# Physics for O.N.C. Courses

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Physics for O.N.C. Courses is a textbook that aims to serve the specific needs of science and engineering students at Ordinary National Certificate (ONC) level in physics. Topics covered range from surface tension and viscosity to gas laws and the specific heats of gases, sources of sound and sound waves, and spherical mirrors. Lenses, the eye, refraction at plane surfaces, and dispersion of light are also discussed. This book is comprised of 27 chapters and opens with a review of some basic principles and concepts in physics such as mass, force, and weight; work, energy, and power; states of matter; density and specific gravity; and pressure and diffusion. The reader is then introduced to surface tension, viscosity, the nature of heat, and elementary thermometry. Thermal expansion, heat quantity and its measurement, and properties of gases are also discussed, along with thermal radiation and wave motion. The remaining chapters focus on vapors and vapor pressure; thermal conductivity; vibrations of strings and rods; frequency and velocity of sound; sound intensity and the Doppler effect; and elementary principles of geometric optics. The final chapter is devoted to the fundamentals of atomic and radiation physics. This monograph will be a valuable resource for physicists, physics teachers, and science and engineering students at ONC level in physics.

## Table of Contents

Preface

1. Mechanics: A Review of Some Basic Principles

1.1. Mass, Force and Weight

1.2. Work, Energy and Power

1.3. The States of Matter

1.4. Density and Specific Gravity

1.5. Pressure

1.6. Diffusion

Exercises

2. Surface Tension

2.1. The Nature of Surface Tension

2.2. Quantitative Measure of Surface Tension

2.3. Angle of Contact

2.4. Pressure Change across Curved Liquid Surface

2.5. Rise of Liquids in Capillary Tubes

2.6. Experimental Determination of Surface Tension

Exercises

3. Viscosity

3.1. Laminar Flow. Coefficient of Viscosity

3.2. Laminar Flow through Tubes. Poiseuille's Formula

3.3. Stokes' Law

3.4. Viscometers

3.5. Viscosity and Lubrication

3.6. Turbulence. Critical Velocity

Exercises

4. The Nature of Heat

4.1. Heat and Temperature

4.2. Equivalence of Heat and Energy

4.3. Radiant Heat

5. Elementary Thermometry

5.1. The Liquid-in-Glass Thermometer

5.2. The Constant-Pressure Gas Thermometer

5.3. The Constant-Volume Gas Thermometer

5.4. The Platinum-Resistance Thermometer

5.5. Thermoelectric Thermometers

Exercises

6. Thermal Expansion

6.1. Introduction

6.2. The Linear Expansion of Solids

6.3. Experimental Determination of Coefficients of Linear Expansion

6.4. Surface Expansion of Solids—Area or Superficial Expansion Coefficient

6.5. Volume or Cubical Expansion of Solids

6.6. The Expansion of Liquids

6.7. Experimental Determination of the Coefficient of Expansion for Liquids

6.8. Thermostats

Exercises

7. The Measurement of Heat Quantity

7.1. Specific Heat

7.2. The Experimental Determination of Specific Heats. Calorimetry

7.3. Latent Heat

7.4. Calorific Value of Fuels. Fuel Calorimetry

Exercises

8. Gases (I)

8.1. The Gas Laws

8.2. The Absolute Temperature Scale. The Perfect Gas Equation

8.3. Measurement of αp by a Simple Method (Verification of Charles' Law)

8.4. The Kinetic Theory of Gases

Exercises

9. Gases (II)

9.1. The Specific Heats of Gases

9.2. The Experimental Determination of cp and cv

9.3. The First Law of Thermodynamics

9.4. Isothermal and Adiabatic Changes

9.5. Relationship between Pressure, Volume and Temperature for Adiabatic Changes

9.6. Kinetic Theory and the Ratio of Specific Heats

Exercises

10. Vapors and Vapor Pressure

10.1. Evaporation

10.2. Vapor Pressure. Properties of Vapors

10.3. Variation of s.v.p. with Temperature

10.4. Gases and Vapors. The Critical Temperature

10.5. Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures

10.6. Relative Humidity

10.7. Hygrometers

Exercises

11. Thermal Conductivity

11.1. The Transmission of Heat

11.2. The Coefficient of Thermal Conductivity

11.3. Experimental Determination of Conductivity Coefficients

11.4. Conduction and the Kinetic Theory of Matter

Exercises

12. Wave Motion

12.1. Vibrations and Waves. Basic Definitions

12.2. Transverse and Longitudinal Waves

12.3. Equation of a Plane, Progressive s.h. Wave

12.4. General Properties of Wave Motion

Exercises

13. Sources of Sound and Sound Waves

13.1. Characteristics of Sounds

13.2. Musical Intervals. Harmonics and Overtones

13.3. Sound Waves

13.4. Stationary Waves

13.5. Vibration of Air in Pipes

13.6. Measurement of Wavelength and Velocity of Sound in a Pipe by Resonance Tube Method

Exercises

14. Vibrations of Strings and Rods

14.1. Transverse Vibrations of Strings

14.2. Longitudinal Vibrations in Solids

Exercises

15. The Measurement of Frequency and Velocity of Sound

15.1. The Absolute Determination of Frequency

15.2. The Combination of Two Simple Harmonic Vibrations at Right Angles

15.3. Measurement of the Velocity of Sound

Exercises

16. Measurement of Sound Intensity. Recording and Reproduction. The Doppler Effect

16.1. Measurement of Sound Intensity

16.2. The Recording and Reproduction of Sound

16.3. The Acoustic Design of Rooms and Auditoria

16.4. The Doppler Elect

Exercises

17. Thermal Radiation

17.1. Electromagnetic Radiation

17.2. The Electromagnetic Spectrum

17.3. The Detection and Measurement of Thermal Radiation

17.4. Some General Properties of Thermal Radiation

17.5. Emissive Power and Absorptive Power. Kirchhol's Law

17.6. The Black Body. Black-body or Full Radiation

17.7. Energy Distribution among Wavelengths. Wien's Law

17.8. Pyrometers. The Measurement of High Temperatures

Exercises

18. Elementary Principles of Geometric Optics

18.1. The Rectilinear Propagation of Light

18.2. The Reflection of Light

18.3. The Refraction of Light

Exercises

19. Spherical Mirrors

19.1. Definition of Terms

19.2. The Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors

19.3. Determination of Position and Size of Image. Use of Formula and Scale Drawings

19.4. Measurement of Focal Lengths and Radii of Curvature

19.5. Spherical Aberration

19.6. Uses of Spherical Mirrors

Exercises

20. Refraction at Plane Surfaces

20.1. Real and Apparent Depth

20.2. Refraction through Triangular Prisms

20.3. Mirages

20.4. The Measurements of Refractive Indices

Exercises

21. Lenses

21.1. Definition of Terms

21.2. Refraction at a Spherical Surface

21.3. Image Formation by Lenses

21.4. Measurement of Focal Lengths of Lenses

21.5. Measurement of Radius of Curvature of a Lens Surface—Boys' Method

21.6. Defects of Lenses

Exercises

22. The Eye. Defects of Vision and Optical Instruments

22.1. Structure of the Eye

22.2. The Eye and Vision

22.3. Defects of Vision

22.4. Microscopes and Telescopes

22.5. Cameras and Projectors

Exercises

23. Dispersion of Light. Spectra and the Spectrometer

23.1. The Visible Spectrum

23.2. Characteristic Spectra

23.3. Angular Dispersion. Dispersive Power

23.4. Achromatic Combinations of Prisms

23.5. Achromatic Lenses

23.6. The Spectrometer

Exercises

24. The Wave Nature of Light

24.1. Huygens' Wave Theory

24.2. Diffraction

24.3. Interference in Light

24.4. Double Refraction and Polarized Light

Exercises

25. Illumination and Photometry

25.1. Luminous Intensity

25.2. Luminous Flux

25.3. Illumination

25.4. Lambert's Cosine Law of Emission; Luminance; the Lambert

25.5. Photometers

25.6. Photoelectric Photometry

Exercises

26. Measurement of the Speed of Light

26.1. Early Methods

26.2. Fizeau's Method

26.3. Foucault's Method

26.4. Michelson's Rotating Octagonal Prism Method

26.5. The Kerr Cell Method

26.6. Significance of the Value of c

26.7. The Doppler Effect in Light

Exercise

27. Fundamentals of Atomic and Radiation Physics

27.1. Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table

27.2. Atomic Spectra

27.3. X-Rays

27.4. Radioactivity

Exercises

Index

## Product details

- No. of pages: 550
- Language: English
- Copyright: © Pergamon 1970
- Published: January 1, 1970
- Imprint: Pergamon
- eBook ISBN: 9781483136868