Physics and Applications of Secondary Electron Emission - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780080090146, 9781483149875

Physics and Applications of Secondary Electron Emission

2nd Edition

Pergamon Science Series: Electronics and Waves—a Series of Monographs

Authors: H. Bruining
Editors: D. W. Fry (Harwell)
eBook ISBN: 9781483149875
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1962
Page Count: 190
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Physics and Applications of Secondary Electron Emission provides a survey of the physics and applications of secondary electron emission. It is part of a series of monographs that aim to report on research carried out in electronics and applied physics. The monographs are written by specialists in their own subjects. Wherever it is practical the monographs will be kept short in length to enable all those interested in electronics to find the essentials necessary for their work in a condensed and concentrated form. The book begins with a discussion of secondary electrons. Separate chapters cover methods for measuring secondary electron emission; numerical results on the secondary electron emission yield of both metals and metal compounds; the influence of externally adsorbed foreign atoms and ions on secondary electron emission; and the mechanism of secondary electron emission. The final three chapters deal with the application side. These include the applications of electron multiplication; the elimination of disturbing effects due to secondary electrons; and ""storage"" devices in which information on electrical charges is written on an insulating surface, often by making use of secondary electron emission.

Table of Contents

Editor's Preface

Author's Preface

1. Introduction

1.1 Distinction between Secondary Electrons of a Different Character

1.2 Energy Distribution of the Secondary Electrons

1.3 Yield of Secondary Electron Emission

2. Methods and Measurements

2.1 Methods for Measuring the Yield of Secondary Electron Emission

2.1.1. Tube with Electron Beam

2.1.2. Triode

2.1.3. Measurement of the Secondary Electron Emission using a Triode with a Photoelectric Cathode and Photosensitive Secondary Emitting Electrode

2.1.4 Measurement of Secondary Electron Emission of Wire-shaped Bodies

2.2 Determination of the Secondary Electron Emission from Bad Conductors (Insulators)

2.3 Determination of the Energy Distribution of Secondary Electrons

2.3.1. Use of a Retarding Electric Field

2.3.2. Measurement of the Energy Distribution with a Magnetic Field

2.4 Experimental Technique

3. Secondary Electron Emission from Metals; Review of Results

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Secondary Electron Emission Coefficient δ for Vp from 0 to 1500 Volts

3.3 Data

3.4 Influence of Crystal and Surface Structure on δ

3.4.1. Secondary Electron Emission from different Crystal Faces

3.4.2. Secondary Emission Yields of Targets in the Ordered and Disordered State

3.4.3. Comparison of the Secondary Emission Yield of Targets consisting of Metal in Bulk and Targets provided with a Metal Layer obtained by Evaporation in Vacuo

3.4.4. Influence of the Surface Structure on the Secondary Emission Yield

3.4.5. Secondary Electron Emission at the Melting Point and Curie Point

3.5 Temperature Dependence of the Secondary Emission Yield

3.6 Secondary Electron Emission at Low Primary Energy (<10eV)

3.7 Secondary Electron Emission at High Primary Energy (>2000eV)

3.8 Secondary Electron Emission at the Exit Side of a Thin Target

4. Secondary Electron Emission from Metal Compounds; Review of Results

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Influence of Conductivity on Secondary Electron Emission

4.3 Reason for High Secondary Emission

4.4 Thin Film Field Emission

4.5 Decomposition of a Compound with High Secondary Emission Yield

4.6 Practical Requirements for Compounds with High Yields

4.7 Secondary Electron Emission from the "Oxide-coated" Cathode

5. Variation of Secondary Emission Yield Caused by the External Adsorption of Ions and Atoms

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Liberation of Secondary Electrons from Adsorbed Atoms

5.3 Increase or Decrease of 5 with Changing Work-function

5.4 Rise of the Secondary Electron Current with Increasing Covering Rate with Atoms of an Electro-positive Metal

5.5 Secondary Electron Emission from Metal Surfaces Covered with Thicker Layers

5.6 Secondary Emission Yield of Soot Covered with Barium

6. Theory of Secondary Electron Emission; The Mechanism of Excitation of Secondary Electrons

6.1 Derivation of a Universal Law

6.2 Determination of the Constants a and α

6.3 Secondary Electron Emission for Low and High Vp

6.4 Some other Theories on Secondary Electron Emission

6.5 Temperature Dependence of Secondary Electron Emission

6.6 Secondary Emission-yield of Metals and Compounds

6.7 Excitation of Electrons in Solids by Electron Impact

6.7.1. Rudberg-Slater Experiments

6.7.2. Experiments of Hilsch and Krenzien

6.8 Fluctuations in the Secondary Electron Current

7. Theory of Secondary Electron Emission; Discussion of Some Properties of Secondary Electrons

7.1 Angular Distribution of Secondary Electrons

7.2 Angular Distribution of Reflected Primary Electrons

7.3 The Influence of the Angle of Incidence of the Primary Electrons on the Secondary Emission Yield

7.4 Value of Vpmax with Varying Angle of Incidence of the Primary Electrons

7.5 Energy Distribution of Secondary Electrons

7.6 Elimination of the Influence of the Work-function and Absorption

7.7 Elastic Reflection of Primary Electrons

8. Applications of Electron Multiplication

8.1 Photo-multipliers

8.1.1. Photomultiplier with One Stage

8.1.2. Photomultiplier with more than One Stage

8.1.3. Dark Current in Photo-multipliers

8.1.4. Fluctuations in the Output Current of a Photomultiplier

8.1.5. Uses of the Photomultiplier's

8.1.6. Electron Multiplication in Image Converters

8.1.7. Multipliers using a Secondary Emitting Cathode

8.2 "Dynamic" Electron Multipliers

8.3 Amplifier Tubes with Secondary Emission Amplification

8.4 The Dynatron

8.5 Contact Valves and Switch Valves

9. Some Examples of Secondary Electron Emission causing Disturbing Effects

9.1 Surfaces with Low Secondary Emission Yield

9.2 Characteristics of a Diode

9.3 Suppression of Secondary Electron Emission in Tetrodes

9.4 Suppression of Secondary Electron Emission from Insulators

9.5 Suppression of the Secondary Electron Emission from the Control Grid in an Oscillating Triode

9.6 Secondary Electrons in X-ray Tubes

10. Secondary Electron Emission in Tubes with Surfaces of an Insulating Material

10.1 Cathode Ray Tubes

10.2 Storage Tubes

10.2.1. Television Pick-up Tubes

10.2.2. Viewing Tubes with Storage

10.2.3. Systems where Writing and Reading occur periodically

10.2.4. Storage Tubes for Electronic Computing Machines


1. Articles on the Physics of Secondary Electron Emission

2. Literature on the Application of Secondary Electron Emission



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© Pergamon 1962
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

H. Bruining

About the Editor

D. W. Fry (Harwell)

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