Physical Instrumentation in Medicine and Biology

Physical Instrumentation in Medicine and Biology

1st Edition - January 1, 1966

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  • Author: D. J. Dewhurst
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483180885

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Description

Physical Instrumentation in Medicine and Biology provides a course of study and practical assignments encompassing the basic principles of medical and biological instrumentation and common features of design and construction. The book first offers information on construction design and current, voltage, and resistance. Discussions focus on instrument design, soldering, resistors, noise in resistors, combinations of resistors, and batteries. The publication then ponders on meters, potentiometer and Wheatstone bridge, and alternating currents. The manuscript takes a look at capacitance, inductance, and transistor amplifier. Topics include condensers as used in electronic equipment, charge and discharge of condenser-resistor combination, measurement of capacitance, calculation of impedances in series, saturation, transistor output characteristic, stability, and selection of transistor types. The publication then examines valve amplifier, power supplies, regulated power supplies, and cathode ray tube. The transfer characteristics of triode, pentodes, valve amplifier, types of rectifier circuit, and filtering are discussed. The book is a valuable reference for readers interested in physical instrumentation in medicine and biology.

Table of Contents


  • Foreword

    1 Construction Practice

    Seminar

    Instrument Assemblies

    Functional Design, Finish, Cooling, Safety, Dust Protection

    Internal Construction

    Sheet-Metal Working

    Soldering, Heat Sinks

    Practical

    Assembly of Leads

    Assembly of Components on Chassis (Triode Amplifier) and on Matrix Board (Calibrator Unit)

    2 Current, Voltage and Resistance

    Seminar

    Definitions

    Ohm's Law

    Power Dissipation

    Resistors, Series and Parallel Connection

    Voltage Divider

    Batteries

    Practical

    Ohm's Law; Varying EMF and Resistance

    Power Dissipation

    3 Meters

    Seminar

    Basic Moving-Coil Meter; Use as Ammeter, Voltmeter, Ohmmeter

    The Multimeter

    Practical

    Construction of Multimeter

    Current, Voltage and Resistance Ranges, Calibration and Testing

    4 The Potentiometer and Wheatstone Bridge

    Seminar

    Potentiometer

    Use as Accurate Potential Source, and for Potential Measurement

    Recording Potentiometer

    Thermocouple Thermometry

    Wheatstone Bridge

    Resistance Measurement

    Resistance Thermometry

    Use as Pseudo-Bridge

    Thermistors

    Practical

    Copper-Constantan Thermocouple Used to Test Heat Sink

    Thermistor Thermometer Construction and Calibration

    Use of Sensitive Thermocouple Thermometer, and of Recording Potentiometer as Thermometer

    5 Alternating Currents

    Seminar

    Generation by Rotating Coil in Field; Slip Rings

    Peak and RMS Voltages and Currents

    Power

    Diode Series Rectification, Average Reading Meter

    Shunt Rectification

    Full-Wave Bridge Rectification

    Practical

    DC Voltmeter Reading from Slow- and Fast-Turning AC Generator

    Series and Shunt Rectification

    Bridge Rectification, RMS Calibration of Rectifier Meter

    6 Capacitance

    Seminar

    Storage of Charge, Capacitance

    Condensers, Ratings, Types

    Charge and Discharge of Condenser-Resistor Combination: Time Constant

    AC on Condenser: Concept of Impedance

    Measurement of Capacitance

    Practical

    Plot of RC Charge and Discharge Curves: Measurement of Time Constant

    DC Meter in Series with Condenser on AC Generator

    Capacitance Bridge: Calibration and Use

    7 Inductance

    Seminar

    Self-inductance

    Henry

    Effect of Core: Core Materials

    Magnetic Charge and Discharge of Inductor-Resistor Combination

    AC on Inductor: Impedance

    Transformer

    AC on Transformer

    Matching

    Saturation: Effect of Frequency

    Practical

    Plot of LC Charge and Discharge Curves

    Resistance and Impedance of an Inductor

    Transformer Secondary Voltage When Primary Current is Varied

    Operation of Transformer on AC

    8 Transistor Amplifier

    Seminar

    Semiconductors; The PN Junction

    The Transistor

    Transfer Characteristic, Output Characteristic

    The Transistor Amplifier, Temperature Stability

    Heat Sinks

    Selection of Transistor Types

    Practical

    Measurement of Transfer Characteristic of a Transistor

    Experimental Amplifier; Setting of Operating Conditions

    Temperature Stability, Gain

    Transistor Tester

    9 Valve Amplifier

    Seminar

    Thermionic Diode, Triode

    Transfer Characteristic, Plate Characteristic

    Valve parameters

    Triode Amplifier

    Bias

    Resistance Coupling, Direct Coupling

    Pentodes

    Selection of Valve Types

    Practical

    Transfer Characteristic of 12AU7 Triode

    Plate Characteristic and Parameters, Load Line

    Triode Amplifier

    Bias and Coupling

    Gain and DC levels

    Valve Tester

    10 Power Supplies

    Seminar

    Types of Power Rectifier Circuit

    Ripple, Filtering

    Regulation Curves

    Practical

    Wiring of Positive Voltage Doubler Rectifier in Power Supply

    Plotting of Regulation Curves

    Waveforms in Half-Wave Rectifier Supply

    11 Regulated Power Supplies

    Seminar

    Need for Regulation

    VR Tube Regulation, Series Valve Regulation, Zener Diode Regulation, Series Transistor Regulation

    Practical (Two Days will be Required)

    Wiring of Negative Rectifier in Power Supply, VR Regulation

    Wiring of Positive Regulator

    Test of Regulation of Complete Supply

    12 Cathode Ray Tube

    Seminar

    Structure of CRT

    Precautions

    EHT Supply, Bleed Network

    Electrostatic and Magnetic Deflection

    Magnetic Shielding

    X Deflection, Y Deflection, Both Simultaneously

    Sensitivity; Use as DC and AC Voltmeter

    Practical

    Construction of Oscilloscope EHT Supply and of Bleed Network; Formation of Spot

    Magnetic Deflection, Effect of Shield

    Electrostatic Deflection with Battery in X Direction, and in Y Direction

    Waveforms in LC Oscillator Plate Circuit and in Very Low-Frequency Parallel Resonant Circuit

    13 Balanced Output Amplifier

    Seminar

    Requirements for a CRT Driver Amplifier

    Use of Balanced Amplifier

    Astigmatism

    Practical

    Construction of Horizontal and Vertical Driver Amplifiers in Oscilloscope

    Astigmatism Control

    Lissajous Figures

    14 Cathode Follower, Emitter Follower

    Seminar

    General Description

    The Cathode Follower; Deduction of DC Characteristics

    Gain

    Limits of Linear Operation

    Bias Methods

    The Emitter Follower

    Cascaded Emitter Followers

    Practical

    Plot of Characteristics of 12AU7 Cathode Follower

    Measurement of Gain and Output Resistance

    Plot of Characteristics of Emitter Follower

    Inclusion of DC 12AU7 Cathode Followers in Oscilloscope X and Y Amplifiers

    15 Time Base Generation

    Seminar

    Function of a Time Base; Sawtooth Generation

    Bootstrap Capacitance Multiplication

    Transistor Time Bases

    Practical

    Time Base with Cathode Follower Alone

    CF as a Bootstrap; Capacitance Multiplication

    Installation of Time Base and Push-Button Reset; Testing and Calibration

    16 Astable Multivibrator

    Seminar

    Transistor as a Switch, Valve as a Switch

    Multivibrator—Types and Applications

    Operation of Transistor Astable Multivibrator

    Pulse Duration

    Differentiating Circuit

    Practical

    Experimental Astable Multivibrator; Examination of Waveforms

    17 Monostable Multivibrator

    Seminar

    Transistor Monostable Multivibrator

    Triggering

    Valve Monostable Multivibrator

    Triggering

    Practical

    Experimental Monostable Multivibrator; Examination of Waveforms Produced

    Installation of Monostable Multivibrator, Trigger Injector and Gate Valve in Oscilloscope Under Construction

    18 Bistable Multivibrator

    Seminar

    Transistor Bistable Multivibrator

    Triggering

    Scale-of-Two Circuit

    Beam Control Switch

    Valve Bistable Multivibrator

    Practical

    Experimental Bistable Multivibrator, and Examination of Waveforms Produced

    Scale-of-Two Circuit

    Installation of Beam Control Switch in the Oscilloscope Under Construction

    19 High-Frequency Response

    Seminar

    Low-Pass RC Filter

    Transmission, Cut-Off Frequency

    Decibels

    Cascaded Filters

    High-Frequency Response of Amplifier

    Transient Response, Rise Time

    Practical

    Transmission of Low-Pass RC Filter

    Transient Response

    High-Frequency Response of Oscilloscope, Effect of Input Gain Control

    High-Frequency Response of ECG

    20 Low-Frequency Response

    Seminar

    High-Pass RC Filter

    Transmission, Cut-Off Frequency

    Low-Frequency Response of Amplifier

    Transient Response, Percentage Sag

    Differentiating Circuit

    Response Requirement for Bioelectric Signals

    Practical

    Transmission of High-Pass RC Filter

    Transient Response

    Low-Frequency Response of Transistor Amplifier

    Low-Frequency Response of ECG

    21 Recording from Tissue

    Seminar

    Electrode Systems

    Recording from a Bulk Medium

    Concept of Rejection

    Differential Amplifiers

    In-Phase and Out-of-Phase Gain

    Adjustment of Rejection

    Practical

    Construction of Biological Preamplifier, Excluding Filters

    Recording of ECG

    22 Tissue Stimulation

    Seminar

    Strength-Duration Curves

    Tissue Resistance, Electrode Pastes

    Stimulating Waveforms

    Stimulus Isolation Units

    Cardiac Defibrillators

    Practical

    Addition of Filters to Biological Preamplifier, and Measurement of Response

    Recording of ECG, and Effect of Incorrect Frequency Response

    23 Geiger Counter, Ratemeter

    Seminar

    Detection of Beta and Gamma Radiation

    Operation of Geiger Tube

    Paralysis Time and Background Corrections

    Diode Pump Ratemeter

    EHT supplies

    Practical

    Construction of Portable Geiger Counter and Power Supply

    Diode Pump Circuit

    Typical Rules for a Radiochemical Laboratory

    24 Scintillation Counter, Scaler

    Seminar

    Scintillation Counter and Preamplifier

    Linear Amplifier

    Schmitt Discriminator

    Pulse Height Analysis

    Sealers

    Statistics of Counting

    Practical

    Construction and Calibration of Schmitt Discriminator

    Statistics of Counting

    25 Regulated Systems

    Seminar

    Nature of a Regulated System; Heated Water Bath as Example

    Unregulated System Behavior

    Effect of Addition of On-Off Control; Independence of Environment

    Proportional Control

    Damping

    Practical

    Properties of Heated Water Bath

    Effect of Excessive Heating Power

    Physiological Regulated System

    Regulated System Including Operator and Machine

    26 Transducers

    Seminar

    Displacement: Potentiometer, Differential Transformer, Variable Inductor or Condenser, Photoelectric

    Velocity: Moving Coil, Flowmeters

    Force: Resistance Strain Gauge, Piezoelectric, Valve

    Blood Pressure Measurement: Frequency Response

    Tabulation of Transducer Types

    Practical

    Construction of LVDT

    Construction of Moiré Graticules

    Demonstration of Available Transducers

    27 Transmission and Storage of Data

    Seminar

    Communication Theory: Application to Assimilation of Data by an Observer

    Storage Devices: Potentiometric Recorder, Pen Recorder, Film (Moving and Stationary), Tape, Memory Devices

    Averaging to Improve Signal-to-Noise Ratio

    Tabulation of Storage Systems

    Practical

    Display of Vectocardiogram on Oscilloscope (Two Preamplifiers)

    Measurements on Available Data Storage Devices

    28 Some Biological Analytical Methods

    Seminar

    Sodium, Potassium, Calcium Ions

    Chloride Ion

    Gas Analysis: pO2,pCO2, Nitrogen

    pH Measurement, Extension to pNa, pK

    Practical

    CO2 and O2 Analysis of Respiratory Samples

    Flame Spectrophotometer; Estimation of Sodium and Potassium in Plasma Sample

    Electrometric Estimation of Chloride

    Standardization and Use of pH Meter

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 216
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1966
  • Published: January 1, 1966
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483180885

About the Author

D. J. Dewhurst

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