants eaten

4.6. Drinking

5. Feeding behavior and social behavior

6. Predation

7. Summary and discussion

Acknowledgements

2 The Ecology and Sociology of Feeding in Indri indri

1. Methods

1.1. Introduction

1.2. Study areas

1.3. Methods of observation

1.4. Statistical analysis

2. Feeding behavior

2.1. Feeding techniques

2.2. Feeding heights and sites

2.3. The time spent feeding

2.4. Selectivity

2.5. Dietetic diversity

3. Age/sex variation in feeding behavior

3.1. Feeding rate

3.2. The time spent feeding

4. Feeding and ranging behavior

4.1. Introduction

4.2. Territory utilization and feeding

4.3. Ranging behavior and feeding

4.4. Local movements and feeding

5. Social aspects of feeding behavior

5.1. Introduction

5.2. Feeding proximity

5.3. Feeding synchrony

5.4. Feeding orders and movements

5.5. Discussion

6. General discussion

7. Summary

Acknowledgements

3 The Feeding Behavior of Propithecus verreauxi

1. Introduction

2. Study areas

2.1. Location

2.2. Forest structures

2.3. Species composition of forests

2.4. Climate

3. Sampling methods

3.1. Feeding behavior

3.2. Ranging behavior

3.3. Structure and composition of vegetation

4. Feeding behavior

4.1. Feeding techniques

4.2. Feeding heights and sites

4.3. Activity patterns

5. Regional, seasonal and local Variation in feeding behavior

5.1. Variation in species composition of diet

5.2. Variation in food parts eaten

5.3. Variation in breadth of diet

5.4. Variation in diet and abundance of foods

6. Ranging behavior

6.1. General characteristics of range utilization

6.2. Regional and seasonal variation

6.3. Exclusivity of range use

7. Discussion

Acknowledgements

4 Feeding Behavior and Social Organization in Howling Monkeys

1. Introduction

2. Methods

3. Feeding behavior

3.1. Time budgets

3.2. Feeding behavior

3.3. Feeding heights and feeding sites

3.4. Percentage of time spent eating different foods

3.5. The adaptive basis of food choices

4. Temporal patterning of food choice

4.1. Diurnal variation in food choice

5. Seasonal variation

6. Sexual variation

7. Parasitism and health

8. Feeding behavior and social organization

8.1. Troop composition

8.2. Overlap in troop range

8.3. Coevolution of feeding behavior and social behavior

9. Summary

Acknowledgements

5 Diet and Feeding Behavior of Callicebus torquatus

1. Methods and study area

2. Feeding behavior

3. Temporal patterning of food choice

4. Seasonal variation

5. Spatial variation by vegetation zone

6. Age and sex variation

7. Feeding and ranging behavior

8. Feeding behavior and social behavior

9. Discussion

10. Summary

Acknowledgements

6 Feeding Behavior of the Colombian Spider Monkey

1. Introduction

2. Study area, duration and general outline

3. Feeding behavior

3.1. Study methods

3.2. Results

3.3. Discussion

4. Activity budgets and cycles

4.1. Methods

4.2. Results

4.3. Discussion

5. Social organization

5.1. Methods

5.2. Results

5.3. Discussion

6. Summary

Acknowledgements

Appendix

7 Feeding, Ranging and Group Size in the Mangabey

1. Introduction

1.1. Methods

1.2. Study area

2. Feeding behavior

2.1. Activity patterns

2.2. Feeding heights and sites

2.3. Feeding types and techniques

3. Feeding selectivity

3.1. Degree of selectivity

3.2. Intraspecific dietary variation

3.3. Characteristics of favoured trees

3.4. Possible causes of selectivity

4. Temporal patterning of food choice

4.1. Short-term patterning

4.2. Seasonal and longer-term patterning

5. Resources and ranging patterns

6. Resources, group structure and group size

7. Discussion

8. Summary

Acknowledgements

8 Feeding Behavior and Diet of Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in a Siwalik Forest in North India

1. Introduction

2. Methods

2.1. Recording of behavior

2.2. Habitat analysis and description

3. Feeding behavior

3.1. The nature of feeding bouts

3.2. Composition of diet

3.3. Regional differences in diet

3.4. Seasonal variation in food choice

3.5. Feeding heights

4. Ranging behavior in relation to resource distribution

4.1. Essential features of a habitable range

4.2. Factors affecting ranging patterns

5. Feeding behavior and social behavior

5.1. General characteristics of rhesus monkey social organization

5.2. Social roles and co-ordination of foraging behavior

5.3. Foraging in relation to energy requirements

6. Summary

Acknowledgements

9 Feeding Ecology of Gelada Baboons: A Preliminary Report

1. Introduction

2. Methods

2.1. Data-recording methods

2.2. Study areas

3. Feeding behavior

3.1. Feeding techniques

3.2. Feeding heights

3.3. Diurnal pattern of feeding

3.4. Diet

3.5. Dietetic diversity and selectivity

4. Temporal and spatial variation in food choice

5. Sex differences in feeding behavior

6. Interpopulation variation

7. Feeding and ranging behavior

7.1. Food availability, band size and herd size

7.2. Seasonal variations in ranging behavior

8. Summary

Acknowledgements

10 The Guereza and Its Food

1. Introduction and methods

1.1. Introduction

1.2. Study areas

1.3. Guereza social structure

1.4. Methods, sample sizes and sample distributions

2. Feeding behavior

3. Distribution of feeding through height and time

3.1. Height of feeding

3.2. Time spent feeding and diurnal activity pattern

4. Diet composition

4.1. Frequency of consumption of different foods

4.2. Dietetic diversity

5. Food selection

5.1. Plant species selection

5.2. Plant part selection

5.3. Selection of "occasional" items

6. Temporal patterning of food choice

7. Seasonal variation in diet

8. Range utilization

8.1. Group movements

8.2. Range size and differential usage

9. Relationships between groups

10. Variation between individuals, groups and populations

10.1. Individual and group variation at Kanyawara

10.2. Interpopulation variations

11. Predation

12. Discussion

12.1. Problems of a leafy diet

12.2. Coping with indigestibility and toxicity

12.3. Habitat preference

12.4. Interpopulation differences in ranging patterns

13. Summary

Acknowledgements

Appendix : A comparison for sampling methods

11 A Comparative Study of the Feeding Strategies of Two Sympatric Species of Leaf Monkeys: Presbytis senex and Presbytis entellus

1. Introduction

2. Methods of measuring food choices

2.1. Direct observation v. stomach content

2.2. Time spent feeding

2.3. Size and distribution of observation samples

2.4. Collection a n d processing of the food samples

3. Comparison of selectivity and diversity in the langur species

3.1. The study area

3.2. Food selection by P. senex

3.3. Food selection by P. entellus

4. Seasonal variations in food choices

5. The supplying area and its relation to feeding behavior

5.1. Ranging behavior : definition of the supplying area

5.2. Distribution of food resources for P. senex

5.3. Distribution of food resources for P. entellus

6. Composition of the food supply

6.1. Composition of the food samples

6.2. Comparison of the intake of protein, lipids and glucids

6.3. Mineral intake and geophagy of the leaf monkeys

6.4. Intake of secondary compounds by the langurs

7. Discussion: physiology and feeding behavior

8. Summary

Acknowledgements

12 The Feeding Behavior of Siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus)

1. Introduction

2. Methods

2.1. Study areas

2.2. Size and distribution of observation samples

2.3. Food choice and availability

3. Feeding behavior

3.1. Feeding techniques

3.2. Feeding heights and sites

3.3. Daily activity pattern and proportion of time spent feeding

3.4. Amount of time on different foods

3.5. Food selectivity and diversity

4. Temporal patterning of food choice

4.1. Diurnal variation in food choice

4.2. Variation in food choice between days

5. Seasonal variation in food choice

6. Feeding and ranging

7. Age/sex variation in feeding

8. Feeding behavior and social organization

9. Summary

Acknowledgements

13 Feeding Behavior of Orang-utans of the Kutai Nature Reserve, East Kalimantan

1. Introduction

2. Methods

2.1. Methods of study of feeding behavior

2.2. Study area

2.3. Samples of feeding behavior

3. Feeding behavior

3.1. Feeding techniques

3.2. Feeding heights and feeding sites

3.3. Feeding and diurnal pattern of activity

3.4. Amount of time on different foods

3.5. Selectivity

3.6. Dietetic diversity

4. Temporal patterning of food choice

5. Seasonal variation

6. Spatial variation

7. Age/sex variation

7 .1 . Proportion of time spent feeding

7.2. Feeding sites

7.3. Foods eaten

8. Interpopulation variation

8.1. Stability and size of home ranges

8.2. Day ranges

8.3. General comparisons : climate and topography

9. Feeding behavior and social behavior

9.1. General aspects of social behavior

9.2. Activity budgets

9.3 . Ecological segregation

10. Summary

Acknowledgements

14 Feeding Ecology of Free-ranging Mountain Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla beringei)

1. Introduction

2. Study area and methods

3. Feeding behavior

3.1. Feeding techniques

3.2. Feeding activity

3.3. Food selection

4. Seasonal variation

5. Age/sex variation

6. Feeding behavior and ranging behavior

7. Feeding behavior and social behavior

8. Intertroop and inter population variation

9. Discussion

10. Summary

Acknowledgements

15 Feeding and Ranging Behavior of a Mountain Gorilla Group (Gorilla gorilla beringei) in the Tshibinda-Kahuzi Region (Zaire)

1. Introductions and methods

1.1. Introduction

1.2. Study area

1.3. Field methods

2. Feeding behavior

2.1. Dietetic diversity

2.2. Foraging and feeding techniques

2.3. Nutritive values of vegetation samples

2.4. Theoretical nutritional requirements and estimates of possible intakes of the study animals

3. Feeding and ranging behavior

3.1. Home range size and day journey length

3.2. Differential utilization of home range

3.3. Monthly variation of quadrat visits

4. Discussion

4.1. Dietetic diversity and the selection of food items

4.2. Regional variations and the evolution of gorilla diets

4.3. Home range utilization

4.4. Conservation

5. Summary

Acknowledgements

16 Chimpanzees of Gabon and Chimpanzees of Gombe: Some Comparative Data on the Diet

1. Introduction

2. Methods

2.1 . Comparison of study areas

2.2. Field methods

2.3 . Observation sample

3. Comparative aspects of feeding behavior

3.1. Daily variation in food intake

3.2. Feeding techniques and traditions

4. Variation in feeding and ranging behavior

4.1. Seasonal variation

4.2. Annual food intake

4.3 . Ranging patterns

5. Food composition

5.1. Variability among food categories

5.2. Protein intake

5.3. Mineral intake

5.4. Secondary compounds

6. Conclusion

7. Summary

Acknowledgements

17 Feeding Behavior of Chimpanzees in Gombe National Park, Tanzania

1. Introduction

2. Methods

2.1. Study area and study population

2.2. Observation samples

2.3. Foods eaten and food availability

3. Feeding behavior

3.1. Feeding techniques

3.2. Feeding heights

3.3. Activity budgets

3.4. Diet diversity

3.5. Time spent eating different foods

3.6. Variation with location

4. Diurnal rhythms in food choice

5. Feeding behavior and party size

6. Seasonal variation

6.1. Food availability and feeding behavior

6.2. Party size

7. Ranging behavior

7.1. Individual ranging patterns

7.2. Foodsearching

7.3. Seasonal changes

8. Discussion

9. Surrimary

Acknowledgements

18 Some Aspects of Intraspecific Variation in Feeding and Ranging Behavior in Primates

1. Introduction

2. Food choice

3. Ecological segregation and species differences in food choice

4. Inter population differences in food choice

5. Age and sex differences in feeding behavior

5.1. Feeding levels and feeding sites

5.2. Activity budgets

5.3. Food choice

6. Diurnal variation in feeding behavior

6.1. Feeding levels

6.2. Activity patterns

6.3. Food choice

7. Seasonal variation in feeding and ranging behavior

8. Summary

9. Acknowledgements

19 Species Differences in Feeding and Ranging Behavior in Primates

1. Introduction

2. Methods

3. Results

3.1. Time spent feeding on different foods

3.2. Dietetic diversity

3.3. Activity budgets

3.4. Day range length

3.5. Home range size

3.6. Population density and biomass

4. Discussion

5. Summary

Acknowledgements

Appendix I Methodology and Measurement

1. Activity budgets

2. Diet composition

3. Dietetic diversity

4. Food availability

5. Selectivity

Appendix II The Measurement of Dietetic Diversity

1. Introduction

2. The data

3. Displaying the data

4. Dietetic diversity

5. Dietetic evenness

6. Example

Acknowledgement

Appendix III Field Methods for Processing Food Samples

1. Methods for collecting samples

2. Processing food samples

3. Different types of analysis consistent with the different methods of field processing

References

Subject Index








Details

No. of pages:
654
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1977
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323143899

About the Editor

T.H. Clutton-Brock