Polycyclic hydrocarbons and cancer - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780122792038, 9780323153911

Polycyclic hydrocarbons and cancer

1st Edition

Editors: Harry Gelboin
eBook ISBN: 9780323153911
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1981
Page Count: 367
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Polycyclic Hydrocarbons and Cancer, Volume 3 explores the link between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and cancer based on research in the fields of chemistry, biology, and the medical and social sciences. Topics covered include the metabolism of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons; carcinogenicity of PAHs and their derivatives; the role of microsomal epoxide hydrolase in the biotransformation of PAHs; and biochemical effects of the phorbol ester tumor promoters and their implications for PAH carcinogenesis. This volume consists of eight chapters and begins with a discussion on the mechanisms of PAH metabolism in the marine environment. The use of X-ray crystallographic techniques in studying carcinogenic PAHs and their derivatives is then considered, along with the involvement of dihydrodiols and diol epoxides in the metabolic activation of PAHs other than benzo[a]pyrene; the role of microsomal epoxide hydrolase in PAH biotransformation; and drug detoxication in relation to the excretion mechanism of chemical carcinogens. The following chapters focus on the anticarcinogenic or inhibitory effects of a variety of chemicals on PAH carcinogenesis; the biochemical effects of the phorbol ester tumor promoters on PAH carcinogenesis; and epidemiology of PAHs, with emphasis on quantification of the cancer risk from cigarette smoking and air pollution. This monograph will be of interest to investigators and educators concerned with scientific aspects of PAH research; government officials and elected representatives as well as industry leaders who must confront and solve the problems related to PAHs; and others in the fields of chemistry, biology, and the medical and social sciences.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors


Contents of Previous Volumes

1 Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Their Metabolism in the Marine Environment

I. Introduction

II. PAH in the Marine Environment

III. Monooxygenase Activity in Aquatic Species

IV. Induction of Cytochrome P-450

V. Patterns of Metabolism of PAH

VI. PAH Carcinogenesis in Marine Species

VII. Environmental Health Implications

VIII. Conclusion


2 X-Ray Crystallographic Studies on Carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Their Derivatives

I. Introduction

II. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

III. Comparisons with Other Structures

IV. Interactions of Carcinogens with Proteins

V. Interactions of Carcinogens with Nucleic Acids

VI. Summary


3 Involvement of Dihydrodiols and Diol Epoxides in the Metabolic Activation of Polycyclic Hydrocarbons Other than Benzo[a]Pyrene

I. Introduction

II. General Pathways of Hydrocarbon Metabolism

III. Metabolic Activation involving Dihydrodiols and Diol Epoxides

IV. Factors Affecting Dihydrodiol and Diol Epoxide Formation

V. Factors Influencing Hydrocarbon Activation

VI. Concluding Remarks


4 Microsomal Epoxide Hydrolase and Its Role in Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Biotransformation

I. Introduction

II. Physical Characterization of Epoxide Hydrolase

III. Biochemical Properties of Epoxide Hydrolase

IV. Distribution and Regulation of Epoxide Hydrolase Activity

V. Participation of Epoxide Hydrolase in Metabolic Activation and Deactivation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

VI. Conclusion


5 Glutathione, Glucuronide, and Sulfate Transferase in Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Metabolism

I. Introduction

II. Conjugates of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) In Vivo

III. Metabolites of PAH in Cultured Cells

IV. GSH 5-Epoxide Transferase

V. UDP-Glucuronyl Transferase

VI. Sulfotransferase

VII. Effects on Biological Activities of PAH

VIII. Implications of Conjugation Reactions for Carcinogenesis

IX. Conclusion


6 Modification of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Carcinogenesis

I. Introduction

II. Antioxidants

III. Flavones

IV. Halogenated Hydrocarbons

V. Weakly or Noncarcinogenic PAH

VI. Anti-inflammatory Steroids

VII. Prostaglandin Synthesis Inhibitors

VIII. Miscellaneous Agents

IX. Summary


7 Biochemical Effects of the Phorbol Ester Tumor Promoters and Their Implications for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Carcinogenesis

I. Introduction

II. Initiation and Promotion

III. Mimicry of Transformation and Enhancement

IV. Modulation of Differentiation by Phorbol Esters

V. Effect of Tumor Promoters on Blood Elements

VI. Relationship of Tumor Promoters to Virus Transformation

VII. Evidence that Cells Contain High-Affinity Phorboid Receptors: Possible Significance during Growth and Development

VIII. Phorbol Ester-Induced Changes in Phospholipid Metabolism

IX. Phorbol Esters and Calcium Metabolism

X. Mediation by Ah Receptor of the Tumor-Promoting Activity of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

XI. A Unified Theory of Initiation and Promotion


8 Epidemiology of Polycyclic Hydrocarbons: Quantifying the Cancer Risk from Cigarette Smoking and Air Pollution

I. Introduction

II. Cigarette Smoking and Lung Cancer

III. Air Pollution and Lung Cancer

IV. Conclusions




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© Academic Press 1978
Academic Press
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About the Editor

Harry Gelboin

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