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Practical Biostatistics - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124157941, 9780124158573

Practical Biostatistics

1st Edition

A Friendly Step-by-Step Approach for Evidence-based Medicine

Authors: Mendel Suchmacher Mauro Geller
Paperback ISBN: 9780124157941
eBook ISBN: 9780124158573
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 26th July 2012
Page Count: 248
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Description

Evidence-based medicine aims to apply the best available evidence gained from the scientific method to medical decision making. It is a practice that uses statistical analysis of scientific methods and outcomes to drive further experimentation and diagnosis. The profusion of evidence-based medicine in medical practice and clinical research has produced a need for life scientists and clinical researchers to assimilate biostatistics into their work to meet efficacy and practical standards. Practical Biostatistics provides researchers, medical professionals, and students with a friendly, practical guide to biostatistics. With a detailed outline of implementation steps complemented by a review of important topics, this book can be used as a quick reference or a hands-on guide to effectively incorporate biostatistics in clinical trials.

Key Features

  • Customized presentation for biological investigators with examples taken from current clinical trials in multiple disciplines
  • Clear and concise definitions and examples provide a pragmatic guide to bring clarity to the applications of statistics in improving human health
  • Addresses the challenge of assimilation of mathematical concepts to better interpret literature, to build stronger studies, to present research effectively, and to improve communication with supporting biostatisticians

Readership

Investigators and clinicians involved in genetics, genomics, immunology, virology, microbiology, cell biology, pharmacology, and biomedical research; post-doctoral fellows and graduate researchers; physicians who need to make evidence-based clinical decisions; physicians and medical students who consult medical literature which demands knowledge on biostatistics; instructors and trainees in national and international technical clinician and degree programs

Table of Contents

Foreword

Preface

Acknowledgments

Part I Introduction

Chapter 1. Study Type Determination

1.1 Epidemiological Studies

1.2 Analytical Studies

1.3 Summary of Study Types

Suggested Reading

Part II. Observational Studies

Chapter 2. Determination of Association Strength between an Exposure Factor and an Event in Observational Studies

2.1 Case–Control Studies

2.2 Cohort Studies

Chapter 3. Increasing Accuracy in Observational Studies

3.1 Stratified Analysis

3.2 Multivariable Analysis

Suggested Reading

Part III. Step-by-Step Biostatistics of a Clinical Trial

Chapter 4. Step 1: Investigator’s Hypothesis and Expression of its Corresponding Outcome

Chapter 5. Step 2: Estimation and Assessment of a Published Trial

5.1 Factors Influencing n Determination

5.2 n Calculation

5.3 Assessing n of a Published Trial

Chapter 6. Step 3: Organization of Variables and Endpoints

6.1 Qualitative Variables

6.2 Quantitative Variables

Chapter 7. Step 4: Measures for Results Expression of a Clinical Trial

7.1 Central Tendency Measures

7.2 Dispersal Measures

7.3 Position Measures: Quantiles

Appendix 7.1 How to Calculate Mean Using Microsoft Excel (Section 7.1.1)

Appendix 7.2 How to “Trim” The Mean of Outliers (Section 7.1.1)

Appendix 7.3 How to Determine Median Using Microsoft Excel (Section 7.1.2)

Appendix 7.4 How to Determine Mode Using Microsoft Excel (Section 7.1.3)

Appendix 7.5 How to Calculate Standard Deviation Using Microsoft Excel (Section 7.2.2)

Appendix 7.6 How to Find the Exact BMI that Corresponds to the 90th Percentile using Microsoft Excel (Section 7.3)

Appendix 7.7 How to Put all BMIs in a “Rank and Percentile” Perspective using Microsoft Excel (Section 7.3)

Chapter 8. Step 5: Determination of Normality or Non-Normality of Data Distribution

Appendix 8.1 How to Verify Normality of a Graph Curve Using Microsoft Excel

Chapter 9. Step 6: Hypothesis Testing

9.1 Parametric Tests for Independent and Dependent Samples

9.2 Nonparametric Tests

Chapter 10. Step 7: Correlating Sample Data with the General Population – 95% Confidence Interval

10.1 Point Estimation

10.2 Interval Estimation (95% Confidence Interval)

Appendix 10.1 How to Determine Confidence Intervals Using Microsoft Excel (Sample A)

Suggested Reading

Part IV. Additional Concepts in Biostatistics

Chapter 11. Individual and Collective Benefit and Risk Indexes Inferable from Intervention Studies

11.1 Treatment Effect Indexes

11.2 Clinical Decision Analysis Indexes

Chapter 12. Statistical Assessment of Diagnostic Tests for the Clinic

12.1 Detection Capacity Indexes

12.2 Diagnostic Significance Indexes

Chapter 13. Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses

13.1 Definitions

13.2 Systematic Review

13.3 Meta-Analysis

13.4 Options if Meta-Analysis Performance is not Advisable

13.5 Systematic Review/Meta-Analysis Limitations

13.6 Systematic Review/Meta-Analysis Stages Summary

13.7 Suggested Resources and Literary Sources

Chapter 14. Correlation and Regression

14.1 Correlation

14.2 Regression

14.3 Multiple Linear Regression

Appendix 14.1 How to Build a Scatterplot and to Add a Trend Line Using Microsoft Excel

Appendix 14.2 How to Calculate Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient Using Microsoft Excel

Appendix 14.3 How to Predict a Dependent Variable Using Microsoft Excel

Chapter 15. Per Protocol Analysis and Intention to Treat Analysis

Suggested Reading

APPENDIX. Microsoft Excel 2010 Basics

A.1 Structure and Main Features of a Microsoft Excel 2010 Worksheet

A.2 Location of Statistical Resources

A.3 Building a Plain Table

A.4 Building a Basic Chart

A.5 Building a Chart Out of a Table

A.6 Pivot Table

Suggested Reading

Glossary

Index

Details

No. of pages:
248
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2012
Published:
26th July 2012
Imprint:
Academic Press
Paperback ISBN:
9780124157941
eBook ISBN:
9780124158573

About the Authors

Mendel Suchmacher

Mendel Suchmacher, MD, MSc, graduated in Pharmaceutical Medicine at Federal University of the State of São Paulo, is Board Certified in Internal Medicine and Hematology-Hemotherapy and member of the American College of Physicians. He holds teaching and research positions at prestigious Brazilian institutions: Professor of Clinical Immunology at Carlos Chagas Institute of Medical Graduation; Professor & Chairman of Microbiology and Immunology, and Research Fellow at Teresopolis University Medical School - UNIFESO; Professor & Coordinator of the Genodermatoses Sector of the Clinical Genetics Service at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. Additionally, he is member of the clinical staff of Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Clinical Immunology, Carlos Chagas Institute of Medical Graduation; Professor and Chairman of Microbiology and Immunology, and Research Fellow, Teresopolis University Medical School - UNIFESO; Professor and Coordinator of the Genodermatoses Sector of the Clinical Genetics Service, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Mauro Geller

Mauro Geller

Mauro Geller, MD, PhD, holds an MD degree from Teresopolis University Medical School, a PhD in Clinical Medicine from Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, and a Post-doc in Immunogenetics from Harvard University. He has extensive experience in the field of clinical immunology, especially in the areas of clinical medicine, tumoral immunology, genetics and immunodiagnostics. Dr. Geller is founding member and current medical director of the Brazilian National Neurofibromatosis Center; fellow of the American College of Physicians and of the Royal Society of Medicine; member of the European Society of Gene Therapy; and member of the Brazilian Societies of Immunology, Microbiology and Genetics. He is Board Certified in Internal Medicine, Immunology, Allergy and Public Health. Dr. Geller also has extensive experience with research in the areas of immunology, microbiology and genetics, as well as with clinical research, and has published 137 papers, 8 book chapters, and 4 books. He also serves as ad hoc advisor to the Brazilian National Institute of Health (ANVISA) and is member of the clinical staff of Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein.

Affiliations and Expertise

MD degree, Teresopolis University Medical School PhD, Clinical Medicine, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro Post-doc, Immunogenetics, Harvard University

Reviews

"...strongly recommended as a practical guide for readers interested in applied biostatistics. Each chapter of the book is accompanied by practical examples and a huge set of reflection questions and answers." --Zentralblatt MATH, Practical Biostatistics

"With a detailed outline of implementation steps complemented by a review of important topics, this book can be used as a quick reference or a hands-on guide to effectively incorporate biostatistics in clinical trials." --Doody.com, April 2013

"Practical Biostatistics is destined to be a companion book for health professionals and graduation students who face the challenge of assimilating concepts on statistics." --Mauri Carakushansky, MD, Pediatric Endocrinologist - Nemours Children's Clinic Orlando, Assistant Professor of Pediatrics - Florida State University, Assistant Professor of Pediatrics - University of Central Florida

"This work by Dr. Suchmacher and Dr. Geller is bound to become a classic and should be readily available on the desk, shelf and on line." --Salin Dahlben, Harvard University, Clinical Assistant Professor in Psychiatry, Tufts University

"Dr. Suchmacher and Dr. Geller are experienced researchers and writers in the clinical research field, who were able to fathom the often confusing realm of Statistics applied to biological sciences, and to come back with a pragmatic study proposal for interested medical students and healthcare professionals […] In my opinion, 'Practical Biostatistics' will undoubtedly be welcomed as one of the books designed to bring medical students and healthcare professionals alike, closer to a better understanding of this inescapable issue." --Spyros G.E. Mezitis, Assistant Professor of Clinical Medicine, The New York Presbyterian Hospital Weill, Cornell Medical Center

"I believe the result of [Drs. Suchmacher and Geller’s] efforts will prove useful for many medical students and researchers, who must thrive in an era when Biostatistics is destined to be an ever present matter." --Allan E. Rubenstein, Clinical Professor of Neurology, The Stephen D. Hassenfeld Children's Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders, Langone Medical Center, School of Medicine, New York University

"Practical Biostatistics is destined to be a companion book for health professionals and graduation students who face the challenge of assimilating concepts on statistics." --Mauri Carakushansky, MD, Pediatric Endocrinologist - Nemours Children's Clinic Orlando, Assistant Professor of Pediatrics - Florida State University, Assistant Professor of Pediatrics - University of Central Florida

Ratings and Reviews