Physicochemical and Plant Physiology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780125200202, 9780323143837

Physicochemical and Plant Physiology

1st Edition

Authors: Park Nobel
eBook ISBN: 9780323143837
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th March 1991
Page Count: 656
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Physicochemical and Environmental Plant Physiology provides an understanding of various areas of plant physiology in particular and physiology in general. Elementary chemistry, physics, and mathematics are used to explain and develop concepts. The first three chapters of the book describe water relations and ion transport for plant cells. The next three chapters cover the properties of light and its absorption; the features of chlorophyll and the accessory pigments for photosynthesis that allow plants to convert radiant energy from the sun into chemical energy; and how much energy is actually carried by the compounds ATP and NADPH. The last three chapters consider the various forms in which energy and matter enter and leave a plant as it interacts with its environment. These include the physical quantities involved in energy budget analysis; the resistances affecting the movement of both water vapor and carbon dioxide in leaves; and the movement of water from the soil through the plant to the atmosphere.

Table of Contents


Symbols and Abbreviations

1 Cells and Diffusion

Cell Structure

Generalized Plant Cell

Leaf Cells

Cells of Vascular Tissue

Root Cells


Fick's First Law

Continuity Equation and Fick's Second Law

Time-Distance Relation for Diffusion

Membrane Structure

Membrane Models

Organelle Membranes

Membrane Permeability

Concentration Difference across a Membrane

Permeability Coefficient

Diffusion and Cellular Concentration

Cell Walls

Chemistry and Morphology

Diffusion across Cell Walls

Stress-Strain Relations of Cell Wall



2 Water

Physical Properties

Hydrogen Bonding-Thermal Relations

Surface Tension

Capillary Rise

Capillary Rise in the Xylem

Tensile Strength, Viscosity

Electrical Properties

Chemical Potential

Free Energy and Chemical Potential

Analysis of Chemical Potential

Standard State

Hydrostatic Pressure

Water Activity and Osmotic Pressure

The Van't Hoff Relation

Matric Pressure

Water Potential

Central Vacuole and Chloroplasts

Water Relations of the Central Vacuole

Boyle-Van't Hoff Relation

Osmotic Responses of Chloroplasts

Water Potential and Plant Cells

Incipient Plasmolysis

Höfler Diagrams and Pressure-Volume Curves

Chemical Potential and Water Potential of Water Vapor

Plant-Air Interface

Pressure in the Cell Wall Water

Water Flux

Cell Growth

Kinetics of Volume Changes



3 Solutes

Chemical Potential of Ions

Electrical Potential

Electroneutrality and Membrane Capacitance

Activity Coefficients of Ions

Nemst Potential

Example of ENK

Fluxes and Diffusion Potentials

Flux and Mobility

Diffusion Potential in a Solution

Membrane Fluxes

Membrane Diffusion Potential - Goldman Equation

Application of the Goldman Equation

Donnan Potential

Characteristics of Crossing Membranes


Boltzmann Energy Distribution and Q10, a Temperature Coefficient

Activation Energy and Arrhenius Plots

Ussing-Teorell Equation

Example of Active Transport

Energy for Active Transport

Speculation on Active Transport

Mechanisms for Crossing Membranes

Carriers, Porters, Channels, and Pumps

Michaelis-Menten Formalism

Facilitated Diffusion

Principles of Irreversible Thermodynamics

Fluxes, Forces, and Onsager Coefficients

Water and Solute Flow Flux Densities, Lp, andσ

Values of Reflection Coefficients

Solute Movement across Membranes

The Influence of Reflection Coefficients on Incipient Plasmolysis

Extension of the Boyle-Van't Hoff Relation

Reflection Coefficients of Chloroplasts

Solute Flux Density



4 Light

Wavelength and Energy

Light Waves

Energy of Light

Illumination, Photon Flux Density, and Irradiance


Planck's and Wien's Formulae

Absorption of Light by Molecules

Role of Electrons in Absorption Event

Electron Spin and State Multiplicity

Molecular Orbitals


Light Absorption by Chlorophyll


Fluorescence, Phosphorescence, and Radiationless Transitions

Competing Pathways for De-excitation


Quantum Yields

Absorption Spectra and Action Spectra

Vibrational Sublevels in an Energy Level Diagram

The Franck-Condon Principle

Absorption Bands and Absorption Coefficients


Action Spectra

Absorption and Action Spectra of Phytochrome



5 Photochemistry of Photosynthesis

Chlorophyll-Chemistry and Spectra

Types and Structures

Absorption and Fluorescence Emission Spectra

Absorption in Vivo-Polarized Light

Other Photosynthetic Pigments



Excitation Transfers among Photosynthetic Pigments

Pigments and the Photochemical Reaction

Resonance Transfer of Excitation

Transfers of Excitation between Photosynthetic Pigments

Excitation Trapping

Groupings of Photosynthetic Pigments

Photosynthetic Units

Excitation Processing

Photosynthetic Action Spectra and Enhancement Effects

Two Photosystems plus Light-Harvesting Antennae

Electron Flow

Electron Flow Model

Components of the Electron Transfer Pathway

Types of Electron Flow


Vectorial Aspects of Electron Flow



6 Bioenergetics

Gibbs Free Energy

Chemical Reactions and Equilibrium Constants

Interconversion of Chemical and Electrical Energy

Redox Potentials

Biological Energy Currencies

ATP - Structure and Reactions

Gibbs Free Energy Change for ATP Formation

NADP+-NADPH Redox Couple

Chloroplast Bioenergetics

Redox Couples

H+- Chemical Potential Differences Caused by Electron Flow

Evidence for Chemiosmotic Hypothesis

Coupling of Flows

Mitochondrial Bioenergetics

Electron Flow Components-Redox Potentials

Oxidative Phosphorylation

Energy Flow in the Biosphere

Incident Light - Stefan-Boltzmann Law

Absorbed Light and Photosynthetic Efficiency

Food Chains and Material Cycles'



7 Temperature-Energy Budgets

Energy Budget-Radiation

Solar Irradiation

Absorbed Infrared Irradiation

Emitted Infrared Radiation

Values for a, aIR, and eIR

Net Radiation

Examples for Radiation Terms

Wind-Heat Conduction and Convection

Wind - General Comments

Air Boundary Layers

Boundary Layers for Bluff Bodies

Heat Conduction

Convection Equations

Dimensionless Numbers

Examples of Heat Conduction


Latent Heat-Transpiration

Heat Flux Density Accompanying Transpiration

Heat Flux Density for Dew or Frost Formation

Examples of Frost and Dew Formation


Thermal Properties

Soil Energy Balance

Variations in Soil Temperature

Further Examples of Energy Budgets

Leaf Shape and Orientation

Shaded Leaves within Plant Communities

Heat Storage

Time Constants



8 Leaves and Fluxes

Resistances and Conductances-Transpiration

Boundary Layer Adjacent to Leaf


Stomatal Conductance and Resistance


Intercellular Air Spaces

Fick's First Law and Conductances

Water Vapor Fluxes Accompanying Transpiration

Conductance and Resistance Network

Values of Conductances

Effective Lengths and Resistance

Leaf Water Vapor Concentrations and Mole Fractions

Examples of Water Vapor Levels in a Leaf

Water Vapor Fluxes

Control of Transpiration

CO2 Conductances and Resistances

Resistance and Conductance Network

Mesophyll Area

Resistance Formulation for Cell Components

Partition Coefficient for CO2

Cell Wall Resistance

Plasmalemma Resistance

Cytosol Resistance

Mesophyll Resistance

Chloroplast Resistance

CO2 Fluxes Accompanying Photosynthesis


Respiration and Photorespiration

Comprehensive CO2 Resistance Network

Compensation Points

Fluxes of CO2

CO2 Conductances

Range in Photosynthetic Rates

Environmental Productivity Indices

Water-Use Efficiency

Values of WUE

Elevational Effects on WUE

Stomatal Control of WUE

C3 versus C4 Plants



9 Plants and Fluxes

Gas Fluxes above the Leaf Canopy

Wind Speed Profiles

Flux Densities

Eddy Diffusion Coefficients

Resistance of Air above the Canopy

Transpiration and Photosynthesis

Values for Fluxes and Concentrations


Gas Fluxes within Plant Communities

Eddy Diffusion Coefficient and Resistance

Water Vapor

Attenuation of PPFD

Values of Foliar Absorption Coefficients

Light Compensation Point

CO2 Concentrations and Fluxes

CO2 at Night


Soil Water Potential

Darcy's Law

Soil Hydraulic Conductivity Coefficient

Fluxes for Cylindrical Symmetry

Fluxes for Spherical Symmetry

Water Movement in the Xylem and the Phloem

Root Tissues

The Xylem

Poiseuille's Law

Applications of Poiseuille's Law

The Phloem

Phloem Contents and Speed of Movement

Mechanism of Phloem Flow

Values for Components of the Phloem Water Potential

The Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Continuum

Values of Water Potential Components

Resistances and Areas

Capacitance and Time Constants

Daily Changes




I Numerical Values of Constants and Coefficients

II Conversion Factors and Definitions

III Mathematical Relations



Quadratic Equation

Trigonometric Functions

Differential Equations

IV Gibbs Free Energy and Chemical Potential

Entropy and Equilibrium

Gibbs Free Energy

Chemical Potential

Pressure Dependence of µ

Concentration Dependence of µ

General References

Solutions to Problems



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