Practical Guide to Vegetable Oil Processing

Practical Guide to Vegetable Oil Processing

2nd Edition - February 1, 2017

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  • Author: Monoj Gupta
  • Paperback ISBN: 9781630670504
  • eBook ISBN: 9781630670511

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Practical Guide to Vegetable Oil Processing, Second Edition, includes an up-to-date summary of the basic principles of edible oil refining, processing, and deodorizing, serving as a hands-on training manual for chemists, engineers, and managers new to the industry. The 15-chapter book includes current information on the bleaching of green oils and coconut oil, quality requirements for frying oil applications, and more. Written for the non-chemist new to the industry, the book makes it simple to apply these important concepts for the edible oil industry.

Key Features

  • Provides insights to the challenges of bleaching very green oils
  • Includes new deodorizer designs and performance measures
  • Offers insights on frying oil quality management
  • Simple and easy-to-read language


Edible oil processing managers and supervisors, Chemical engineers, QA/QC technicians, Lab technicians, Vegetable oil processing and maintenance personnel, as well as equipment manufacturers

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1: Requirement for Successful Production and Delivery of the Refined Vegetable Oils


    1.1. Crude oil

    1.2. Oilseeds

    1.3. Additional comments on oilseeds

    1.4. Fruit palm

    1.5. Groundnuts (peanuts) and tree nuts

    1.6. Crude oil handling, storage, and transport

    1.7. Concluding remarks

    Chapter 2: Basic Oil Chemistry


    2.1. Composition of oil

    2.2. Distinctions between oils and fats

    2.3. Fatty acids in common vegetable oils

    2.4. Typical behavior of fatty acids

    2.5. Objectives of proper oil processing

    2.6. Nontriglyceride components of oils

    2.7. Oil analysis used in vegetable oil industry and their significance

    2.8. Significance of the analytical methods and results

    Chapter 3: Crude Oil Receiving, Storage, and Handling


    3.1. Crude oil receiving

    3.2. FOSFA international (headquarter—London, UK)

    3.3. Membership

    3.4. Crude oil unloading (truck or rail car)

    3.5. Crude oil storage

    Chapter 4: Degumming


    4.1. Introduction

    4.2. Purpose of degumming

    4.3. Hydratable phospholipids and nonhydratable phospholipids

    4.4. Methods for degumming

    Chapter 5: Refining


    5.1. Purpose of refining vegetable oil

    5.2. Methods of oil refining

    5.3. Physical refining process

    5.4. Chemical refining process

    5.5. Continuous chemical refining process

    5.6. Water washing refined oil

    5.7. Refining loss

    5.8. Short Mix Process

    5.9. Vacuum drying

    5.10. Soap splitting for recovering the fatty acids (acidulation of soap stock)

    5.11. Batch acidulation process

    5.12. Continuous acidulation process

    5.13. Troubleshooting acidulation process

    5.14. Cold chemical refining process for sunflower oil

    5.15. Modified physical refining process

    5.16. Modified caustic refining process

    5.17. Semiphysical refining process

    Chapter 6: Bleaching


    6.1. Introduction

    6.2. General operating steps in bleaching

    6.3. Dry bleaching versus wet bleaching

    6.4. Critical control points in dry bleaching

    6.5. Sampling frequency in bleaching process

    6.6. Troubleshooting dry bleaching process

    6.7. Wet bleaching process

    6.8. Critical control points in the wet bleaching process

    6.9. Two-step bleaching process (use of silica hydrogel)

    6.10. Critical control points in two-step bleaching process

    6.11. Packed bed filtration in bleaching process

    6.12. Critical control points in packed bed bleaching

    6.13. Filters for filtering bleached oil

    6.14. Bleaching agents

    6.15. Bleaching very green canola oil

    Chapter 7: Hydrogenation


    7.1. Introduction

    7.2. Historical background of hydrogenation

    7.3. Understanding the process of hydrogenation

    7.4. Hydrogenation process

    7.5. Critical control points in the hydrogenation process

    7.6. Catalyst filtration

    7.7. Critical quality parameters in batch hydrogenation

    7.8. Trans fatty acids

    7.9. Sources of hydrogenation catalysts

    7.10. Selection of hydrogenation catalyst

    7.11. Commercially available nickel catalysts

    7.12. Troubleshooting the hydrogenation process

    7.13. Heat recovery in hydrogenation

    Chapter 8: Deodorization


    8.1. Introduction

    8.2. Purpose of deodorization

    8.3. Description of the deodorization process

    8.4. Operating principles of deodorization

    8.5. Critical control points for the deodorizing process

    8.6. Deodorized oil quality

    8.7. Types of deodorizers

    8.8. Vacuum system for deodorizer

    8.9. Periodic cleaning of the deodorizer

    Chapter 9: Finished Product Storage and Handling


    9.1. Introduction

    9.2. Transfer and storage of deodorized products in tanks

    9.3. Deodorized oil storage tank

    9.4. Loading finished oils in trucks

    9.5. Unloading finished oil from tank trucks

    9.6. Packaged products stored in the warehouse

    9.7. Maintaining product quality in the warehouse

    9.8. Shipping of packaged products

    Chapter 10: Fundamentals of Fat Crystallization Related to Making Plastic and Pourable Shortenings


    10.1. Introduction

    10.2. Fat polymorphism

    10.3. Triglyceride structure

    10.4. Fat crystallization

    10.5. Characterization of fat crystals

    10.6. Palm oil in solid shortening

    10.7. Issues with the interesterified products

    10.8. Very high–hard stock content

    10.9. Pourable liquid shortening

    Chapter 11: Winterization and Fractionation of Selected Vegetable Oils


    11.1. Introduction

    11.2. Winterization of sunflower seed oil

    11.3. Critical process variables for winterization of sunflower oil

    11.4. Troubleshooting

    11.5. Winterization of soybean oil

    11.6. Fractionation of palm oil

    11.7. Dry fractionation

    11.8. Troubleshooting dry fractionation

    11.9. Multiple dry fractionation

    11.10. Wet fractionation with detergent (lanza process)

    11.11. Solvent fractionation process

    Chapter 12: Insight to Oil Quality Management


    12.1. Introduction

    12.2. Managing oil quality

    12.3. Modes of oil decomposition

    12.4. Areas in oil quality management

    12.5. Summary of oil quality standards

    Chapter 13: Trans Fat Alternatives and Challenges


    13.1. Introduction

    13.2. Nutritional labeling regulation

    13.3. Source of trans fatty acids

    13.4. Technical alternatives available today

    13.5. Challenges

    13.6. Interesterification process

    13.7. Chemical interesterification process

    13.8. Enzymatic interesterification process

    13.9. Comparison between the chemical and the enzymatic interesterification processes

    Chapter 14: Familiarization With Process Equipment


    14.1. Introduction

    14.2. Processing equipment and accessories

    Chapter 15: Loss Management


    15.1. Introduction

    15.2. Definition of losses

    15.3. Factors contributing to high plant losses in degrading and variations

    15.4. Elements of good loss management

    15.5. Guidelines for managing D&V

    15.6. Managing plant losses

    15.7. Final comments on loss management

    15.8. Samples of forms helpful for tracking variations

    Chapter 16: Plant Safety Procedures


    16.1. Introduction

    16.2. Plant safety

    16.3. Safety agencies

    16.4. Areas of safety training required at the plant

    16.5. Special notes

    Chapter 17: Regulatory Agencies and Their Roles in a Vegetable Oil Plant


    17.1. Introduction

    17.2. Agencies overseeing food industry

    17.3. Environmental protection agency

    17.4. National fire protection association

    17.5. US department of agriculture

    17.6. Role of usda at an edible oil plant

    17.7. US food and drug administration

    17.8. Rabbinical assembly

    17.9. Role of rabbinical assembly in an oil plant

    17.10. National institute of oilseed products

    17.11. National oilseed processors association

    17.12. Federation of oils, seeds and fats associations

    17.13. FEDIOL

    17.14. European food safety authority

    17.15. Food safety authority

    17.16. Rapid alert system for food and feed

Product details

  • No. of pages: 508
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press and AOCS Press 2017
  • Published: February 1, 2017
  • Imprint: Academic Press and AOCS Press
  • Paperback ISBN: 9781630670504
  • eBook ISBN: 9781630670511

About the Author

Monoj Gupta

M. K. Gupta is the president and founder of MG Edible Oil Consulting International, Inc. He founded the company in 1998 utilizing his 45 years experience in the field of oil technology and food processing. He holds a Master's degree in chemical engineering from the University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida and was named Fellow at the American Oil Chemists Society (AOCS) in 2008.

Affiliations and Expertise

MG Edible Oil Consulting International, Inc., Lynwood, WA, USA

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  • ReginaLule Tue Jan 15 2019

    Good product

    Provides detailed information on how to process vegetable oil.