Plasma Processing for VLSI - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780122341083, 9781483217758

Plasma Processing for VLSI, Volume 8

1st Edition

Editors: Norman G. Einspruch Dale M. Brown
eBook ISBN: 9781483217758
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 7th June 1984
Page Count: 544
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Table of Contents

List of Contributors


Chapter 1 The History of Plasma Processing

I. Introduction

II. Early Developments

III. Introduction of Plasma Processing to Semiconductor Manufacturing, 1971-1978

IV. Full-Scale Commitment to Dry-Process Technology, 1978-1983

V. Challenges and Opportunities for Plasma Technology, 1983-1988


Part A Deposition

Chapter 2 Sputtering for VLSI

I. Introduction

II. Contact Metallization

III. Diffusion Barriers

IV. Schottky Diode Metallization

V. Cosputtered Aluminum Alloys

VI. Refractory Suicides in Gate Metallization

VII. Film Stress

VIII. Dielectrics

IX. Die Attach

X. Summary and Future Directions


Chapter 3 Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition of Transition Metals and Transition Metal Silicides

I. Introduction

II. Plasma-Enhanced Deposition

III. Summary


Chapter 4 Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition of Dielectrics

I. Introduction

II. General Principles

III. Specific Materials

IV. Equipment for PECVD of Inorganic Dielectrics

V. Summary


Part B Lithography

Chapter 5 Trilayer Resist

I. Introduction

II. Plasma Processing

III. Limitations of Single-Layer Resist

IV. Formation of the Process Etch Mask

V. Utilization of the Process Mask

VI. Options to Trilayer Resist

VII. Summary


Chapter 6 Plasma Sources for X-Ray Lithography

I. Introduction

II. X-Ray Lithography

III. X-Ray Source Requirements

IV. Electron-Impact X-Ray Sources

V. Synchrotron X-Radiation Sources

VI. Plasma X-Ray Sources

VII. Conclusion

Appendix. X-Ray Source Characterization


Chapter 7 Plasma Sources for Deep-UV Lithography

I. Introduction

II. General Requirements for Deep-UV Lithographic Sources

III. Description of Sources

IV. Conclusions


Part C Etching

Chapter 8 Basic Principles of Plasma Etching for Silicon Devices

I. Introduction

II. Principle of Isotropic and Anisotropic Etching

III. Plasma and Surface Chemistry

IV. Selectivity in Plasma Etching

V. Etching in Plasmas That Produce Free Fluorine

VI. Etching of Organic Material in Oxygen-Based Plasmas

VII. Etching in Plasmas That Produce Fluorocarbon Radicals

VIII. Etching in Plasmas That Produce Chlorine and Bromine Atoms

IX. Hydrogen Plasma Etching


Chapter 9 High-Pressure Etching


I. Introduction

II. Equipment

III. Plasma Properties

IV. Processes for Specific Materials

V. Conclusions


Chapter 10 Reactive Ion Etching

I. Introduction

II. General Principles

III. Process Parameter Effects

IV. Specific Materials and Structures

V. Equipment Considerations

VI. Summary


Chapter 11 Ion-Beam Etching (Milling)

I. Introduction

II. Physics of Ion-Beam Etching

III. Techniques and Problems of Ion-Beam Etching

IV. Applications

V. Ion-Beam Etch Equipment

VI. Summary and Conclusions


Chapter 12 Reactive Ion-Beam Etching

I. Introduction

II. Ion Sources and Operation

III. Applications

IV. Chemistry and Physics of Etching Reactions

V. Summary and Conclusions


Chapter 13 Plasma Diagnostics and End-Point Detection

I. Introduction

II. Measurement Techniques

III. Plasma Parameters

IV. End-Point Detection

V. Summary


Chapter 14 Emerging Etching Techniques

I. Introduction

II. High-Rate Reactive Ion Etching Using a Magnetron Discharge

III. Gate-Oxide Breakdown

IV. Atomic and Molecular Beam Etching

V. UV-Light Irradiation Etching


Chapter 15 Advanced Device Structures Fabricated with Anisotropic Dry Etching

I. Introduction

II. Basic Approaches

III. Device Components

IV. Applications

V. Conclusions



Contents of Other Volumes


VLSI Electronics: Microstructure Science, Volume 8: Plasma Processing for VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) discusses the utilization of plasmas for general semiconductor processing. It also includes expositions on advanced deposition of materials for metallization, lithographic methods that use plasmas as exposure sources and for multiple resist patterning, and device structures made possible by anisotropic etching.

This volume is divided into four sections. It begins with the history of plasma processing, a discussion of some of the early developments and trends for VLSI. The second section, Deposition, discusses deposition techniques for VLSI such as sputtering metals for metallization and contacts, plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of metals and suicides, and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of dielectrics. The part on Lithography presents the high-resolution trilayer resist system, pulsed x-ray sources for submicrometer x-ray lithography, and high-intensity deep-UV sources. The last part, Etching, provides methods in etching, like ion-beam etching using reactive gases, low-pressure reactive ion etching, and the uses of inert-gas ion milling. The theory and mechanisms of plasma etching are described and a number of new device structures made possible by anisotropic etching are enumerated as well.

Scientists, engineers, researchers, device designers, and systems architects will find the book useful.


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© Academic Press 1984
Academic Press
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About the Editors

Norman G. Einspruch Editor

Dale M. Brown Editor