Plastics Materials

Plastics Materials

5th Edition - January 1, 1989

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  • Author: J A Brydson
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483144795

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Description

Plastics Materials, Fifth Edition, reviews developments of plastics materials. The 1980s saw the introduction of many new materials, some of which were highly specialized in their function, particularly in the field of electronics. The book attempts to take such developments into account. It also highlights the commercial importance of materials discussed and includes representative production or consumption statistics. The book begins by tracing the historical development of plastics materials. This is followed by separate chapters on the production of polymers via addition polymerization, condensation polymerization, and rearrangement polymerization; physical states of aggregation of polymers; factors affecting the thermal and mechanical properties of polymers; the relation of structure to the chemical, electrical, and optical properties of plastics; plastics additives; and principles of plastics processing. Subsequent chapters focus on the properties of individual plastics materials. These include polyethylene, polypropylene, vinyl chloride polymers, poly(vinyl acetate), acrylic plastics, polystyrene, vinyl thermoplastics, polyamides and polyimides, polyacetals and related materials, and polycarbonates.

Table of Contents


  • Preface to Fifth Edition

    Preface to First Edition

    1 The Historical Development of Plastics Materials

    1.1 Natural Plastics

    1.2 Parkesine and Celluloid

    1.3 1900-1930

    1.4 The Evolution of the Vinyl Plastics

    1.5 Developments since 1939

    1.6 Raw Materials for Plastics

    1.7 The Market for Plastics

    1.8 The Future for Plastics

    2 The Chemical Nature of Plastics

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Thermoplastic and Thermosetting Behavior

    2.3 Further Consideration of Addition Polymerization

    2.3.1 Elementary Kinetics of Free Radical Addition Polymerization

    2.3.2 Ionic Polymerization

    2.4 Condensation Polymerization

    3 States of Aggregation in Polymers

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Linear Amorphous Polymers

    3.2.1 Orientation in Linear Amorphous Polymers

    3.3 Crystalline Polymers

    3.3.1 Orientation and Crystallization

    3.3.2 Liquid Crystal Polymers

    3.4 Cross-Linked Structures

    3.5 Polyblends

    3.6 Summary

    4 Relation of Structure to Thermal and Mechanical Properties

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Factors Affecting the Glass Transition Temperature

    4.3 Factors Affecting the Ability to Crystallize

    4.4 Factors Affecting the Crystalline Melting Point

    4.5 Some Individual Properties

    4.5.1 Melt Viscosity

    4.5.2 Yield Strength and Modulus

    4.5.3 Density

    4.5.4 Impact Strength

    5 Relation of Structure to Chemical Properties

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Chemical Bonds

    5.3 Polymer Solubility

    5.3.1 Plasticisers

    5.3.2 Extenders

    5.3.3 Determination of Solubility Parameter

    5.3.4 Thermodynamics and Solubility

    5.4 Chemical Reactivity

    5.5 Effects of Thermal, Photochemical and High Energy Radiation

    5.6 Aging and Weathering

    5.7 Diffusion and Permeability

    5.8 Toxicity

    5.9 Fire and Plastics

    6 Relation of Structure to Electrical and Optical Properties

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Dielectric Constant, Power Factor and Structure

    6.3 Some Quantitative Relationships of Dielectrics

    6.4 Electronic Applications of Polymers

    6.5 Electrically Conductive Polymers

    6.6 Optical Properties

    7 Additives for Plastics

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Fillers

    7.2.1 Coupling Agents

    7.3 Plasticisers and Softeners

    7.4 Lubricants and Flow Promoters

    7.5 Anti-Aging Additives

    7.5.1 Antioxidants

    7.5.2 Antiozonants

    7.5.3 Stabilizers Against Dehydrochlorination

    7.5.4 Ultra-Violet Absorbers and Related Materials

    7.6 Flame Retarders

    7.7 Colorants

    7.8 Blowing Agents

    7.9 Cross-linking Agents

    7.10 Photodegradants

    8 Principles of the Processing of Plastics

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Melt Processing of Thermoplastics

    8.2.1 Hygroscopic Behavior

    8.2.2 Granule Characteristics

    8.2.3 Thermal Properties Influencing Polymer Melting

    8.2.4 Thermal Stability

    8.2.5 Flow Properties

    8.2.6 Thermal Properties Affecting Cooling

    8.2.7 Crystallization

    8.2.8 Orientation and Shrinkage

    8.3 Melt Processing of Thermosetting Plastics

    8.4 Processing in the Rubbery State

    8.5 Solution, Suspension and Casting Processes

    8.6 Summary

    9 Principles of Product Design

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Rigidity of Plastics Materials

    9.2.1 The Assessment of Maximum Service Temperature

    9.3 Toughness

    9.3.1 The Assessment of Impact Strength

    9.4 Stress-Strain-Time Behavior

    9.4.1 The WLF Equations

    9.4.2 Creep Curves

    9.4.3 Practical Assessment of Long Term Behavior

    9.5 Recovery from Deformation

    9.6 Distortion, Voids and Frozen-in Stress

    9.7 Conclusions

    10 Polyethylene

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Preparation of Monomer

    10.3 Polymerization

    10.3.1 High Pressure Polymerization

    10.3.2 Ziegler Processes

    10.3.3 The Phillips Process

    10.3.4 Standard Oil Company (Indiana) Process

    10.3.5 Processes for Making Linear Low Density Polyethylene

    10.4 Structure and Properties of Polyethylene

    10.5 Properties of Polyethylene

    10.5.1 Mechanical Properties

    10.5.2 Thermal Properties

    10.5.3 Chemical Properties

    10.5.4 Electrical Properties

    10.5.5 Properties of LLDPE and VLDPE

    10.6 Additives

    10.7 Processing

    10.8 Polyethylenes of Low and High Molecular Weight

    10.9 Cross-linked Polyethylene

    10.10 Chlorinated Polyethylene

    10.11 Applications

    11 Aliphatic Polyolefins other than Polyethylene, and Diene Rubbers

    11.1 Polypropylene

    11.1.1 Preparation of Polypropylene

    11.1.2 Structure and Properties of Polypropylene

    11.1.3 Properties of Isotactic Polypropylene

    11.1.4 Additives for Isotactic Polypropylene

    11.1.5 Processing Characteristics

    11.1.6 Applications

    11.1.7 Atactic Polypropylene

    11.1.8 Chlorinated Polypropylene

    11.2 Polybut-1-ene

    11.2.1 Atactic Polybut-1-ene

    11.3 Polyisobutylene

    11.4Poly-(4-Methylpent-1-ene)

    11.4.1 Structure and Properties

    11.4.2 General Properties

    11.4.3 Processing

    11.4.4 Applications

    11.5 Other Aliphatic Olefin Homopolymers

    11.6 Copolymers Containing Ethylene

    11.7 Diene Rubbers

    11.7.1 Natural Rubber

    11.7.2 Synthetic Polyisoprene (IR)

    11.7.3 Polybutadiene

    11.7.4 Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (SBR)

    11.7.5 Nitrile Rubber (NBR)

    11.7.6 Chloroprene Rubbers (CR)

    11.7.7 Butadiene-Pentadiene Rubbers

    11.8 Thermoplastic Diene Rubbers

    11.9 Aliphatic Olefin Rubbers

    11.9.1 Thermoplastic Polyolefin Rubbers

    11.10 Rubbery Cyclo-Olefin (Cyclo-Alkene) Polymers

    11.10.1 Aliphatic Polyalkenamers

    11.10.2 Polynorbornene

    11.10.3 Chlorine-Containing Copolymers

    11.11 1,2-Polybutadiene

    12 Vinyl Chloride Polymers

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Preparation of Vinyl Chloride

    12.3 Polymerization

    12.4 Structure of Poly(Vinyl Chloride)

    12.4.1 Characterization of Commercial Polymers

    12.5 Compounding Ingredients

    12.5.1 Stabilizers

    12.5.2 Plasticizers

    12.5.3 Extenders

    12.5.4 Lubricants

    12.5.5 Fillers

    12.5.6 Pigments

    12.5.7 Polymeric Impact Modifiers and Processing Aids

    12.5.8 Miscellaneous Additives

    12.5.9 Formulations

    12.6 Properties of PVC Compounds

    12.7 Processing

    12.7.1 Plasticized PVC

    12.7.2 Unplasticized PVC

    12.7.3 Pastes

    12.7.4 Copolymers

    12.7.5 Latices

    12.8 Applications

    12.9 Miscellaneous Products

    12.9.1 Crystalline PVC

    12.9.2 Chlorinated PVC

    12.9.3 Graft Polymers Based on PVC

    12.9.4 Vinyl Chloride-Propylene Copolymers

    12.9.5 Vinyl Chloride-N-Cyclohexylmaleimide Copolymers

    13 Fluorine-containing Polymers

    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Polytetrafluoroethylene

    13.2.1 Preparation of Monomer

    13.2.2 Polymerization

    13.2.3 Structure and Properties

    13.2.4 General Properties

    13.2.5 Processing

    13.2.6 Additives

    13.2.7 Applications

    13.3 Tetrafluoroethylene-Hexafluoropropylene Copolymers

    13.4 Tetrafluoroethylene-Ethylene Copolymers (ETFE)

    13.5 Polychlorotrifluoroethylene Polymers (PCTFE) and Copolymers with Ethylene (ECTFE)

    13.6 Poly(Vinyl Fluoride) (PVF)

    13.7 Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride)

    13.8 Perfluoroalkoxy Polymers

    13.9 Hexafluoroisobutylene-Vinylidene Fluoride Copolymers

    13.10 Fluorine-containing Rubbers

    13.11 Miscellaneous Fluoropolymers

    14 Poly(Vinyl Acetate) and its Derivatives

    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Poly(Vinyl Acetate)

    14.2.1 Preparation of the Monomer

    14.2.2 Polymerization

    14.2.3 Properties and Uses

    14.3 Poly(Vinyl Alcohol)

    14.3.1 Structure and Properties

    14.3.2 Applications

    14.4 The Poly(Vinyl Acetals)

    14.4.1 Poly(Vinyl Formal)

    14.4.2 Poly(Vinyl Acetal)

    14.4.3 Poly(Vinyl Butyral)

    14.5 Ethylene-Vinyl Alcohol Copolymers

    14.6 Poly(Vinyl Cinnamate)

    14.7 Other Organic Vinyl Ester Polymers

    15 Acrylic Plastics

    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 Poly(Methyl Methacrylate)

    15.2.1 Preparation of Monomer

    15.2.2 Polymerization

    15.2.3 Structure and Properties

    15.2.4 General Properties of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate)

    15.2.5 Additives

    15.2.6 Processing

    15.2.7 Applications

    15.3 Impact Resistant Methyl Methacrylate Polymers

    15.4 Nitrile Resins

    15.5 Aery Late Rubbers

    15.6 Thermosetting Acrylic Polymers

    15.7 Acrylic Adhesives

    15.8 Hydrophilic Polymers

    15.9 Poly(methacrylimide)

    15.10 Miscellaneous Methacrylate and Chloroacrylate Polymers and Copolymers

    15.11 Other Acrylic Polymers

    16 Plastics Based on Styrene

    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 Preparation of the Monomer

    16.2.1 Laboratory Preparation

    16.2.2 Commercial Preparation

    16.3 Polymerization

    16.3.1 Mass Polymerization

    16.3.2 Solution Polymerization

    16.3.3 Suspension Polymerization

    16.3.4 Emulsion Polymerization

    16.3.5 Grades Available

    16.4 Properties and Structure of Polystyrene

    16.5 General Properties

    16.6 High-Impact Polystyrenes (HIPS) (Toughened Polystyrenes (TPS))

    16.7 Styrene-Acrylonitrile Copolymers

    16.8 ABS Plastics

    16.8.1 Production of ABS Materials

    16.8.2 Processing of ABS Materials

    16.8.3 Properties and Applications of ABS Plastics

    16.9 Miscellaneous Rubber-modified Styrene-Acrylonitrile and Related Copolymers

    16.10 Butadiene-Styrene Block Copolymers

    16.11 Miscellaneous Polymers and Copolymers

    16.12 Stereoregular Polystyrene

    16.13 Processing of Polystyrene

    16.14 Expanded Polystyrene

    16.14.1 Structural Foams

    16.15 Oriented Polystyrene

    16.16 Applications

    17 Miscellaneous Vinyl Thermoplastics

    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 Vinylidene Chloride Polymers and Copolymers

    17.2.1 Properties and Applications of Vinylidene Chloride-Vinyl Chloride Copolymers

    17.2.2 Vinylidene Chloride-Acrylonitrile Copolymers

    17.3 Coumarone-Indene Resins

    17.4 Poly(Vinyl Carbazole)

    17.5 Poly(Vinyl Pyrrolidone)

    17.6 Poly(Vinyl Ethers)

    17.7 Other Vinyl Polymers

    18 Polyamides and Polyimides

    18.1 Polyamides : Introduction

    18.2 Intermediates for Aliphatic Polyamides

    18.2.1 Adipicacid

    18.2.2 Hexamethylenediamine

    18.2.3 Sebacic Acid and Azelaic Acid

    18.2.4 Caprolactam

    18.2.5 w-Aminoundecanoic Acid

    18.2.6 w-Aminoenanthic Acid

    18.2.7 Dodecanelactam

    18.3 Polymerization for Aliphatic Polyamides

    18.3.1 Nylons 46, 66, 69, 610 and 612

    18.3.2 Nylon 6

    18.3.3 Nylon 11

    18.3.4 Nylon 12

    18.3.5 Nylon 7

    18.4 Structure and Properties of Aliphatic Polyamides

    18.5 General Properties of the Nylons

    18.6 Additives

    18.7 Glass-filled Nylons

    18.8 Processing of the Nylons

    18.9 Applications

    18.10 Polyamides of Enhanced Solubility

    18.11 Other Aliphatic Polyamides

    18.12 Aromatic Polyamides

    18.12.1 Glass-Clear Polyamides

    18.12.2 Poly-m-xylylene Adipamide

    18.12.3 Aromatic Polyamide Fibres

    18.13 Polyimides

    18.14 Modified Polyimides

    18.14.1 Polyamide-Imides

    18.14.2 Polyetherimides

    18.15 Elastomeric Polyamides

    19 Polyacetals and Related Materials

    19.1 Introduction

    19.2 Preparation of Formaldehyde

    19.3 Acetal Resins

    19.3.1 Polymerization of Formaldehyde

    19.3.2 Structure and Properties of Acetal Resins

    19.3.3 Properties of Acetal Resins

    19.3.4 Processing

    19.3.5 Additives

    19.3.6 Acetal-Polyurethane Alloys

    19.3.7 Applications of the Acetal Polymers and Copolymers

    19.4 Miscellaneous Aldehyde Polymers

    19.5 Polyethers from Glycols and Alkylene Oxides

    19.5.1 Elastomeric Polyethers

    19.6 Oxetane Polymers

    19.7 Polysulphides

    20 Polycarbonates

    20.1 Introduction

    20.2 Production of Intermediates

    20.3 Polymer Preparation

    20.3.1 Ester Exchange

    20.4 Relation of Structure and Properties

    20.4.1 Variations in Commercial Grades

    20.5 General Properties

    20.6 Processing Characteristics

    20.7 Applications of Bis-Phenol A Polycarbonates

    20.8 Alloys based on Bis-Phenol A Polycarbonates

    20.9 Commercial Copolymers Based on Bis-Phenol A Polycarbonates

    20.10 Miscellaneous Carbonic Ester Polymers

    21 Other Thermoplastics Containing p-Phenylene Groups

    21.1 Introduction

    21.2 Polyphenylenes

    21.3 Poly-p-xylylene

    21.4 Poly(phenylene oxides) and Halogenated Derivatives

    21.5 Alkyl Substituted Poly(phenylene oxides) including PPO

    21.5.1 Structure and Properties of Poly-(2,6-Dimethyl-Pphenylene Oxide) (PPO)

    21.5.2 Processing and Applications of PPO

    21.5.3 Blends Based in Polyphenylene Oxides

    21.5.4 Processing of Blends Based on PPO

    21.5.5 Poly(2,6-Dibromo-1,4-Phenylene Oxide)

    21.6 Polyphenylene Sulphides

    21.7 Polysulphones

    21.7.1 Properties and Structure of Polysulphones

    21.7.2 General Properties of Sulphones

    21.7.3 Processing of Polysulphones

    21.7.4 Applications

    21.7.5 Blends Based on Polysulphones

    21.8 Aromatic Polyether Ketones

    21.9 Phenoxy Resins

    21.10 Linear Aromatic Polyesters

    21.11 Polyhydantoin Resins

    21.12 Poly(Parabanic Acids)

    21.13 Summary

    22 Cellulose Plastics

    22.1 Nature and Occurrence of Cellulose

    22.2 Cellulose Esters

    22.2.1 Cellulose Nitrate

    22.2.2 Cellulose Acetate

    22.2.3 Other Cellulose Esters

    22.3 Cellulose Ethers 588

    22.3.1 Ethyl Cellulose

    22.3.2 Miscellaneous Ethers

    22.4 Regenerated Cellulose

    22.5 Vulcanized Fiber

    23 Phenolic Resins

    23.1 Introduction

    23.2 Raw Materials

    23.2.1 Phenol

    23.2.2 Other Phenols

    23.2.3 Aldehydes

    23.3 Chemical Aspects

    23.3.1 Novolaks

    23.3.2 Resols

    23.3.3 Hardening

    23.4 Resin Manufacture

    23.5 Molding Powders

    23.5.1 Compounding Ingredients

    23.5.2 Compounding of Phenol-Formaldehyde Molding Compositions

    23.5.3 Processing Characteristics

    23.5.4 Properties of Phenolic Moldings

    23.5.5 Applications

    23.6 Phenolic Laminates

    23.6.1 The Properties of Phenolic Laminates

    23.6.2 Applications of Phenolic Laminates

    23.7 Miscellaneous Applications

    23.8 Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Adhesives

    23.9 Friedel-Crafts and Related Polymers

    23.10 Phenolic Resin Fibers

    24 Aminoplastics

    24.1 Introduction

    24.2 Urea-Formaldehyde Resins

    24.2.1 Raw Materials

    24.2.2 Theories of Resinification

    24.2.3 U-F Molding Materials

    24.2.4 Adhesives and Related Uses

    24.2.5 Foams and Firelighters

    24.2.6 Other Applications

    24.3 Melamine-Formaldehyde Resins

    24.3.1 Melamine

    24.3.2 Resinification

    24.3.3 Molding Powders

    24.3.4 Laminates Containing Melamine-Formaldehyde Resin

    24.3.5 Miscellaneous Applications

    24.4 Melamine-Phenolic Resins

    24.5 Aniline-Formaldehyde Resins

    24.6 Resins Containing Thiourea

    25 Polyester Resins

    25.1 Introduction

    25.2 Unsaturated Polyester Laminating Resins

    25.2.1 Selection of Raw Materials

    25.2.2 Production of Resins

    25.2.3 Curing Systems

    25.2.4 Structure and Properties

    25.2.5 Polyester-Glass Fiber Laminates

    25.2.6 Water-Extended Polyesters

    25.2.7 Allyl Resins

    25.3 Polyester Molding Compositions

    25.4 Fiber and Film-Forming Polyesters

    25.5 Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate) Molding Materials

    25.6 Poly(butylene Terephthalate)

    25.7 Poly-(1,4-Cyclohexylenedimethylene Terephthalate-CO-Isophthalate)

    25.8 Highly Aromatic Linear Polyesters

    25.8.1 Liquid Crystal Polyesters

    25.9 Polyester Thermoplastic Elastomers

    25.10 Poly(Pivalolactone)

    25.11 Polycaprolactones

    25.12 Surface Coatings, Plasticizers and Rubbers

    26 Epoxide Resins

    26.1 Introduction

    26.2 Preparation of Resins from Bis-Phenol A

    26.3 Curing of Glycidyl Ether Resins

    26.3.1 Amine Hardening Systems

    26.3.2 Acid Hardening Systems

    26.3.3 Miscellaneous Hardener Systems

    26.3.4 Comparison of Hardening Systems

    26.4 Miscellaneous Epoxide Resins

    26.4.1 Miscellaneous Glycidyl Ether Resins

    26.4.2 Non-Glycidyl Ether Epoxides

    26.5 Diluents, Flexibilizers and other Additives

    26.6 Structure and Properties of Cured Resins

    26.7 Applications

    27 Polyurethanes and Polyisocyanurates

    27.1 Introduction

    27.2 Isocyanates

    27.3 Fibers and Crystalline Molding Compounds

    27.4 Rubbers 734

    27.4.1 Cast Polyurethane Rubbers

    27.4.2 Millable Gums

    27.4.3 Properties and Applications of Cross-Linked Polyurethane Rubbers

    27.4.4 Thermoplastic Polyurethane Rubbers and Spandex Fibers

    27.5 Flexible Foams

    27.5.1 One-Shot Polyester Foams

    27.5.2 Polyether Prepolymers

    27.5.3 Quasi-Prepolymer Polyether Foams

    27.5.4 Polyether One-Shot Foams

    27.5.5 Properties and Applications of Flexible Foams

    27.6 Rigid and Semi-Rigid Foams

    27.6.1 Self-Skinning Foams and the RIM Process

    27.7 Coatings Arid Adhesives

    27.8 Polyisocyanurates

    27.9 Polycarbodi-Imide Resins

    27.10 Polyurethane-Acrylic Blends

    27.11 Miscellaneous Isocyanate-Based Materials

    28 Furan Resins

    28.1 Introduction

    28.2 Preparation of Intermediates

    28.3 Resinification

    28.4 Properties of the Cured Resins

    28.5 Applications

    29 Silicones and Other Heat-Resisting Polymers

    29.1 Introduction

    29.1.1 Nomenclature

    29.1.2 Nature of Chemical Bonds Containing Silicon

    29.2 Preparation of Intermediates

    29.2.1 The Grignard Method

    29.2.2 The Direct Process

    29.2.3 The Olefin Addition Method

    29.2.4 Sodium Condensation Method

    29.2.5 Rearrangement of Organochlorosilanes

    29.3 General Methods of Preparation and Properties of Silicones

    29.4 Silicone Fluids

    29.4.1 Preparation

    29.4.2 General Properties

    29.4.3 Applications

    29.5 Silicone Resins

    29.5.1 Preparation

    29.5.2 Properties

    29.5.3 Applications

    29.6 Silicone Rubbers

    29.6.1 Dimethylsilicone Rubbers

    29.6.2 Modified Polydimethylsiloxane Rubbers

    29.6.3 Compounding

    29.6.4 Fabrication and Cross Linking

    29.6.5 Properties and Applications

    29.6.6 Liquid Silicone Rubbers

    29.7 Polymers for Use at High Temperatures

    29.7.1 Fluorine-Containing Polymers

    29.7.2 Inorganic Polymers

    29.7.3 Cross-Linked Organic Polymers

    29.7.4 Linear Polymers with p-Phenylene Groups and other Ring Structures

    29.7.5 Ladder Polymers and Spiro Polymers

    29.7.6 Co-Ordination Polymers

    29.7.7 Summary

    30 Miscellaneous Plastics Materials

    30.1 Introduction

    30.2 Casein

    30.2.1 Chemical Nature

    30.2.2 Isolation of Casein from Milk

    30.2.3 Production of Casein Plastics

    30.2.4 Properties of Casein

    30.2.5 Applications

    30.3 Miscellaneous Protein Plastics

    30.4 Derivatives of Natural Rubber

    30.5 Gutta Percha and Related Materials

    30.6 Shellac

    30.6.1 Occurrence and Preparation

    30.6.2 Chemical Composition

    30.6.3 Properties

    30.6.4 Applications

    30.7 Amber

    30.7.1 Composition and Properties

    30.8 Bituminous Plastics

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 560
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 1989
  • Published: January 1, 1989
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483144795

About the Author

J A Brydson

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