Physiology of Man in Space - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781483200804, 9781483225838

Physiology of Man in Space

1st Edition

Editors: J. H. U. Brown
eBook ISBN: 9781483225838
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1963
Page Count: 362
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Description

Physiology of Man in Space describes the physiological responses of man under the extremes of space flight. This book is composed of eight chapters that specifically examine the physiological responses of astronaut under zero gravity conditions. The introductory chapter demonstrates how human neuromuscular system can withstand the stresses of short-term space travel. The succeeding chapters describe human responses under space acceleration stress. These topics are followed by discussions on human stress tolerance capacity; psychological aspects of space flight; instrumentation in biomedical capsules in space flight; and the phenomenon of space weightlessness. The final chapter deals with the impact of the environment on the man and the impact that the man has on the environment, including environmental, metabolic, and waste removal parameters. This book is of value to space scientists and researchers.

Table of Contents


Contributors

Preface

Neuromuscular Aspects of Space Travel

I. Muscles

A. Structure

B. Method of Action

C. Antigravity Muscles

D. Microscopic Structure

E. Innervation

II. Muscular Stresses in Space Flight

A. General

B. Weightlessness

C. High g

D. Radiation

III. Conclusions

References

Acceleration

I. The Human Centrifuge

II. Subjective Sensations of Acceleration

III. Objective Changes during Headward Acceleration

A. Effects on the Cardiovascular System

B. Cerebral Circulation

C. Respiratory Effects

D. Summary

IV. Footward Acceleration

V. Acceleration Perpendicular to the Long Axis of the Body

VI. Methods of Protection Against the Effects of Acceleration

A. Development of Antiblackout Suits

B. Water Immersion

C. Protective Devices for Footward and Transverse Acceleration

D. Summary

VII. Angular Acceleration

References

Stress

I. Stressors, Stress, and Disease

II. Stress in Orbital and Space Flight

A. Acceleration

B. Weightlessness

C. Thermal Extremes

D. Meteorites

E. The Cabin Atmosphere

F. Nutritional Problems

G. Isolation and Sensory Deprivation

H. Ionizing Radiation

I. General Medical Emergencies

J. Conclusions

III. The Pathological Effects of Stress

A. Mental Disturbances

B. Cardiovascular Disorders

C. Gastrointestinal Disorders

D. Infectious Diseases and Inflammation

IV. Summary

References

Human Tolerances

I. Psychophysiological Stress

II. Tolerance for Gravitational Forces

A. Acceleration

B. Deceleration Tolerance and Effects of Weightlessness

III. The Psychophysiological Problem of Hyperventilation

IV. High Altitude Tolerance

A. Breathing Normal Air

B. Breathing 100% Oxygen

C. Breathing Oxygen under Pressure

D. Pressure Suit

V. Dysbarism or Decompression Sickness

VI. Tolerance for Hypercapnia

VII. Tolerance for Temperature Extremes

VIII. Tolerance for Physical Work

A. Functional Limitations

B. Metabolic Limitations

C. Environmental Effects on Work Capacity

References

Psychological Aspects of Space Flight

I. Psychological Requirements for Man in Space

II. Sensing and Perceiving

A. Vision

B. Audition

C. Time Perception and Time Orientation

D. Vestibular and Kinesthetic Senses

E. Illusions and Spatial Disorientation

III. Perceptual and Motor Skill Performance

A. Effects of Acceleration Stress on Perceptual and Motor Skill Performance

B. Performance Studies during Centrifuge Simulations of Space Flight

C. Psychological Principles Concerning Performance Capabilities under g

D. Effects of Weightlessness on Perceptual and Motor Skills

E. Performance Reliability during Prolonged Confinement

IV. Cognitive Processes and Other Higher Mental Abilities

A. The Problem of Measuring Higher Mental Abilities

B. Effects of Acceleration on Higher Mental Abilities

C. Effects of Confinement on Higher Mental Abilities

V. Personality and Emotional Behavior

A. Isolation, Confinement, and Sensory Alteration

B. The "Break-off" Phenomenon—the Feeling of Earth Separation

C. Emotional Behavior

D. Personality and Emotional Behavior during Space-Flight Simulation

VI. Psychological Conditioning and Training

A. Acceleration Training

B. Training on Flight Attitude Control Tasks

C. Academic Training

D. Procedures Training, Trouble Shooting, and Emergency Training

E. Navigation and Orientation Training

F. Perceptual Training

G. Egress and Survival Training

H. Building Confidence

I. Psychological Training Problems

VII. Psychological Aspects of Astronaut Selection

References

Biomedical Capsules

I. Experiments in Design

II. Design Criteria

References

Space Flight Dynamics—Weightlessness

I. Background

II. History

III. Methods of Studying Weightlessness

IV. Studies in Weightlessness

V. Summary and Conclusions

References

Ecological Systems

I. Atmospheric Requirements of Man in Space

A. Pressure

B. Oxygen

C. Carbon Dioxide

D. Temperature and Relative Humidity

E. Microcontaminant Levels

F. Energy Requirements

G. Water

II. Waste Removal and/or Storage

III. Solutions to Man's Atmospheric Requirements

IV. Biological Regenerative Systems

V. Ground-Based Simulators

References

Author Index

Subject Index






Details

No. of pages:
362
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1963
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483225838

About the Editor

J. H. U. Brown