Physiology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780121194024, 9781483257358

Physiology

1st Edition

Editors: Geoffrey H. Bourne
eBook ISBN: 9781483257358
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1980
Page Count: 588
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Description

Hearts and Heart-Like Organs, Volume 2: Physiology provides anatomical and physiological perspectives of the heart from invertebrates to humans. This book deals with the physiology of the heart, its evolution, and the effects of hormones, stress, exercise, hypoxia, bed rest, and the control of the coronary system. Organized into 11 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the effects of hormones on the heart and the diversity of types of humoral agents that influence cardiac function. This text then examines the precursors in prostaglandin biosynthesis. Other chapters consider the synthesis of thyroid hormone that occurs within the follicles of the thyroid gland and proceeds through a series of steps. This book discusses as well the concepts of cardiac function, including the neural control of the heart and biochemical mechanisms of adrenergic and cholinergic regulation of myocardial contractility. The final chapter deals with the various factors of coronary resistance. This book is a valuable resource for cardiologists and physiologists.

Table of Contents


List of Contributors

Preface

Contents of Other Volumes

1 Effects of Hormones on the Heart

I. General Concepts

II. Corticosteroids

III. Pancreatic Hormones

IV. Renin—Angiotensin System

V. Pituitary Hormones

References

2 Prostaglandins and the Heart

I. A Historical Outline

II. Chemistry and Biochemistry of Prostaglandins

III. Cardiac Biosynthesis of Prostaglandins

IV. Physiological and Pharmacological Interference with Cardiac Biosynthesis

V. Effects of Prostaglandins on Cardiac Tissue

VI. Physiological Significance of Cardiac Prostaglandins

VII. Cigarette Smoking, Nicotine, and Cardiac Prostaglandins

References

3 Thyroid Hormone Effects on the Heart

I. Thyroid Hormone Synthesis, Metabolism, and Mechanisms of Action

II. Thyroid Hormone Excess: Its Effects on the Heart

III. Thyroid Hormone Deficiency: Its Effects on the Heart

IV. Summary

References

4 Catecholamines and the Heart

I. Historical Background

II. Catecholamine Metabolism: Biosynthesis, Storage, Release, and Inactivation

III. Adrenergic Receptors and Responses

IV. Neural Regulation of the Heart

V. Adrenergic Involvement in Cardiac Pathophysiology

VI. Concluding Remarks

References

5 Emotion and the Heart

I. Emotional Stress as a Major Risk Factor in Coronary Heart Disease

II. Emotional Stress and Standard Coronary Risk Factors

III. Pathogenetic Interrelationship between Psychic Stress and Dietary Fat

IV. Emotional Stress and Tobacco Consumption

V. Emotional Stress and the Pathogenesis of Atherosclerosis

VI. The Mastery of Stress

VII. Stress, Adaptation, and Evolution

VIII. Augmented Sympathetic Arousal and Ischemic Heart Disease

IX. Primary and Secondary Prevention in Ischemic Heart Disease

References

6 The Nature of Stress and Its Relation to Cardiovascular Disease

I. Stress and Adaptation

II. Stress and Cardiovascular Disease

References

7 Hypoxia and the Heart

I. Introduction

II. Anatomical and Histological Changes of the Hypoxic Heart

III. Coronary Vessels and Coronary Flow

IV. Myocardial Metabolism

V. Cardiovascular Function

VI. Oxygen Transport: Pulmonary, Hematologic, and Tissue Adaptations

VII. Adrenergic and Other Hormonal Activities

VIII. Exercise Tolerance—Myocardial Resistance to Ischemia or Necrosis

IX. Conclusions

References

8 The Heart and Exercise Training

I. Introduction

II. Effects of Training on the Cardiac Muscle Cell

III. Effects of Training on Papillary Muscle and Isolated Heart

IV. Effects of Training in the Intact Animal and Human

V. Conclusions

References

9 Cardiac Hypertrophy

I. Introduction

II. Biochemical Aspects of Cardiac Enlargement

III. Cellular Responses During Heart Growth

IV. Future Directions and Considerations

References

10 Effects of Bedrest and Weightlessness on the Heart

I. Introduction

II. Mission Experience

III. Physiological Responses Associated with Postural Changes

IV. Changes in Resting Hemodynamic Parameters Resulting from Bedrest, Immersion, and Immobilization

V. Conclusions

References

11 Chemical and Nervous Control of the Coronary System

I. Hemodynamics of Coronary Circulation

II. Regulation of Coronary Resistance

III. Mechanism of Myocardial Reactive Hyperemia

IV. Coronary Reserve in Normal and Hypertrophic Hearts

V. Autoregulation of Coronary Flow

VI. Coronary Flow Responses to Natural Stresses

VII. Local Metabolic Control of Coronary Resistance

VIII. Neural Regulation of Coronary Resistance: Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Regulation of Coronary Blood Flow

IX. Conclusions

References

Index

Details

No. of pages:
588
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1980
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483257358

About the Editor

Geoffrey H. Bourne