Pipeline Integrity

Pipeline Integrity

Management and Risk Evaluation

2nd Edition - April 25, 2017

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  • Author: Ramesh Singh
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128130469
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128130452

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Pipeline engineers, operators, and plant managers are responsible for the safety of pipelines, facilities, and staying on top of regulatory compliance and maintenance. However, they frequently need reference materials to support their decision, and many new pipeline engineers and plant managers are responsible for major repairs and decisions yet do not have the proper reference to set a holistic integrity plan in place. Pipeline Integrity, Second Edition delivers necessary pipeline inspection methods, identification of hazard mechanisms, risk and consequence evaluations, and repair strategies. Covering relevant standards and processes for risk, assessment, and integrity management, this go-to reference provides the principles that guide these concepts enhanced with more critical regulatory information and easier organization betwen liquid and gas pipelines. More detailed information is provided on asset reliability, including risk-based inspection and other inspection prioritizing tools such as value-driven maintenance and evidence-based asset management. Pipeline Integrity, Second Edition continues to provide engineers and plants managers a vital resource for keeping their pipelines and facilities safe and efficient.

Key Features

  • Set an integrity management plan and safe assessment program while properly characterizing impact of risk
  • Get updated with new information on corrosion control, gas and liquid hydrocarbon transportation risk management and asset integrity management
  • Understand and apply all the latest and critical oil and gas pipeline standards, both U.S. and international-based


Pipeline engineers; pipeline technicians; safety and risk managers

Table of Contents

  • Part 1. Pipeline Risk, Consequences & Engineering Assessment

    1. Introduction

    2. Basic Concept of Risk Management and Risk Defined

    • What is risk?
    • Relation of risk with integrity management

    3. Data Collection

    • Elements of integrity management system
    • Data collection
    • Making sense of collected data

    4. Risk Assessment Tools

    • Risk assessment tools
    • Fault tree analysis
    • Five steps to FTA
    • Basic mathematical foundation
    • Comparison of FTA with failure mode and effect analysis
    • Cause and effect (Ishikawa) diagrams
    • Hazard and operability study
    • Failure mode and effect analysis

    5. Hazards and Threats to a Pipeline System

    • Threats leading to risk
    • Definition of hazard
    • Pipeline corrosion control
    • Determining corrosion rate by weight loss coupons
    • Coupons, selection, and its preparation
    • ER probes and instruments
    • LPR probes and instruments
    • Galvanic probes and instruments
    • Hydrogen permeation technology
    • Summary and conclusions
    • Handling uncertainty

    6. Regulatory Approach to Risk Management

    • Initial approach to risk management
    • Paradigm shift
    • Elements of risk management
    • Risk management programs
    • Risk assessment and integrity management of offshore pipeline and risers

    7. Liquid Hydrocarbon Pipeline Risk Management

    • Introduction
    • Definitions of HCA for liquid pipelines
    • High consequence area analysis
    • Direct and indirect HCAs
    • HCA analysis automation
    • Identification of HCAs
    • Integrity management
    • The scope of regulation
    • Baseline assessment
    • Leak detection
    • Elements of an integrity management program
    • Repairs and immediate repair
    • Risk-based alternative to pressure testing
    • Summary of the regulatory guidance for integrity management plan
    • Conditions that may impair a pipeline's integrity
    • In-line inspection or smart pigging
    • Magnetic flux leakage
    • Ultrasonic thickness
    • Magnetic Eddy current
    • Limitation of Eddy current
    • Tools defined by the configuration of magnates
    • Logistics of smart pigging
    • Information management

    8. Gas Transportation Pipeline Risk Management

    • Introduction
    • Pipeline IM
    • The process of identifying HCA
    • Implementing an IM program
    • Qualifications of IM personnel
    • Baseline assessment
    • Direct assessment and threats
    • External corrosion direct assessment
    • Confirmatory direct assessment
    • Addressing integrity issues
    • Reduce the pressure
    • Third party damage and outside force damage
    • Importance of continuation of IM process
    • Reassessment intervals
    • Low-stress reassessment
    • Assessment of IM program's effectiveness
    • Record keeping
    • Communication with PHMSA and reporting

    Part 2. Pipeline Integrity Evaluation and Engineering Assessment

    1. Introduction

    • Introduction
    • Pipeline IM
    • Analysis of HCA
    • Potential impact radius
    • Direct and indirect HCAs
    • HCA analysis automation
    • Identification of HCAs
    • Immediate repair

    2. Pipeline Defects and Corrective Actions

    • Assessing the remaining strength of a corroded pipe
    • Method for determining the remaining strength of corroded pipelines based on ASME B31G

    3. Pipeline Reliability Assessment

    • Influence of residual stress on pipeline reliability
    • Variable sensitivities
    • Gas pressure fluctuation
    • Residual stress data
    • Corrosion effects

    Part 3. Pipeline Material

    1. Introduction

    2. Line Pipes

    • ERW pipes: LFW versus HFW pipes
    • Submerged arc–welded line pipes
    • Classification of line pipes
    • PSL 1 versus PSL 2
    • Determination of percentage shear through DWT test for PSL 2 welded pipes
    • Ordering a line pipe
    • Pipes from other specifications

    3. Fittings and Forgings

    • ASME/ANSI B16.5—Pipe flanges and flanged fittings
    • ASME/ANSI B16.9—Factory-made wrought steel butt welding fittings
    • ASME/ANSI B16.11—Forged steel fittings, socket welding and threaded
    • ASME/ANSI B16.14—Ferrous pipe plugs, bushings, and locknuts with pipe threads
    • ASME/ANSI B16.20—Metallic gaskets for pipe flanges, ring joint, spiral wound, and jacketed
    • ASME/ANSI B16.21—Nonmetallic flat gaskets for pipe flanges
    • ASME/ANSI B16.25—Butt welding ends
    • ASME/ANSI B16.28—Wrought steel butt welding short radius elbows and returns
    • ASME/ANSI B16.36—Orifice flanges
    • ASME/ANSI B16.39—Malleable iron threaded pipe unions
    • ASME/ANSI B16.42—Ductile iron pipe flanges and flanged fittings, classes 150 and 300
    • ASME/ANSI B16.47—Large diameter steel flanges: NPS 26 through NPS 60
    • ASME/ANSI B16.48—Steel line blanks
    • ASME/ANSI B16.49—Factory-made wrought steel butt welding induction bends for transportation and distribution systems

    4. Valves

    • API 598 valve inspection and testing
    • API 600 steel valves – flanged and butt welded ends
    • API 602 compact steel gate valves – flanged, threaded, welding and extended body ends
    • API 603 class 150 cast, corrosion-resistant flanged-end gate valves
    • API 608 metal ball valves – flanged and butt welded ends
    • API 609 butterfly valves – double flanged, lug and wafer type
    • Testing of valves
    • NACE trim and NACE material
    • ASME codes and other specifications
    • Valve materials
    • Component materials for NACE standards
    • API 6D specification for pipeline valves
    • API 6FA
    • API 526 flanged steel pressure relief valves
    • API 527 seat tightness of pressure relief valves (2002)
    • ANSI/API STD 594 check valves: flanged, lug, wafer, and butt welding
    • ANSI/API 599: metal plug valves – flanged, threaded, and welding ends
    • ASME/ANSI B16.38 – large metallic valves for gas distribution
    • ASME/ANSI B16.33 – manually operated metallic gas valves for use in gas piping systems up to 125 psig
    • ASME/ANSI B16.40 – manually operated thermoplastic gas valves
    • ASME/ANSI B16.10 – face-to-face and end-to-end dimensions of valves
    • ASME/ANSI B16.34 valves – flanged, threaded, and welding end
    • Preparing a piping specification for a project
    • Definitions and abbreviations
    • Piping classifications

    5. Pressure Testing: Pneumatic and Hydro Tests

    • Purpose
    • Leak test
    • Practical application of hydrostatic testing

    6. Corrosion and Corrosion Protection

    • Corrosion
    • Protection from internal corrosion
    • Monitoring of internal corrosion
    • Internal corrosion monitoring techniques for pipeline systems
    • Abstract
    • Internal corrosion of a pipeline main causes of pipeline failures
    • Electrochemical failures are caused by corrosion of metals and seals
    • Causes and rates of internal corrosion
    • Methods of corrosion control
    • Monitoring versus inspection
    • Corrosion monitoring techniques
    • Weight loss corrosion coupons
    • ER probes and instruments
    • LPR probes and instruments
    • Galvanic probes and instruments
    • Hydrogen permeation technology
    • Protection from external corrosion
    • CP criteria
    • Caution on use of standard polarization potentials
    • Overprotection by CP
    • Corrosion protection by coating
    • Surface preparation

    7. Asset Integrity Management and Other Concepts of Asset Reliability

    • Introduction
    • Definitions of reliability
    • Measurements of reliability
    • Reliability index
    • Asset integrity management
    • Risk-based inspection
    • RBI for refineries and chemical plants
    • Reliability centered maintenance definition
    • Limitations of RCM approach
    • Steps for implementing RCM
    • Risk-based maintenance definition
    • Determining risk
    • Risk assessment process for RBM
    • Total productive maintenance
    • Total maintenance system
    • Value-driven maintenance
    • Evidence-based asset management
    • Summary

Product details

  • No. of pages: 334
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Gulf Professional Publishing 2017
  • Published: April 25, 2017
  • Imprint: Gulf Professional Publishing
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128130469
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128130452

About the Author

Ramesh Singh

Ramesh Singh, MS, IEng, MWeldI, is registered as Incorporated Engineer with British Engineering Council UK and a Member of The Welding Institute, UK. He worked as engineer for various operating and EPC organizations in Middle East, Canada and US. Most recently, he worked for 10 years with Gulf Interstate Engineering, Houston, TX. He is now consulting in the fields of pipeline integrity and related materials and corrosion topics. Ramesh is a graduate from Indian Air Force Technical Academy, with diplomas in Structural Fabrication Engineering and Welding Technology. He has been member and officer of the Canadian Standard Association and NACE and serves on several technical committees. He has worked in industries spanning over aeronautical, alloy steel castings, fabrication, machining, welding engineering, petrochemical, and oil and gas. He has written several technical papers and published articles in leading industry magazines, addressing the practical aspects of welding, construction and corrosion issues relating to structures, equipment and pipelines.

Affiliations and Expertise

Senior Principal Engineer (Materials, Welding and Corrosion) for Gulf Interstate Engineering and Consultant, Management of Welding, Materials, and Corrosion, Nadoi Management, Inc.

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  • Saqib R. Fri Jan 21 2022

    Pipeline Integrity

    Good book for beginners.