Practical Planning

Practical Planning

Extending the Classical AI Planning Paradigm

1st Edition - September 1, 1988

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  • Author: David Wilkins
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080514475

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Planning, or reasoning about actions, is a fundamental element of intelligent behavior--and one that artificial intelligence has found very difficult to implement. The most well-understood approach to building planning systems has been under refinement since the late 1960s and has now reached a level of maturity where there are good prospects for building working planners.Practical Planning is an in-depth examination of this classical planning paradigm through an intensive case study of SIPE, a significantly implemented planning system. The author, the developer of SIPE, defines the planning problem in general, explains why reasoning about actions is so complex, and describes all parts of the SIPE system and the algorithms needed to achieve efficiency. Details are discussed in the context of problems and important issues in building a practical planner; discussions of how other systems address these issues are also included.Assuming only a basic background in AI, Practical Planning will be of great interest to professionals interested in incorporating planning capabilities into AI systems.

Table of Contents

  • Practical Planning: Extending the Classical AI Planning Paradigm

    David E. Wilkins

    List of Figures

    List of Tables

    1 Reasoning about Actions and Planning
    1.1 Philosophical and Practical Importance

    1.2 The Classical AI Planning Problem

    1.3 Reactive Planning

    1.4 The Essence of Planning

    1.5 Capabilities of a Planning System

    1.6 How Hard is Planning?

    1.7 Classical AI Planning Systems

    1.8 SIPE

    2 Basic Assumptions and Limitations
    2.1 Important Features

    2.2 Limitations

    3 SIPE and Its Representations
    3.1 Representation of Domain Objects and Relationship

    3.2 Operator Description Language

    3.3 Plan Rationale

    3.4 Plans

    4 Hierarchical Planning as Differing Abstraction Levels
    4.1 The Many Guises of Hierarchical Planning

    4.2 A Problem with Current Planners

    4.3 Solutions

    5 Constraints
    5.1 SIPE's Constraint Language

    5.2 Use of Constraints

    5.3 Unification

    6. The Truth Criterion
    6.1 The Formula Truth Criterion

    6.2 The PTC for Ground, Linear Plans

    6.3 Introducing Variables

    6.4 Introducing Existential Quantifiers

    6.5 Introducing Universal Quantifiers

    6.6 Introducing Nonlinearity

    6.7 Summary

    7 Deductive Causal Theories
    7.1 A Motivating Example

    7.2 Domain Rules

    7.3 problems with Domain Rules

    7.4 Heuritic Adequacy and Expressive Power

    8 Plan Critics
    8.1 Solving the Constraint Network

    8.2 Parallel Interactions

    8.3 Goal Phantomization

    8.4 Solving Harmful Interactions

    8.5 Adding Ordering Constraints

    8.6 Examples

    9 Resources: Reusable, Consumable, Temporal
    9.1 Reusable Resources

    9.2 Representation of Numerical Quantities

    9.3 Consumable Resources

    9.4 Temporal Reasoning

    9.5 Manipulating Numerical Quantities

    9.6 Summary

    10 Search
    10.1 Automatic Search

    10.2 Intermingling Planning and Execution

    10.3 Interactive Control

    10.4 Domain-Dependent Search Control

    10.5 Other Search Strategies

    11 Replanning During Execution
    11.1 Overview of SIPE's Execution-Monitoring System

    11.2 Unknowns

    11.3 Interpreting the Input

    11.4 The Problem Recognizer

    11.5 Replanning Actions

    11.6 The General Replanner

    11.7 Examples

    11.8 Searching the Space of Modified Plans

    11.9 Summary

    12 Planning and Reactivity
    12.1 Level of the Interface

    12.2 Who is in Control?

    13 Achieving Heuristic Adequacy
    13.1 Summary of Heuristics

    13.2 Subsumption of Pred Constraints

    13.3 Encoding Domains in SIPE

    14 Comparison with Other Systems
    14.1 Nonclassical Planning Systems

    14.2 Previous Classical Planners

    14.3 Constraints

    14.4 Critics

    14.5 Replanning

    14.6 Heuristic Adequacy


Product details

  • No. of pages: 205
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Morgan Kaufmann 2014
  • Published: September 1, 1988
  • Imprint: Morgan Kaufmann
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080514475

About the Author

David Wilkins

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