Physiology of Man in Space

Physiology of Man in Space

1st Edition - January 1, 1963

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  • Editor: J. H. U. Brown
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483225838

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Description

Physiology of Man in Space describes the physiological responses of man under the extremes of space flight. This book is composed of eight chapters that specifically examine the physiological responses of astronaut under zero gravity conditions. The introductory chapter demonstrates how human neuromuscular system can withstand the stresses of short-term space travel. The succeeding chapters describe human responses under space acceleration stress. These topics are followed by discussions on human stress tolerance capacity; psychological aspects of space flight; instrumentation in biomedical capsules in space flight; and the phenomenon of space weightlessness. The final chapter deals with the impact of the environment on the man and the impact that the man has on the environment, including environmental, metabolic, and waste removal parameters. This book is of value to space scientists and researchers.

Table of Contents


  • Contributors

    Preface

    Neuromuscular Aspects of Space Travel

    I. Muscles

    A. Structure

    B. Method of Action

    C. Antigravity Muscles

    D. Microscopic Structure

    E. Innervation

    II. Muscular Stresses in Space Flight

    A. General

    B. Weightlessness

    C. High g

    D. Radiation

    III. Conclusions

    References

    Acceleration

    I. The Human Centrifuge

    II. Subjective Sensations of Acceleration

    III. Objective Changes during Headward Acceleration

    A. Effects on the Cardiovascular System

    B. Cerebral Circulation

    C. Respiratory Effects

    D. Summary

    IV. Footward Acceleration

    V. Acceleration Perpendicular to the Long Axis of the Body

    VI. Methods of Protection Against the Effects of Acceleration

    A. Development of Antiblackout Suits

    B. Water Immersion

    C. Protective Devices for Footward and Transverse Acceleration

    D. Summary

    VII. Angular Acceleration

    References

    Stress

    I. Stressors, Stress, and Disease

    II. Stress in Orbital and Space Flight

    A. Acceleration

    B. Weightlessness

    C. Thermal Extremes

    D. Meteorites

    E. The Cabin Atmosphere

    F. Nutritional Problems

    G. Isolation and Sensory Deprivation

    H. Ionizing Radiation

    I. General Medical Emergencies

    J. Conclusions

    III. The Pathological Effects of Stress

    A. Mental Disturbances

    B. Cardiovascular Disorders

    C. Gastrointestinal Disorders

    D. Infectious Diseases and Inflammation

    IV. Summary

    References

    Human Tolerances

    I. Psychophysiological Stress

    II. Tolerance for Gravitational Forces

    A. Acceleration

    B. Deceleration Tolerance and Effects of Weightlessness

    III. The Psychophysiological Problem of Hyperventilation

    IV. High Altitude Tolerance

    A. Breathing Normal Air

    B. Breathing 100% Oxygen

    C. Breathing Oxygen under Pressure

    D. Pressure Suit

    V. Dysbarism or Decompression Sickness

    VI. Tolerance for Hypercapnia

    VII. Tolerance for Temperature Extremes

    VIII. Tolerance for Physical Work

    A. Functional Limitations

    B. Metabolic Limitations

    C. Environmental Effects on Work Capacity

    References

    Psychological Aspects of Space Flight

    I. Psychological Requirements for Man in Space

    II. Sensing and Perceiving

    A. Vision

    B. Audition

    C. Time Perception and Time Orientation

    D. Vestibular and Kinesthetic Senses

    E. Illusions and Spatial Disorientation

    III. Perceptual and Motor Skill Performance

    A. Effects of Acceleration Stress on Perceptual and Motor Skill Performance

    B. Performance Studies during Centrifuge Simulations of Space Flight

    C. Psychological Principles Concerning Performance Capabilities under g

    D. Effects of Weightlessness on Perceptual and Motor Skills

    E. Performance Reliability during Prolonged Confinement

    IV. Cognitive Processes and Other Higher Mental Abilities

    A. The Problem of Measuring Higher Mental Abilities

    B. Effects of Acceleration on Higher Mental Abilities

    C. Effects of Confinement on Higher Mental Abilities

    V. Personality and Emotional Behavior

    A. Isolation, Confinement, and Sensory Alteration

    B. The "Break-off" Phenomenon—the Feeling of Earth Separation

    C. Emotional Behavior

    D. Personality and Emotional Behavior during Space-Flight Simulation

    VI. Psychological Conditioning and Training

    A. Acceleration Training

    B. Training on Flight Attitude Control Tasks

    C. Academic Training

    D. Procedures Training, Trouble Shooting, and Emergency Training

    E. Navigation and Orientation Training

    F. Perceptual Training

    G. Egress and Survival Training

    H. Building Confidence

    I. Psychological Training Problems

    VII. Psychological Aspects of Astronaut Selection

    References

    Biomedical Capsules

    I. Experiments in Design

    II. Design Criteria

    References

    Space Flight Dynamics—Weightlessness

    I. Background

    II. History

    III. Methods of Studying Weightlessness

    IV. Studies in Weightlessness

    V. Summary and Conclusions

    References

    Ecological Systems

    I. Atmospheric Requirements of Man in Space

    A. Pressure

    B. Oxygen

    C. Carbon Dioxide

    D. Temperature and Relative Humidity

    E. Microcontaminant Levels

    F. Energy Requirements

    G. Water

    II. Waste Removal and/or Storage

    III. Solutions to Man's Atmospheric Requirements

    IV. Biological Regenerative Systems

    V. Ground-Based Simulators

    References

    Author Index

    Subject Index






Product details

  • No. of pages: 362
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1963
  • Published: January 1, 1963
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483225838

About the Editor

J. H. U. Brown

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