Present Knowledge in Food Safety

Present Knowledge in Food Safety

A Risk-Based Approach Through the Food Chain

1st Edition - October 8, 2022

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  • Editors: Michael Knowles, Lucia Anelich, Alan Boobis, Bert Popping
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128231548

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Present Knowledge in Food Safety: A Risk-Based Approach Through the Food Chain presents approaches for exposure-led risk assessment and the management of changes in the chemical, pathogenic microbiological and physical (radioactivity) contamination of ’food’ at all key stages of production, from farm to consumption. This single volume resource introduces scientific advances at all stages of the production to improve reliability, predictability and relevance of food safety assessments for the protection of public health. This book is aimed at a diverse audience, including graduate and post-graduate students in food science, toxicology, microbiology, medicine, public health, and related fields. The book's reach also includes government agencies, industrial scientists, and policymakers involved in food risk analysis.

Key Features

  • Includes new technologies such as nanotechnology, genetic modification, and cloning
  • Provides information on advances in pathogen risk assessment through novel and real-time molecular biological techniques, biomarkers, resistance measurement, and cell-to-cell communication in the gut
  • Covers the role of the microbiome and the use of surrogates (especially for viruses)


Professionals in the fields of public health, government regulation and policy, and food and agriculture production; Scholars and educators; Research scientists; Graduate and post-graduate coursework in the disciplines of food safety, food science, chemistry, microbiology, toxicology, agriculture, aquaculture, public health, pharmacy and nutrition

Table of Contents

  • Section I
    Changes in the chemical composition of food through the various stages of the food chain: plants before harvest
    1. Natural toxicants in plant-based foods, including herbs and spices and herbal food supplements, and accompanying risks
    Ivonne M.C.M. Rietjens and Gerhard Eisenbrand
    2. Soil, water, and air: potential contributions of inorganic and organic chemicals
    Wageh Sobhy Darwish and Lesa A. Thompson
    3. Agrochemicals in the Food Chain
    R.H. Waring, S.C. Mitchell and I. Brown
    4. Mycotoxins: still with us after all these years
    J. David Miller

    Section II
    Changes in the chemical composition of food throughout the various stages of the food chain: animal and milk production
    5. Occurrence of antibacterial substances and coccidiostats in animal feed
    Ewelina Patyra, Monika Przeniosło-Siwczynska and Krzysztof Kwiatek
    6. Residues relating to the veterinary therapeutic or growth promoting use and abuse of medicines
    Gyorgy Csiko

    Section III
    Changes in the chemical composition of food throughout the various stages of the food chain: fishing and aquaculture
    7. Marine biotoxins as natural contaminants in seafood: European perspective
    Pablo Estevez, Jose M. Leao and Ana Gago-MartinezGago
    8. Pollutants, residues and other contaminants in foods obtained from marine and fresh water
    Martin Rose
    9. Antimicrobial drugs in aquaculture: use and abuse
    George Rigos and Dimitra Kogiannou

    Section IV
    Changes in the chemical composition of food throughout the various stages of the food chain: manufacture, packaging and distribution
    10. Manufacturing and distribution: the role of good manufacturing practice
    Michael E. Knowles
    11. Global regulations for the use of food additives and processing aids
    Youngjoo Kwon, Rebeca Lopez-Garcıa, Susana Socolovsky and Bernadene Magnuson
    12. Direct addition of flavors, including taste and flavor modifiers
    Ivonne M.C.M. Rietjens, Samuel M. Cohen, Gerhard Eisenbrand, Shoji Fukushima, Nigel J. Gooderham, F. Peter Guengerich, Stephen S. Hecht, Thomas J. Rosol, Matthew J. Linman, Christie L. Harman and Sean V. Taylor
    13. Production of contaminants during thermal processing in both industrial and home preparation of foods
    Franco Pedreschi and Marıa Salome Mariotti
    14. Migration of packaging and labeling components and advances in analytical methodology supporting exposure assessment
    Cristina Nerın, Elena Canellas and Paula Vera
    15. Safety assessment of refillable and recycled plastics packaging for food use
    Forrest L. Bayer and Jan Jetten
    16. Preventing food fraud
    Steven M. Gendel

    Section V
    Changes in the chemical composition of food throughout the various stages of the food chain: identification of emerging chemical risks
    17. Emerging contaminants
    Eleonora Dupouy and Bert Popping
    18. Emerging contaminants related to plastic and microplastic pollution
    Ndaindila N.K. Haindongo, Christopher J. Breen and Lev Neretin
    19. Endocrine disruptors
    Serhii Kolesnyk and Mykola Prodanchuk
    20. Antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial residues in the food chain
    Jeffrey T. LeJeune, Alejandro Dorado Garcia and Francesca Latronico
    21. Climate change as a driving factor for emerging contaminants
    Keya Mukherjee
    22. Emerging mycotoxin risks due to climate change. What to expect in the coming decade?
    Angel Medina
    23. Emerging contaminants in the context of food fraud
    Simon Kelly Douglas
    24. Trends in risk assessment of chemical contaminants in food
    Eleonora Dupouy

    Section VI
    Changes in pathogenic microbiological contamination of food pre- and post-farm gate/fishing
    25. Common and natural occurrence of pathogens, including fungi, leading to primary and secondary product contamination
    Maristela S. Nascimento and Marta H. Taniwaki
    26. Contributions of pathogens from agricultural water to fresh produce
    Zeynal Topalcengiz, Matt Krug, Joyjit Saha, Katelynn Stull and Michelle Danyluk
    27. Microbial pathogen contamination of animal feed
    Elena G. Olson, Tomasz Grenda, Anuradha Ghosh and Steven C. Ricke
    28. Zoonoses from animal meat and milk
    Abani K. Pradhan and Shraddha Karanth
    29. Abattoir hygiene
    Ivan Nastasijevic, Marija Boskovic and Milica Glisic
    30. Dairy production: microbial safety of raw milk and processed milk products
    Victor Ntuli, Thulani Sibanda, James A. Elegbeleye, Desmond T. Mugadza, Eyassu Seifu and Elna M. Buys
    31. Reduction of risks associated with processed meats
    Lynn M. McMullen
    32. Pathogens and their sources in freshwater fish, sea finfish, shellfish, and algae
    Foteini F. Parlapani, Ioannis S. Boziaris and Christina A. Mireles DeWitt
    33. The evolution of molecular methods to study seafood-associated pathogens
    Craig Baker-Austin and Jaime Martinez-Urtaza

    Section VII
    Changes in pathogenic microbiological contamination of food throughout the various stages of the food chain post-processing
    34. Microbiological safety in food retail
    Karen Job, Karin Carstensen and Lucia Anelich
    35. Reduction of the microbial load of food by processing and modified atmosphere packaging
    Elna M. Buys, B.C. Dlamini, James A. Elegbeleye and N.N. Mehlomakulu
    36. Food defense: types of threat, defense plans, and mitigation strategies
    Louise Manning
    37. Sampling, testing methodologies, and their implication in risk assessment, including interpretation of detection limits
    Carolina Ripolles-Avila, Brayan R.H. Cervantes-Huaman and Jose Juan Rodrıguez-Jerez

    Section VIII
    Current and emerging advances in food safety evaluation: chemicals
    38. The risk assessment paradigm for chemicals: a critical review of current and emerging approaches
    John Doe
    39. The use of artificial intelligence and big data for the safety evaluation of US food-relevant chemicals
    Yuqi Fu, Thomas Luechtefeld, Agnes Karmaus and Thomas Hartung
    40. Potential human health effects following exposure to nano- and microplastics, lessons learned from nanomaterials
    Hugo Brouwer, Femke L.N. Van Oijen and Hans Bouwmeester
    41. Exposure assessment: critical review of dietary exposure methodologies—from budget methods to stepped deterministic methods
    Xiaoyu Bi
    42. Exposure assessment: modeling approaches including probabilistic methods, uncertainty analysis, and aggregate exposure from multiple sources
    Marc C. Kennedy
    43. Exposure assessment: real-world examples of exposure models in action from simple deterministic to probabilistic aggregate and cumulative models
    Cronan McNamara and Sandrine Pigat
    44. The role of computational toxicology in the risk assessment of food products
    Timothy E.H. Allen, Steve Gutsell and Ans Punt
    45. Risk-benefit assessment
    Jeljer Hoekstra, Maarten Nauta and Morten Poulsen
    46. Exposure-driven risk management strategies for chemicals in food
    Samuel Benrejeb Godefroy
    47. Role of human epidemiology in risk assessment and management
    Alfons Ramel
    48. Risk-based approaches in food allergy
    Geert Houben, W. Marty Blom and Marjolein Meijerink
    49. Risk assessment of mixtures in the food chain
    Angelo Moretto

    Section IX
    Current and emerging advances in food safety evaluation: pathogenic microorganisms including prions
    50. Prions: detection of bovine spongiform encephalopathy and links to variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
    Timm Konold, Mark Arnold and Amie Adkin
    51. Role of real-time DNA analyses, biomarkers, resistance measurement, and ecosystem management in Campylobacter risk analysis
    Jasmina Vidic, Sandrine Auger, Marco Marin, Francesco Rizzotto, Nabila Haddad, Sandrine Guillou, Muriel Guyard-Nicodeme, Priya Vizzini, Alessia Cossettini, Marisa Manzano, Zoi Kotsiri, Efstratia Panteleli and Apostolos Vantarakis
    52. Identification and assessment of exposure to emerging foodborne pathogens using foodborne human viruses as an example
    Robert L. Buchanan
    53. Transfer of viruses implicated in human disease through food
    Kiran N. Bhilegaonkar and Rahul P. Kolhe
    54. Role of gut microbiota in food safety
    Sik Yu So, Qinglong Wu and Tor Savidge
    55. Bacterial cell-to-cell communication and its relevance to food safety
    Felipe Alves de Almeida, Leonardo Luiz de Freitas, Deisy Guimaraes Carneiro and Maria Cristina Dantas Vanetti
    56. Significance of identifying microbial DNA in foods and raw materials without concomitant detection of respective viable populations
    Luca Cocolin
    57. Whole-genome sequencing for food safety
    Nigel French
    58. Drug-resistant bacteria from “farm to fork”: impact of antibiotic use in animal production
    Michaela van den Honert and Louwrens Hoffman
    59. Quick detection and confirmation of microbes in food and water
    Ricardo Franco-Duarte, Snehal Kadam, Karishma S. Kaushik, Sakshi Painuli, Prabhakar Semwal, Natalia Cruz-Martins and Celia Fortuna Rodrigues

    Section X
    Safety assessment of genetically modified organisms and other biological alterations
    60. New genetic modification techniques: challenges and prospects
    Graham Head and George T. Tzotzos
    61. Safety assessment of food and feed derived from genetically modified plants
    Hanspeter Naegeli

    Section XI
    Food safety: risk perception and communicating with the public
    62. Consumer attitudes about the use of new technologies in agrifood industries
    Roger Clemens, Peter Pressman and A. Wallace Hayes
    63. Microbiological risks versus putative chemical risks based on hazard rather than exposure: can it be rationalized for public understanding?
    John O’Brien
    64. Communicating about risk in relation to food with the public and countering media alarmism
    Katherine Rich and Gary Bowering
    65. Consumer attitudes toward novel agrifood technologies: a critical review on genetic modification and synthetic biology
    Shan Jin, Wenjing Li, Francis Z. Naab, David Coles and Lynn J. Frewer

    Section XII
    New and emerging foods and technologies
    66. Safety, nutrition and sustainability of plant-based meat alternatives
    Jane M. Caldwell and E.N. Clare Mills
    67. The role of Big Data and Artificial Intelligence in food risk assessment and prediction
    Giannis Stoitsis, Michalis Papakonstantinou, Manos Karvounis and Nikos Manouselis
    68. Blockchain: an enabler for safe food in global supply networks
    John G. Keogh, Abderahman Rejeb, Nida Khan and Khaldoon Zaid-Kaylani

    Section XIII
    Hazard versus risk-based approaches to food safety regulations
    69. Pros and cons of hazard- versus risk-based approaches to food safety regulation
    Jyotigna M. Mehta and Ivonne M.C.M. Rietjens

    Section XIV
    Impact of food safety on global trade
    70. Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI): underpinning the safety of the global food chain, facilitating regulatory compliance, trade, and consumer trust
    Anne Gerardi

    Section XV
    Climate change, population demographics, urbanization, and economic growth: impact on food safety
    71. Food and nutrition security: challenges for farming, procurement, and consumption
    Tessa Avermaete, Wannes Keulemans, Olivier Honnay, Gerard Govers, Barbara De Coninck and Tjitske Anna Zwart
    72. Climate change: food safety challenges in the near future
    Fumiko Kasuga

Product details

  • No. of pages: 1188
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2022
  • Published: October 8, 2022
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128231548

About the Editors

Michael Knowles

Dr. Michael E. Knowles is a pharmacist and medicinal chemist who spent the first half of his career with the UK Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, where he became the chief scientist (Fisheries & Food) and head of the Food Science Group. In that position he was a member of the Advisory Committee on Pesticides, the Committee on Veterinary Medicines, and chair of the Steering Group on Chemical aspects of Food Surveillance. The second half of his 44-year career was spent with The Coca-Cola Company, where he became the vice president of Global Scientific & Regulatory Affairs, from which he retired in 2013. As a graduate of the University of Nottingham, Dr. Knowles is a fellow of several scientific societies; past global president of the ILSI and chair of the ILSI Europe Board; a liveryman of the Society of Apothecaries, London; and a freeman of the City of London. His scientific publications are mainly in the area of food safety, and he is joint founding editor of the journal Food Additives and Contaminants. He is a former chair of the Food Group of the UK Society of Chemical Industry (SCI), former chairman of the Board of the European Technology Platform’s “Food for Life,” a former governing council member of the International Union of Food Science & Technology, and chair of its membership committee and various other committees dealing with food safety and regulatory affairs in EU food and drink associations.

Affiliations and Expertise

Governing Council of the International Union of Food Science and Technology

Lucia Anelich

Professor Lucia Anelich has a PhD in microbiology and is currently the managing director of her own food safety training and consulting business, Anelich Consulting, which she started in 2011. Prior to that, she spent 5 years at the Consumer Goods Council of South Africa where she established and headed up a food safety body for the food industry, a first for the country, until 2010. Before joining the CGCSA, she spent 25 years in academia at the Tshwane University of Technology where she was the head of Department of Biotechnology and Food Technology and associate professor. She is a member of the International Commission on the Microbiological Specifications for Food (ICMSF), fellow of the International Academy of Food Science and Technology, past chair of the Scientific Council of IUFoST, immediate past chair of the Food Hygiene Committee of the South African Bureau of Standards, and immediate past president of the South African Association for Food Science and Technology. She is an adjunct professor at the Central University of Technology, South Africa and is currently a food safety expert for the African Union (AU) and a member of the advisory group establishing the AU Food Safety Authority.

Affiliations and Expertise

Managing Director of Anelich Consulting, South Africa

Alan Boobis

Alan Boobis is an Emeritus professor of toxicology at Imperial College London. He was a professor of biochemical pharmacology and director of the Toxicology Unit (supported by Public Health England and the Department of Health) at the Imperial College until June of 2017, when he retired after over 40 years at the college. His main research interests lie in mechanistic toxicology, drug metabolism, mode of action, and chemical risk assessment. He has published approximately 250 original research papers (h-index of 80). He is a member of several national and international advisory committees, the Committee on Toxicity (chair), the WHO Study Group on Tobacco Product Regulation, Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (veterinary residues), and Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues. He has been a member of the UK Advisory Committee on Pesticides, Committee on Carcinogenicity, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) Panel on Food Contaminants, and the EFSA Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues. He is a member and a past chair of the Board of Trustees of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) and a member of the Board of Directors and has served as the vice president of ILSI Europe and has served as a member and chair of the Board of Trustees of the Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI). He sits on several international scientific advisory boards, in both the public and private sectors. Awards include honorary fellow of the British Toxicology Society, fellow of the British Pharmacological Society, the BTS John Barnes Prize Lectureship, honorary membership and Merit Award of EUROTOX, the Royal Society of Chemistry Toxicology Award, the Society of Toxicology Arnold J. Lehman Award, the Toxicology Forum Philippe Shubik Distinguished Scientist Award, and Officer of the British Empire (OBE).

Affiliations and Expertise

National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom

Bert Popping

Dr. Bert Popping is an independent consultant and managing director of the strategic food consulting company FOCOS. He previously worked as chief scientific officer and director of Scientific Development and Regulatory Affairs for multinational contract laboratories. Dr. Popping has more than 20 years of experience in the food testing industry and has authored over 50 publications on topics related to food safety, food authenticity, food analysis, validation, and regulatory assessments. He also edited one book in this field. He is member of the editorial board of the Journal of Food Additives and Contaminants and the Journal of Food Analytical Methods. He serves on the Thought Leaders Advisory Committee of AOAC International and on panels of several other international organizations. He is an active member of numerous national and international organizations, including USP, CEN, ISO, BSI, and several governmental method working groups. He also chairs a recently established working group on emerging and future technology developments and their impact on food industry and consumers. In addition, Dr. Popping serves on the Board of Directors of AOAC International.

Affiliations and Expertise

Chief Executive Officer of FOCOS GmbH

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  • Sylvia P. Wed Dec 07 2022

    Present Knowledge in Food Safety

    A very comprehensive literature, should be mandatory for everybody in Food Business,