Physiology and Electrochemistry of Nerve Fibers - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780126837803, 9780323154079

Physiology and Electrochemistry of Nerve Fibers

1st Edition

Authors: Ichiji Tasaki
eBook ISBN: 9780323154079
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1982
Page Count: 364
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Physiology and Electrochemistry of Nerve Fibers explores the properties of nerve fibers, including morphology, biochemistry, and physical chemistry. The book also makes an effort to trace the origins of the concepts that are important in studying the physiology of the nerve fibers. The text covers the early studies of electrochemistry; the different theories regarding nerve excitation; the conduction of nerve impulses along different nerve fibers; and the behavior of impulses in myelinated nerve fibers and its electrical excitation. The book also discusses the emergence, morphology, and biochemistry of the squid giant axon, as well as further studies about it; macromolecular transitions; the physiochemical approach and model; and the electrochemical considerations of the classical membrane theory. The monograph is intended for doctors specializing in neurology, psychologists, and psychiatrists who wish to know more about nerve fibers, their structure, chemical properties, functions, and the theories behind it, as well as its transmission of electrical impulses.

Table of Contents


1 Introduction


2 The Dawn of Electrophysiology

A. Early Studies of Animal Electricity

B. The Discovery of Injury and Action Current

C. The First Measurement of the Rate of Nerve Conduction

D. du Bois-Reymond's Theory of Nerve Excitation

E. Pfluger's Rule of Excitability and Anodal Block of Nerve Conduction

F. The Membrane Hypothesis


3 The Rise and Fall of Theories of Nerve Excitation

A. The Downfall of du Bois-Reymond's Theory of Excitation

B. Nernst's Semipermeable Membrane Theory

C. The Colloid Chemical Theory of Loeb and Hober

D. The Strength-Duration Relation and Chronaxie

E. The Two Factor Theory

F. Rushton's Concept of Liminal Length


4 Early Observations of Saltatory Conduction of Nerve Impulses

A. Isolation of Single Myelinated Nerve Fibers

B. Measurement of Threshold along a Myelinated Nerve Fiber

C. Tripolar Stimulation of a Nerve Fiber

D. The Electric Resistance of the Nodal Membrane

E. Propagation of Nerve Impulses across Inexcitable Nodes

F. The Pathway of the Local Current

G. The Capacitor-like Behavior of the Myelin Sheath

H. Further Studies of the Action Currents of Myelinated Nerve Fibers

I. Microelectrode Recording of Electric Responses from Myelinated Nerve Fibers


5 Conduction of Impulses in Myelinated Nerve Fibers

A. The All-or-None Behavior of the Node of Ranvier

B. Refractory Period

C. Abolition of Action Potential

D. The Fall of the Membrane Resistance during Nerve Excitation

E. The Resistance and Capacity of the Myelin Sheath and of the Nodal Membrane

F. Effect of Polarizing Current on Nerve Conduction

G. Nerve Conduction during the Relatively Refractory Period

H. Nerve Conduction in the Anesthetized Region of Nerve Fiber

I. Experimental Demyelination

J . The Relation between Fiber Diameter and Conduction Rate


6 Electric Excitation of Single Myelinated Fibers

A. Consideration of the Ultrastructure of the Myelin Sheath

B. The Cable Equation

C The Strength-Latency Relation

D. Latent Addition

E. The Limiting Quantity of Electricity

F. Superposition of Threshold Depression

G. Strength-Duration Relation and Latent-Addition Curve

H. Strength-Frequency Relation for High-Frequency AC

I. Variation of Rheobase and Chronaxie along the Nerve Fiber


7 Accommodation in Myelinated Nerve Fibers

A. Excitation by Linearly Rising Voltage Pulses

B. Exponentially Rising Voltage Pulses

C. Exponentially Rising Voltage with Superposed DC and Double Condenser Pulses

D. Excitation by Low-Frequency AC

E. Repetitive Firing of Action Potentials

F. Cathodal Depression and the Minimal Gradient

G. Break Excitation


8 Emergence of the Squid Giant Axon

A. Nonmyelinated Nerve Fibers

B. Intracellular Recording of Action Potentials

C. Fall of Membrane Resistance during Excitation

D. Potassium Ion and the Membrane Potential

E. Sodium Ion and Excitability

F. Intracellular Wiring of Squid Giant Axons

G. The Voltage Clamp Procedure

H. The Hodgkin-Huxley Theory of Nerve Excitation


9 Morphology a n d Biochemistry of the Squid Giant Axon

A. The Ultrastructure of the Sheath Components

B. Electrolytes, Proteins, and Lipids in the Axoplasm

C. The Ultrastructure of the Ectoplasm

D. Release of Submembranous Proteins during Excitation

E. Chemical Modification of Proteins in the Axon

F. Models of the Plasma Membrane

G. Binding of Tetrodotoxin to the Nerve Membrane


10 Further Electrophysiological Studies of Intact Squid Axons

A. The Relation between Axon Diameter and Conduction Velocity

B. Intracellular Injection of Tetraethylammonium Salt

C. Abolition of a Prolonged Action Potential

D. Hyperpolarizing Responses in Potassium-Rich Media

E. Chemical Stimulation of Nerve Fibers

F. Monnier's Phenomena of Pararesonance

G. Periodic Miniature Responses

H. The Discreteness of Miniature Responses

I. Classification of Chemical Stimulants

J . Miniature Responses Generated by Electric Currents

K. Effects of TTX and TEA on Miniature Responses

L. Membrane Noise and Miniature Responses


11 Squid Giant Axons under Internal Perfusion

A. Techniques of Intracellular Perfusion

B. Effects of Anions inside the Axon

C. Substitution of External Na-ion with Polyatomic Univalent Cations

D. Substitution and Dilution of External Divalent Cation Salts

E. Dilution of the Intracellular Potassium Salt Solution

F. Substitution of Na for Internal Κ on Membrane Potential

G. Prolongation of Action Potential Duration by Substitution of Na for Internal Κ

Η. The Resistance-Flux Product

I. Influx of Calcium Ion

J . Effects of Changing the Internal pH

K. Effects of Ca-ion on the Duration of Prolonged Action Potentials


12 Macromolecular Transitions

A. Bi-ionic Action Potentials

B. Action Potentials Observed with Na-ion Internally

C. Bi-ionic Action Potential Observed with K-ions Internally

D. Polyatomic Univalent Cations in the Axon Interior

E. The Effect of External Na-Salt on Bi-ionic Action Potentials

F. Abrupt Depolarization

G. Hyperpolarizing Responses in Internally Perfused Axons

H. Cyclic Changes in Membrane Properties—Hysteresis

I. Instability Observed near the Critical Point for Transition

J . Macromolecular Transitions under Voltage Clamp

K. Demonstrations of Domains in Excited and Resting States


13 A Physicochemical Approach and a Model

A. Early Relation between Physical Chemistry and Physiology

B. Unstirred Diffusion Layer

C. An Example of Current-Voltage Relations

D. Intramembrane Concentration Profiles

E. A Macromolecular Model of Two Discrete States of Nerve Membrane

F. A Physicochemical Theory of Conformational Transition

G. Initiation, Termination, Abolition, and Repetitive Firing of Action Potentials under Bi-ionic Conditions

H. A Macromolecular Interpretation of Excitation Processes in Intact Axons

I. Domains of the Membrane in Its Excited State


14 Electrochemical Considerations of the Classical Membrane Theory

A. Electrochemical Properties of the Squid Axon: Recapitulation

B. Polarization of the Axon Membrane

C. Sodium Influx and Production of an Action Potential

D. Measurements of Ion Permeability with Radioisotopes of Na- and K-ions

E. Accumulation of K-Salts in Protoplasm

F. Single Ion Conductances in Equivalent Circuit Membrane Model

G. Determination of EMF by Voltage Clamping

H. Liquid Membranes and Porous Membranes


15 Optical Studies of the Axon Membrane

A. Nonelectrical Signs of Nerve Excitation

B. Small Movements of the Axon Surface during Action Potential

C. Ectoplasm and Birefringence Response

D. Optical Responses Produced by Expansion of Dye-Loaded Endoplasm

E. Transient Change in Light Absorption Associated with Excitation of Vitally Stained Nerve

F. Spectra of Light Absorption Responses

G. Mathematical Expressions for Spectra of Optical Responses

H. Analyses of Light Absorption Responses

I. Relation between Optical Responses and the Membrane Potential

J . Optical Setup for Detection of Transient Changes in Extrinsic Fluorescence

K. Physicochemical Factors Affecting Production of AmNS Fluorescence Responses

L. Spectral Analysis of Fluorescence Responses

M. Fluorescence Polarization Studies

N. General Comment on Optical Studies




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© Academic Press 1982
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

Ichiji Tasaki