Physical Metallurgy and Advanced Materials - 7th Edition - ISBN: 9780750669061, 9780080552866

Physical Metallurgy and Advanced Materials

7th Edition

Authors: R. E. Smallman A.H.W. Ngan
Hardcover ISBN: 9780750669061
eBook ISBN: 9780080552866
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 9th October 2007
Page Count: 672
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Physical Metallurgy and Advanced Materials, Seventh Edition, discusses the fundamental principles of metallurgy and materials science. The present volume emerged from earlier editions of Modern Physical Metallurgy (1962, 1970, 1985) and later editions of Modern Physical Metallurgy and Materials Engineering (1995, 1999). Presentations and content have been updated, and each chapter ends with a set of questions to enable readers to apply the scientific concepts presented in the chapter, as well as emphasize important material properties. Topics covered include atoms and atomic arrangements, phase equilibria and structure, crystal defects, characterization and analysis of materials, and physical and mechanical properties of materials. The chapters also examine the properties of materials, such as advanced alloys, ceramics, glass, polymers, plastics, composites, biomaterials, sports materials, and nanomaterials.

Key Features

  • Renowned coverage of metals and alloys, plus other materials classes including ceramics and polymers.
  • Updated coverage of sports materials, biomaterials and nanomaterials.
  • Covers new materials characterization techniques, including scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and nanoindentation.
  • Easy to navigate with contents split into logical groupings: fundamentals, metals and alloys, nonmetals, processing and applications.
  • Detailed worked examples with real-world applications.
  • Rich pedagogy includes extensive homework exercises.


Mid/senior undergraduate and graduate students taking courses in metallurgy, materials science, physical metallurgy, mechanical engineering, biomedical engineering, physics, manufacturing engineering and related courses

Table of Contents


About the authors


Illustration credits

Chapter 1 Atoms and atomic arrangements

1.1 The realm of materials science

1.2 The free atom

1.2.1 The four electron quantum numbers

1.2.2 Nomenclature for the electronic states

1.3 The Periodic Table

1.4 Interatomic bonding in materials

1.5 Bonding and energy levels

1.6 Crystal lattices and structures

1.7 Crystal directions and planes

1.8 Stereographic projection

1.9 Selected crystal structures

1.9.1 Pure metals

1.9.2 Diamond and graphite

1.9.3 Coordination in ionic crystals

1.9.4 AB-type compounds

Chapter 2 Phase equilibria and structure

2.1 Crystallization from the melt

2.1.1 Freezing of a pure metal

2.1.2 Plane-front and dendritic solidification at a cooled surface

2.1.3 Forms of cast structure

2.1.4 Gas porosity and segregation

2.1.5 Directional solidification

2.1.6 Production of metallic single crystals for research

2.2 Principles and applications of phase diagrams

2.2.1 The concept of a phase

2.2.2 The Phase Rule

2.2.3 Stability of phases

2.2.4 Two-phase equilibria

2.2.5 Three-phase equilibria and reactions

2.2.6 Intermediate phases

2.2.7 Limitations of phase diagrams

2.2.8 Some key phase diagrams

2.2.9 Ternary phase diagrams

2.3 Principles of alloy theory

2.3.1 Primary substitutional solid solutions

2.3.2 Interstitial solid solutions

2.3.3 Types of intermediate phases

2.3.4 Order–disorder phenomena

2.4 The mechanism of phase changes

2.4.1 Kinetic considerations

2.4.2 Homogeneous nucleation

2.4.3 Heterogeneous nucleation

2.4.4 Nucleation in solids

Chapter 3 Crystal defects

3.1 Types of imperfection

3.2 Point defects

3.2.1 Point defects in metals

3.2.2 Point defects in non-metallic crystals

3.2.3 Irradiation of solids

3.2.4 Point defect concentration and annealing

3.3 Line defects

3.3.1 Concept of a dislocation

3.3.2 Edge and screw dislocations

3.3.3 The Burgers vector

3.3.4 Mechanisms of slip and climb

3.3.5 Strain energy associated with dislocations

3.3.6 Dislocations in ionic structures

3.4 Planar defects

3.4.1 Grain boundaries

3.4.2 Twin boundaries

3.4.3 Extended dislocations and stacking faults in close-packed crystals

3.5 Volume defects

3.5.1 Void formation and annealing

3.5.2 Irradiation and voiding

3.5.3 Voiding and fracture

3.6 Defect behavior in common crystal structures

3.6.1 Dislocation vector diagrams and the Thompson tetrahedron

3.6.2 Dislocations and stacking faults in fcc structures

3.6.3 Dislocations and stacking faults in cph structures

3.6.4 Dislocations and stacking faults in bcc structures

3.6.5 Dislocations and stacking faults in ordered structures

3.7 Stability of defects

3.7.1 Dislocation loops

3.7.2 Voids

3.7.3 Nuclear irradiation effects

Chapter 4 Characterization and analysis

4.1 Tools of characterization

4.2 Light microscopy

4.2.1 Basic principles

4.2.2 Selected microscopical techniques

4.3 X-ray diffraction analysis

4.3.1 Production and absorption of X-rays

4.3.2 Diffraction of X-rays by crystals

4.3.3 X-ray diffraction methods

4.3.4 Typical interpretative procedures for diffraction patterns

4.4 Analytical electron microscopy

4.4.1 Interaction of an electron beam with a solid

4.4.2 The transmission electron microscope (TEM)

4.4.3 The scanning electron microscope

4.4.4 Theoretical aspects of TEM

4.4.5 Chemical microanalysis

4.4.6 Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS)

4.4.7 Auger electron spectroscopy (AES)

4.5 Observation of defects

4.5.1 Etch pitting

4.5.2 Dislocation decoration

4.5.3 Dislocation strain contrast in TEM

4.5.4 Contrast from crystals

4.5.5 Imaging of dislocations

4.5.6 Imaging of stacking faults

4.5.7 Application of dynamical theory

4.5.8 Weak-beam microscopy

4.6 Scanning probe microscopy

4.6.1 Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM)

4.6.2 Atomic force microscopy (AFM)

4.6.3 Applications of SPM

4.6.4 Nanoindentation

4.7 Specialized bombardment techniques

4.7.1 Neutron diffraction

4.7.2 Synchrotron radiation studies

4.7.3 Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS)

4.8 Thermal analysis

4.8.1 General capabilities of thermal analysis

4.8.2 Thermogravimetric analysis

4.8.3 Differential thermal analysis

4.8.4 Differential scanning calorimetry

Chapter 5 Physical properties

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Density

5.3 Thermal properties

5.3.1 Thermal expansion

5.3.2 Specific heat capacity

5.3.3 The specific heat curve and transformations

5.3.4 Free energy of transformation

5.4 Diffusion

5.4.1 Diffusion laws

5.4.2 Mechanisms of diffusion

5.4.3 Factors affecting diffusion

5.5 Anelasticity and internal friction

5.6 Ordering in alloys

5.6.1 Long-range and short-range order

5.6.2 Detection of ordering

5.6.3 Influence of ordering on properties

5.7 Electrical properties

5.7.1 Electrical conductivity

5.7.2 Semiconductors

5.7.3 Hall effect

5.7.4 Superconductivity

5.7.5 Oxide superconductors

5.8 Magnetic properties

5.8.1 Magnetic susceptibility

5.8.2 Diamagnetism and paramagnetism

5.8.3 Ferromagnetism

5.8.4 Magnetic alloys

5.8.5 Anti-ferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism

5.9 Dielectric materials

5.9.1 Polarization

5.9.2 Capacitors and insulators

5.9.3 Piezoelectric materials

5.9.4 Pyroelectric and ferroelectric materials

5.10 Optical properties

5.10.1 Reflection, absorption and transmission effects

5.10.2 Optical fibers

5.10.3 Lasers

5.10.4 Ceramic ‘windows’

5.10.5 Electro-optic ceramics

Chapter 6 Mechanical properties I

6.1 Mechanical testing procedures

6.1.1 Introduction

6.1.2 The tensile test

6.1.3 Indentation hardness testing

6.1.4 Impact testing

6.1.5 Creep testing

6.1.6 Fatigue testing

6.2 Elastic deformation

6.3 Plastic deformation

6.3.1 Slip and twinning

6.3.2 Resolved shear stress

6.3.3 Relation of slip to crystal structure

6.3.4 Law of critical resolved shear stress

6.3.5 Multiple slip

6.3.6 Relation between work hardening and slip

6.4 Dislocation behavior during plastic deformation

6.4.1 Dislocation mobility

6.4.2 Variation of yield stress with temperature and strain rate

6.4.3 Dislocation source operation

6.4.4 Discontinuous yielding

6.4.5 Yield points and crystal structure

6.4.6 Discontinuous yielding in ordered alloys

6.4.7 Solute–dislocation interaction

6.4.8 Dislocation locking and temperature

6.4.9 Inhomogeneity interaction

6.4.10 Kinetics of strain ageing

6.4.11 Influence of grain boundaries on plasticity

6.4.12 Superplasticity

6.5 Mechanical twinning

6.5.1 Crystallography of twinning

6.5.2 Nucleation and growth of twins

6.5.3 Effect of impurities on twinning

6.5.4 Effect of prestrain on twinning

6.5.5 Dislocation mechanism of twinning

6.5.6 Twinning and fracture

6.6 Strengthening and hardening mechanisms

6.6.1 Point defect hardening

6.6.2 Work hardening

6.6.3 Development of preferred orientation

6.7 Macroscopic plasticity

6.7.1 Tresca and von Mises criteria

6.7.2 Effective stress and strain

6.8 Annealing

6.8.1 General effects of annealing

6.8.2 Recovery

6.8.3 Recrystallization

6.8.4 Grain growth

6.8.5 Annealing twins

6.8.6 Recrystallization textures

6.9 Metallic creep

6.9.1 Transient and steady-state creep

6.9.2 Grain boundary contribution to creep

6.9.3 Tertiary creep and fracture

6.9.4 Creep-resistant alloy design

6.10 Deformation mechanism maps

6.11 Metallic fatigue

6.11.1 Nature of fatigue failure

6.11.2 Engineering aspects of fatigue

6.11.3 Structural changes accompanying fatigue

6.11.4 Crack formation and fatigue failure

6.11.5 Fatigue at elevated temperatures

Chapter 7 Mechanical properties II – Strengthening and toughening

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Strengthening of non-ferrous alloys by heat treatment

7.2.1 Precipitation hardening of Al–Cu alloys

7.2.2 Precipitation hardening of Al–Ag alloys

7.2.3 Mechanisms of precipitation hardening

7.2.4 Vacancies and precipitation

7.2.5 Duplex ageing

7.2.6 Particle coarsening

7.2.7 Spinodal decomposition

7.3 Strengthening of steels by heat treatment

7.3.1 Time–temperature–transformation diagrams

7.3.2 Austenite–pearlite transformation

7.3.3 Austenite–martensite transformation

7.3.4 Austenite–bainite transformation

7.3.5 Tempering of martensite

7.3.6 Thermomechanical treatments

7.4 Fracture and toughness

7.4.1 Griffith microcrack criterion

7.4.2 Fracture toughness

7.4.3 Cleavage and the ductile–brittle transition

7.4.4 Factors affecting brittleness of steels

7.4.5 Hydrogen embrittlement of steels

7.4.6 Intergranular fracture

7.4.7 Ductile failure

7.4.8 Rupture

7.4.9 Voiding and fracture at elevated temperatures

7.4.10 Fracture mechanism maps

7.4.11 Crack growth under fatigue conditions

7.5 Atomistic modeling of mechanical behavior

7.5.1 Multiscale modeling

7.5.2 Atomistic simulations of defects

Chapter 8 Advanced alloys

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Commercial steels

8.2.1 Plain carbon steels

8.2.2 Alloy steels

8.2.3 Maraging steels

8.2.4 High-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steels

8.2.5 Dual-phase (DP) steels

8.2.6 Mechanically alloyed (MA) steels

8.2.7 Designation of steels

8.3 Cast irons

8.4 Superalloys

8.4.1 Basic alloying features

8.4.2 Nickel-based superalloy development

8.4.3 Dispersion-hardened superalloys

8.5 Titanium alloys

8.5.1 Basic alloying and heat-treatment features

8.5.2 Commercial titanium alloys

8.5.3 Processing of titanium alloys

8.6 Structural intermetallic compounds

8.6.1 General properties of intermetallic compounds

8.6.2 Nickel aluminides

8.6.3 Titanium aluminides

8.6.4 Other intermetallic compounds

8.7 Aluminum alloys

8.7.1 Designation of aluminum alloys

8.7.2 Applications of aluminum alloys

8.7.3 Aluminum–lithium alloys

8.7.4 Processing developments

Chapter 9 Oxidation, corrosion and surface treatment

9.1 The engineering importance of surfaces

9.2 Metallic corrosion

9.2.1 Oxidation at high temperatures

9.2.2 Aqueous corrosion

9.3 Surface engineering

9.3.1 The coating and modification of surfaces

9.3.2 Surface coating by vapor deposition

9.3.3 Surface coating by particle bombardment

9.3.4 Surface modification with high-energy beams

9.4 Thermal barrier coatings

9.5 Diamond-like carbon

9.6 Duplex surface engineering

Chapter 10 Non-metallics I – Ceramics, glass, glass-ceramics

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Sintering of ceramic powders

10.2.1 Powdering and shaping

10.2.2 Sintering

10.3 Some engineering and commercial ceramics

10.3.1 Alumina

10.3.2 Silica

10.3.3 Silicates

10.3.4 Perovskites, titanates and spinels

10.3.5 Silicon carbide

10.3.6 Silicon nitride

10.3.7 Sialons

10.3.8 Zirconia

10.4 Glasses

10.4.1 Structure and characteristics

10.4.2 Processing and properties

10.4.3 Glass-ceramics

10.5 Carbon

10.5.1 Diamond

10.5.2 Graphite

10.5.3 Fullerenes and related nanostructures

10.6 Strength of ceramics and glasses

10.6.1 Strength measurement for brittle materials

10.6.2 Statistical nature and size dependence of strength

10.6.3 Stress corrosion cracking of ceramics and glasses

10.7 A case study: thermal protection system in space shuttle orbiter

Chapter 11 Non-metallics II – Polymers, plastics, composites

11.1 Polymer molecules

11.2 Molecular weight

11.3 Polymer shape and structure

11.4 Polymer crystallinity

11.5 Polymer crystals

11.6 Mechanical behavior

11.6.1 Deformation

11.6.2 Viscoelasticity

11.6.3 Fracture

11.7 Plastics and additives

11.8 Polymer processing

11.9 Electrical properties

11.10 Composites

11.10.1 Particulate composites

11.10.2 Fiber-reinforced composites

11.10.3 Fiber orientations

11.10.4 Influence of fiber length

11.10.5 Composite fibers

11.10.6 Polymer–matrix composites (PMCs)

11.10.7 Metal–matrix composites (MMCs)

11.10.8 Ceramic–matrix composites (CMCs)

Chapter 12 Case examination of biomaterials, sports materials and nanomaterials

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Biomaterials

12.2.1 Introduction and bio-requirements

12.2.2 Introduction to bone and tissue

12.2.3 Case consideration of replacement joints

12.2.4 Biomaterials for heart repair

12.2.5 Reconstructive surgery

12.2.6 Ophthalmics

12.2.7 Dental materials

12.2.8 Drug delivery systems

12.3 Sports materials

12.3.1 Introduction

12.3.2 Golf equipment

12.3.3 Tennis equipment

12.3.4 Bicycles

12.3.5 Skiing materials

12.3.6 Archery

12.3.7 Fencing foils

12.3.8 Sports protection

12.4 Materials for nanotechnology

12.4.1 Introduction

12.4.2 Nanoparticles

12.4.3 Fullerenes and nanotubes

12.4.4 Quantum wells, wires and dots

12.4.5 Bulk nanostructured solids

12.4.6 Mechanical properties of small material volumes

12.4.7 Bio-nanotechnology

Numerical answers to problems

Appendix 1 SI units

Appendix 2 Conversion factors, constants and physical data



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About the Author

R. E. Smallman

After gaining his PhD in 1953, Professor Smallman spent five years at the Atomic Energy Research

Establishment at Harwell before returning to the University of Birmingham, where he became Professor

of Physical Metallurgy in 1964 and Feeney Professor and Head of the Department of Physical

Metallurgy and Science of Materials in 1969. He subsequently became Head of the amalgamated

Department of Metallurgy and Materials (1981), Dean of the Faculty of Science and Engineering, and

the first Dean of the newly created Engineering Faculty in 1985. For five years he wasVice-Principal

of the University (1987-92).

He has held visiting professorship appointments at the University of Stanford, Berkeley, Pennsylvania

(USA), New SouthWales (Australia), Hong Kong and Cape Town, and has received Honorary

Doctorates from the University of Novi Sad (Yugoslavia), University ofWales and Cranfield University.

His research work has been recognized by the award of the Sir George Beilby Gold Medal of the

Royal Institute of Chemistry and Institute of Metals (1969), the Rosenhain Medal of the Institute of

Metals for contributions to Physical Metallurgy (1972), the Platinum Medal, the premier medal of

the Institute of Materials (1989), and the Acta Materialia Gold Medal (2004).

Hewas elected a Fellowof the Royal Society (1986), a Fellowof the RoyalAcademy of Engineering

(1990), a Foreign Associate of the United States National Academy of Engineering (2005), and

appointed a Commander of the British Empire (CBE) in 1992. A former Council Member of the

Science and Engineering Research Council, he has been Vice-President of the Institute of Materials

and President of the Federated European Materials Societies. Since retirement he has been academic

consultant for a number of institutions both in the UK and overseas.

Affiliations and Expertise

Emeritus Professor of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Department of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, UK

A.H.W. Ngan

Professor Ngan obtained his PhD on electron microscopy of intermetallics in 1992 at the University

of Birmingham, under the supervision of Professor Ray Smallman and Professor Ian Jones. He then

carried out postdoctoral research at Oxford University on materials simulations under the supervision

of Professor David Pettifor. In 1993, he returned to the University of Hong Kong as a Lecturer in

Materials Science and Solid Mechanics, at the Department of Mechanical Engineering. In 2003,

he became Senior Lecturer and in 2006 Professor. His research interests include dislocation theory,

electron microscopy of materials and, more recently, nanomechanics. He has published over 120

refereed papers, mostly in international journals. He received a number of awards, including the

Williamson Prize (for being the top Engineering student in his undergraduate studies at the University

of Hong Kong), Thomas Turner Research Prize (for the quality of his PhD thesis at the University of

Birmingham), Outstanding Young Researcher Award at the University of Hong Kong, and in 2007

was awarded the Rosenhain Medal of the Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining. He also held

visiting professorship appointments at Nanjing University and the Central Iron and Steel Research

Institute in Beijing, and in 2003, he was also awarded the Universitas 21 Fellowship to visit the

University of Auckland. He is active in conference organization and journal editorial work.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Hong Kong