Plastics Materials - 5th Edition - ISBN: 9780408007214, 9781483144795

Plastics Materials

5th Edition

Authors: J A Brydson
eBook ISBN: 9781483144795
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 21st February 1989
Page Count: 560
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Description

Plastics Materials, Fifth Edition, reviews developments of plastics materials. The 1980s saw the introduction of many new materials, some of which were highly specialized in their function, particularly in the field of electronics. The book attempts to take such developments into account. It also highlights the commercial importance of materials discussed and includes representative production or consumption statistics. The book begins by tracing the historical development of plastics materials. This is followed by separate chapters on the production of polymers via addition polymerization, condensation polymerization, and rearrangement polymerization; physical states of aggregation of polymers; factors affecting the thermal and mechanical properties of polymers; the relation of structure to the chemical, electrical, and optical properties of plastics; plastics additives; and principles of plastics processing. Subsequent chapters focus on the properties of individual plastics materials. These include polyethylene, polypropylene, vinyl chloride polymers, poly(vinyl acetate), acrylic plastics, polystyrene, vinyl thermoplastics, polyamides and polyimides, polyacetals and related materials, and polycarbonates.

Table of Contents


Preface to Fifth Edition

Preface to First Edition

1 The Historical Development of Plastics Materials

1.1 Natural Plastics

1.2 Parkesine and Celluloid

1.3 1900-1930

1.4 The Evolution of the Vinyl Plastics

1.5 Developments since 1939

1.6 Raw Materials for Plastics

1.7 The Market for Plastics

1.8 The Future for Plastics

2 The Chemical Nature of Plastics

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Thermoplastic and Thermosetting Behavior

2.3 Further Consideration of Addition Polymerization

2.3.1 Elementary Kinetics of Free Radical Addition Polymerization

2.3.2 Ionic Polymerization

2.4 Condensation Polymerization

3 States of Aggregation in Polymers

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Linear Amorphous Polymers

3.2.1 Orientation in Linear Amorphous Polymers

3.3 Crystalline Polymers

3.3.1 Orientation and Crystallization

3.3.2 Liquid Crystal Polymers

3.4 Cross-Linked Structures

3.5 Polyblends

3.6 Summary

4 Relation of Structure to Thermal and Mechanical Properties

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Factors Affecting the Glass Transition Temperature

4.3 Factors Affecting the Ability to Crystallize

4.4 Factors Affecting the Crystalline Melting Point

4.5 Some Individual Properties

4.5.1 Melt Viscosity

4.5.2 Yield Strength and Modulus

4.5.3 Density

4.5.4 Impact Strength

5 Relation of Structure to Chemical Properties

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Chemical Bonds

5.3 Polymer Solubility

5.3.1 Plasticisers

5.3.2 Extenders

5.3.3 Determination of Solubility Parameter

5.3.4 Thermodynamics and Solubility

5.4 Chemical Reactivity

5.5 Effects of Thermal, Photochemical and High Energy Radiation

5.6 Aging and Weathering

5.7 Diffusion and Permeability

5.8 Toxicity

5.9 Fire and Plastics

6 Relation of Structure to Electrical and Optical Properties

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Dielectric Constant, Power Factor and Structure

6.3 Some Quantitative Relationships of Dielectrics

6.4 Electronic Applications of Polymers

6.5 Electrically Conductive Polymers

6.6 Optical Properties

7 Additives for Plastics

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Fillers

7.2.1 Coupling Agents

7.3 Plasticisers and Softeners

7.4 Lubricants and Flow Promoters

7.5 Anti-Aging Additives

7.5.1 Antioxidants

7.5.2 Antiozonants

7.5.3 Stabilizers Against Dehydrochlorination

7.5.4 Ultra-Violet Absorbers and Related Materials

7.6 Flame Retarders

7.7 Colorants

7.8 Blowing Agents

7.9 Cross-linking Agents

7.10 Photodegradants

8 Principles of the Processing of Plastics

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Melt Processing of Thermoplastics

8.2.1 Hygroscopic Behavior

8.2.2 Granule Characteristics

8.2.3 Thermal Properties Influencing Polymer Melting

8.2.4 Thermal Stability

8.2.5 Flow Properties

8.2.6 Thermal Properties Affecting Cooling

8.2.7 Crystallization

8.2.8 Orientation and Shrinkage

8.3 Melt Processing of Thermosetting Plastics

8.4 Processing in the Rubbery State

8.5 Solution, Suspension and Casting Processes

8.6 Summary

9 Principles of Product Design

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Rigidity of Plastics Materials

9.2.1 The Assessment of Maximum Service Temperature

9.3 Toughness

9.3.1 The Assessment of Impact Strength

9.4 Stress-Strain-Time Behavior

9.4.1 The WLF Equations

9.4.2 Creep Curves

9.4.3 Practical Assessment of Long Term Behavior

9.5 Recovery from Deformation

9.6 Distortion, Voids and Frozen-in Stress

9.7 Conclusions

10 Polyethylene

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Preparation of Monomer

10.3 Polymerization

10.3.1 High Pressure Polymerization

10.3.2 Ziegler Processes

10.3.3 The Phillips Process

10.3.4 Standard Oil Company (Indiana) Process

10.3.5 Processes for Making Linear Low Density Polyethylene

10.4 Structure and Properties of Polyethylene

10.5 Properties of Polyethylene

10.5.1 Mechanical Properties

10.5.2 Thermal Properties

10.5.3 Chemical Properties

10.5.4 Electrical Properties

10.5.5 Properties of LLDPE and VLDPE

10.6 Additives

10.7 Processing

10.8 Polyethylenes of Low and High Molecular Weight

10.9 Cross-linked Polyethylene

10.10 Chlorinated Polyethylene

10.11 Applications

11 Aliphatic Polyolefins other than Polyethylene, and Diene Rubbers

11.1 Polypropylene

11.1.1 Preparation of Polypropylene

11.1.2 Structure and Properties of Polypropylene

11.1.3 Properties of Isotactic Polypropylene

11.1.4 Additives for Isotactic Polypropylene

11.1.5 Processing Characteristics

11.1.6 Applications

11.1.7 Atactic Polypropylene

11.1.8 Chlorinated Polypropylene

11.2 Polybut-1-ene

11.2.1 Atactic Polybut-1-ene

11.3 Polyisobutylene

11.4Poly-(4-Methylpent-1-ene)

11.4.1 Structure and Properties

11.4.2 General Properties

11.4.3 Processing

11.4.4 Applications

11.5 Other Aliphatic Olefin Homopolymers

11.6 Copolymers Containing Ethylene

11.7 Diene Rubbers

11.7.1 Natural Rubber

11.7.2 Synthetic Polyisoprene (IR)

11.7.3 Polybutadiene

11.7.4 Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (SBR)

11.7.5 Nitrile Rubber (NBR)

11.7.6 Chloroprene Rubbers (CR)

11.7.7 Butadiene-Pentadiene Rubbers

11.8 Thermoplastic Diene Rubbers

11.9 Aliphatic Olefin Rubbers

11.9.1 Thermoplastic Polyolefin Rubbers

11.10 Rubbery Cyclo-Olefin (Cyclo-Alkene) Polymers

11.10.1 Aliphatic Polyalkenamers

11.10.2 Polynorbornene

11.10.3 Chlorine-Containing Copolymers

11.11 1,2-Polybutadiene

12 Vinyl Chloride Polymers

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Preparation of Vinyl Chloride

12.3 Polymerization

12.4 Structure of Poly(Vinyl Chloride)

12.4.1 Characterization of Commercial Polymers

12.5 Compounding Ingredients

12.5.1 Stabilizers

12.5.2 Plasticizers

12.5.3 Extenders

12.5.4 Lubricants

12.5.5 Fillers

12.5.6 Pigments

12.5.7 Polymeric Impact Modifiers and Processing Aids

12.5.8 Miscellaneous Additives

12.5.9 Formulations

12.6 Properties of PVC Compounds

12.7 Processing

12.7.1 Plasticized PVC

12.7.2 Unplasticized PVC

12.7.3 Pastes

12.7.4 Copolymers

12.7.5 Latices

12.8 Applications

12.9 Miscellaneous Products

12.9.1 Crystalline PVC

12.9.2 Chlorinated PVC

12.9.3 Graft Polymers Based on PVC

12.9.4 Vinyl Chloride-Propylene Copolymers

12.9.5 Vinyl Chloride-N-Cyclohexylmaleimide Copolymers

13 Fluorine-containing Polymers

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Polytetrafluoroethylene

13.2.1 Preparation of Monomer

13.2.2 Polymerization

13.2.3 Structure and Properties

13.2.4 General Properties

13.2.5 Processing

13.2.6 Additives

13.2.7 Applications

13.3 Tetrafluoroethylene-Hexafluoropropylene Copolymers

13.4 Tetrafluoroethylene-Ethylene Copolymers (ETFE)

13.5 Polychlorotrifluoroethylene Polymers (PCTFE) and Copolymers with Ethylene (ECTFE)

13.6 Poly(Vinyl Fluoride) (PVF)

13.7 Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride)

13.8 Perfluoroalkoxy Polymers

13.9 Hexafluoroisobutylene-Vinylidene Fluoride Copolymers

13.10 Fluorine-containing Rubbers

13.11 Miscellaneous Fluoropolymers

14 Poly(Vinyl Acetate) and its Derivatives

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Poly(Vinyl Acetate)

14.2.1 Preparation of the Monomer

14.2.2 Polymerization

14.2.3 Properties and Uses

14.3 Poly(Vinyl Alcohol)

14.3.1 Structure and Properties

14.3.2 Applications

14.4 The Poly(Vinyl Acetals)

14.4.1 Poly(Vinyl Formal)

14.4.2 Poly(Vinyl Acetal)

14.4.3 Poly(Vinyl Butyral)

14.5 Ethylene-Vinyl Alcohol Copolymers

14.6 Poly(Vinyl Cinnamate)

14.7 Other Organic Vinyl Ester Polymers

15 Acrylic Plastics

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Poly(Methyl Methacrylate)

15.2.1 Preparation of Monomer

15.2.2 Polymerization

15.2.3 Structure and Properties

15.2.4 General Properties of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate)

15.2.5 Additives

15.2.6 Processing

15.2.7 Applications

15.3 Impact Resistant Methyl Methacrylate Polymers

15.4 Nitrile Resins

15.5 Aery Late Rubbers

15.6 Thermosetting Acrylic Polymers

15.7 Acrylic Adhesives

15.8 Hydrophilic Polymers

15.9 Poly(methacrylimide)

15.10 Miscellaneous Methacrylate and Chloroacrylate Polymers and Copolymers

15.11 Other Acrylic Polymers

16 Plastics Based on Styrene

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Preparation of the Monomer

16.2.1 Laboratory Preparation

16.2.2 Commercial Preparation

16.3 Polymerization

16.3.1 Mass Polymerization

16.3.2 Solution Polymerization

16.3.3 Suspension Polymerization

16.3.4 Emulsion Polymerization

16.3.5 Grades Available

16.4 Properties and Structure of Polystyrene

16.5 General Properties

16.6 High-Impact Polystyrenes (HIPS) (Toughened Polystyrenes (TPS))

16.7 Styrene-Acrylonitrile Copolymers

16.8 ABS Plastics

16.8.1 Production of ABS Materials

16.8.2 Processing of ABS Materials

16.8.3 Properties and Applications of ABS Plastics

16.9 Miscellaneous Rubber-modified Styrene-Acrylonitrile and Related Copolymers

16.10 Butadiene-Styrene Block Copolymers

16.11 Miscellaneous Polymers and Copolymers

16.12 Stereoregular Polystyrene

16.13 Processing of Polystyrene

16.14 Expanded Polystyrene

16.14.1 Structural Foams

16.15 Oriented Polystyrene

16.16 Applications

17 Miscellaneous Vinyl Thermoplastics

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Vinylidene Chloride Polymers and Copolymers

17.2.1 Properties and Applications of Vinylidene Chloride-Vinyl Chloride Copolymers

17.2.2 Vinylidene Chloride-Acrylonitrile Copolymers

17.3 Coumarone-Indene Resins

17.4 Poly(Vinyl Carbazole)

17.5 Poly(Vinyl Pyrrolidone)

17.6 Poly(Vinyl Ethers)

17.7 Other Vinyl Polymers

18 Polyamides and Polyimides

18.1 Polyamides : Introduction

18.2 Intermediates for Aliphatic Polyamides

18.2.1 Adipicacid

18.2.2 Hexamethylenediamine

18.2.3 Sebacic Acid and Azelaic Acid

18.2.4 Caprolactam

18.2.5 w-Aminoundecanoic Acid

18.2.6 w-Aminoenanthic Acid

18.2.7 Dodecanelactam

18.3 Polymerization for Aliphatic Polyamides

18.3.1 Nylons 46, 66, 69, 610 and 612

18.3.2 Nylon 6

18.3.3 Nylon 11

18.3.4 Nylon 12

18.3.5 Nylon 7

18.4 Structure and Properties of Aliphatic Polyamides

18.5 General Properties of the Nylons

18.6 Additives

18.7 Glass-filled Nylons

18.8 Processing of the Nylons

18.9 Applications

18.10 Polyamides of Enhanced Solubility

18.11 Other Aliphatic Polyamides

18.12 Aromatic Polyamides

18.12.1 Glass-Clear Polyamides

18.12.2 Poly-m-xylylene Adipamide

18.12.3 Aromatic Polyamide Fibres

18.13 Polyimides

18.14 Modified Polyimides

18.14.1 Polyamide-Imides

18.14.2 Polyetherimides

18.15 Elastomeric Polyamides

19 Polyacetals and Related Materials

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Preparation of Formaldehyde

19.3 Acetal Resins

19.3.1 Polymerization of Formaldehyde

19.3.2 Structure and Properties of Acetal Resins

19.3.3 Properties of Acetal Resins

19.3.4 Processing

19.3.5 Additives

19.3.6 Acetal-Polyurethane Alloys

19.3.7 Applications of the Acetal Polymers and Copolymers

19.4 Miscellaneous Aldehyde Polymers

19.5 Polyethers from Glycols and Alkylene Oxides

19.5.1 Elastomeric Polyethers

19.6 Oxetane Polymers

19.7 Polysulphides

20 Polycarbonates

20.1 Introduction

20.2 Production of Intermediates

20.3 Polymer Preparation

20.3.1 Ester Exchange

20.4 Relation of Structure and Properties

20.4.1 Variations in Commercial Grades

20.5 General Properties

20.6 Processing Characteristics

20.7 Applications of Bis-Phenol A Polycarbonates

20.8 Alloys based on Bis-Phenol A Polycarbonates

20.9 Commercial Copolymers Based on Bis-Phenol A Polycarbonates

20.10 Miscellaneous Carbonic Ester Polymers

21 Other Thermoplastics Containing p-Phenylene Groups

21.1 Introduction

21.2 Polyphenylenes

21.3 Poly-p-xylylene

21.4 Poly(phenylene oxides) and Halogenated Derivatives

21.5 Alkyl Substituted Poly(phenylene oxides) including PPO

21.5.1 Structure and Properties of Poly-(2,6-Dimethyl-Pphenylene Oxide) (PPO)

21.5.2 Processing and Applications of PPO

21.5.3 Blends Based in Polyphenylene Oxides

21.5.4 Processing of Blends Based on PPO

21.5.5 Poly(2,6-Dibromo-1,4-Phenylene Oxide)

21.6 Polyphenylene Sulphides

21.7 Polysulphones

21.7.1 Properties and Structure of Polysulphones

21.7.2 General Properties of Sulphones

21.7.3 Processing of Polysulphones

21.7.4 Applications

21.7.5 Blends Based on Polysulphones

21.8 Aromatic Polyether Ketones

21.9 Phenoxy Resins

21.10 Linear Aromatic Polyesters

21.11 Polyhydantoin Resins

21.12 Poly(Parabanic Acids)

21.13 Summary

22 Cellulose Plastics

22.1 Nature and Occurrence of Cellulose

22.2 Cellulose Esters

22.2.1 Cellulose Nitrate

22.2.2 Cellulose Acetate

22.2.3 Other Cellulose Esters

22.3 Cellulose Ethers 588

22.3.1 Ethyl Cellulose

22.3.2 Miscellaneous Ethers

22.4 Regenerated Cellulose

22.5 Vulcanized Fiber

23 Phenolic Resins

23.1 Introduction

23.2 Raw Materials

23.2.1 Phenol

23.2.2 Other Phenols

23.2.3 Aldehydes

23.3 Chemical Aspects

23.3.1 Novolaks

23.3.2 Resols

23.3.3 Hardening

23.4 Resin Manufacture

23.5 Molding Powders

23.5.1 Compounding Ingredients

23.5.2 Compounding of Phenol-Formaldehyde Molding Compositions

23.5.3 Processing Characteristics

23.5.4 Properties of Phenolic Moldings

23.5.5 Applications

23.6 Phenolic Laminates

23.6.1 The Properties of Phenolic Laminates

23.6.2 Applications of Phenolic Laminates

23.7 Miscellaneous Applications

23.8 Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Adhesives

23.9 Friedel-Crafts and Related Polymers

23.10 Phenolic Resin Fibers

24 Aminoplastics

24.1 Introduction

24.2 Urea-Formaldehyde Resins

24.2.1 Raw Materials

24.2.2 Theories of Resinification

24.2.3 U-F Molding Materials

24.2.4 Adhesives and Related Uses

24.2.5 Foams and Firelighters

24.2.6 Other Applications

24.3 Melamine-Formaldehyde Resins

24.3.1 Melamine

24.3.2 Resinification

24.3.3 Molding Powders

24.3.4 Laminates Containing Melamine-Formaldehyde Resin

24.3.5 Miscellaneous Applications

24.4 Melamine-Phenolic Resins

24.5 Aniline-Formaldehyde Resins

24.6 Resins Containing Thiourea

25 Polyester Resins

25.1 Introduction

25.2 Unsaturated Polyester Laminating Resins

25.2.1 Selection of Raw Materials

25.2.2 Production of Resins

25.2.3 Curing Systems

25.2.4 Structure and Properties

25.2.5 Polyester-Glass Fiber Laminates

25.2.6 Water-Extended Polyesters

25.2.7 Allyl Resins

25.3 Polyester Molding Compositions

25.4 Fiber and Film-Forming Polyesters

25.5 Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate) Molding Materials

25.6 Poly(butylene Terephthalate)

25.7 Poly-(1,4-Cyclohexylenedimethylene Terephthalate-CO-Isophthalate)

25.8 Highly Aromatic Linear Polyesters

25.8.1 Liquid Crystal Polyesters

25.9 Polyester Thermoplastic Elastomers

25.10 Poly(Pivalolactone)

25.11 Polycaprolactones

25.12 Surface Coatings, Plasticizers and Rubbers

26 Epoxide Resins

26.1 Introduction

26.2 Preparation of Resins from Bis-Phenol A

26.3 Curing of Glycidyl Ether Resins

26.3.1 Amine Hardening Systems

26.3.2 Acid Hardening Systems

26.3.3 Miscellaneous Hardener Systems

26.3.4 Comparison of Hardening Systems

26.4 Miscellaneous Epoxide Resins

26.4.1 Miscellaneous Glycidyl Ether Resins

26.4.2 Non-Glycidyl Ether Epoxides

26.5 Diluents, Flexibilizers and other Additives

26.6 Structure and Properties of Cured Resins

26.7 Applications

27 Polyurethanes and Polyisocyanurates

27.1 Introduction

27.2 Isocyanates

27.3 Fibers and Crystalline Molding Compounds

27.4 Rubbers 734

27.4.1 Cast Polyurethane Rubbers

27.4.2 Millable Gums

27.4.3 Properties and Applications of Cross-Linked Polyurethane Rubbers

27.4.4 Thermoplastic Polyurethane Rubbers and Spandex Fibers

27.5 Flexible Foams

27.5.1 One-Shot Polyester Foams

27.5.2 Polyether Prepolymers

27.5.3 Quasi-Prepolymer Polyether Foams

27.5.4 Polyether One-Shot Foams

27.5.5 Properties and Applications of Flexible Foams

27.6 Rigid and Semi-Rigid Foams

27.6.1 Self-Skinning Foams and the RIM Process

27.7 Coatings Arid Adhesives

27.8 Polyisocyanurates

27.9 Polycarbodi-Imide Resins

27.10 Polyurethane-Acrylic Blends

27.11 Miscellaneous Isocyanate-Based Materials

28 Furan Resins

28.1 Introduction

28.2 Preparation of Intermediates

28.3 Resinification

28.4 Properties of the Cured Resins

28.5 Applications

29 Silicones and Other Heat-Resisting Polymers

29.1 Introduction

29.1.1 Nomenclature

29.1.2 Nature of Chemical Bonds Containing Silicon

29.2 Preparation of Intermediates

29.2.1 The Grignard Method

29.2.2 The Direct Process

29.2.3 The Olefin Addition Method

29.2.4 Sodium Condensation Method

29.2.5 Rearrangement of Organochlorosilanes

29.3 General Methods of Preparation and Properties of Silicones

29.4 Silicone Fluids

29.4.1 Preparation

29.4.2 General Properties

29.4.3 Applications

29.5 Silicone Resins

29.5.1 Preparation

29.5.2 Properties

29.5.3 Applications

29.6 Silicone Rubbers

29.6.1 Dimethylsilicone Rubbers

29.6.2 Modified Polydimethylsiloxane Rubbers

29.6.3 Compounding

29.6.4 Fabrication and Cross Linking

29.6.5 Properties and Applications

29.6.6 Liquid Silicone Rubbers

29.7 Polymers for Use at High Temperatures

29.7.1 Fluorine-Containing Polymers

29.7.2 Inorganic Polymers

29.7.3 Cross-Linked Organic Polymers

29.7.4 Linear Polymers with p-Phenylene Groups and other Ring Structures

29.7.5 Ladder Polymers and Spiro Polymers

29.7.6 Co-Ordination Polymers

29.7.7 Summary

30 Miscellaneous Plastics Materials

30.1 Introduction

30.2 Casein

30.2.1 Chemical Nature

30.2.2 Isolation of Casein from Milk

30.2.3 Production of Casein Plastics

30.2.4 Properties of Casein

30.2.5 Applications

30.3 Miscellaneous Protein Plastics

30.4 Derivatives of Natural Rubber

30.5 Gutta Percha and Related Materials

30.6 Shellac

30.6.1 Occurrence and Preparation

30.6.2 Chemical Composition

30.6.3 Properties

30.6.4 Applications

30.7 Amber

30.7.1 Composition and Properties

30.8 Bituminous Plastics

Index

Details

No. of pages:
560
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Butterworth-Heinemann 1989
Published:
Imprint:
Butterworth-Heinemann
eBook ISBN:
9781483144795

About the Author

J A Brydson