Physical Instrumentation in Medicine and Biology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080113463, 9781483180885

Physical Instrumentation in Medicine and Biology

1st Edition

Authors: D. J. Dewhurst
eBook ISBN: 9781483180885
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1966
Page Count: 216
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Description

Physical Instrumentation in Medicine and Biology provides a course of study and practical assignments encompassing the basic principles of medical and biological instrumentation and common features of design and construction.

The book first offers information on construction design and current, voltage, and resistance. Discussions focus on instrument design, soldering, resistors, noise in resistors, combinations of resistors, and batteries. The publication then ponders on meters, potentiometer and Wheatstone bridge, and alternating currents.

The manuscript takes a look at capacitance, inductance, and transistor amplifier. Topics include condensers as used in electronic equipment, charge and discharge of condenser-resistor combination, measurement of capacitance, calculation of impedances in series, saturation, transistor output characteristic, stability, and selection of transistor types. The publication then examines valve amplifier, power supplies, regulated power supplies, and cathode ray tube. The transfer characteristics of triode, pentodes, valve amplifier, types of rectifier circuit, and filtering are discussed.

The book is a valuable reference for readers interested in physical instrumentation in medicine and biology.

Table of Contents


Foreword

1 Construction Practice

Seminar

Instrument Assemblies

Functional Design, Finish, Cooling, Safety, Dust Protection

Internal Construction

Sheet-Metal Working

Soldering, Heat Sinks

Practical

Assembly of Leads

Assembly of Components on Chassis (Triode Amplifier) and on Matrix Board (Calibrator Unit)

2 Current, Voltage and Resistance

Seminar

Definitions

Ohm's Law

Power Dissipation

Resistors, Series and Parallel Connection

Voltage Divider

Batteries

Practical

Ohm's Law; Varying EMF and Resistance

Power Dissipation

3 Meters

Seminar

Basic Moving-Coil Meter; Use as Ammeter, Voltmeter, Ohmmeter

The Multimeter

Practical

Construction of Multimeter

Current, Voltage and Resistance Ranges, Calibration and Testing

4 The Potentiometer and Wheatstone Bridge

Seminar

Potentiometer

Use as Accurate Potential Source, and for Potential Measurement

Recording Potentiometer

Thermocouple Thermometry

Wheatstone Bridge

Resistance Measurement

Resistance Thermometry

Use as Pseudo-Bridge

Thermistors

Practical

Copper-Constantan Thermocouple Used to Test Heat Sink

Thermistor Thermometer Construction and Calibration

Use of Sensitive Thermocouple Thermometer, and of Recording Potentiometer as Thermometer

5 Alternating Currents

Seminar

Generation by Rotating Coil in Field; Slip Rings

Peak and RMS Voltages and Currents

Power

Diode Series Rectification, Average Reading Meter

Shunt Rectification

Full-Wave Bridge Rectification

Practical

DC Voltmeter Reading from Slow- and Fast-Turning AC Generator

Series and Shunt Rectification

Bridge Rectification, RMS Calibration of Rectifier Meter

6 Capacitance

Seminar

Storage of Charge, Capacitance

Condensers, Ratings, Types

Charge and Discharge of Condenser-Resistor Combination: Time Constant

AC on Condenser: Concept of Impedance

Measurement of Capacitance

Practical

Plot of RC Charge and Discharge Curves: Measurement of Time Constant

DC Meter in Series with Condenser on AC Generator

Capacitance Bridge: Calibration and Use

7 Inductance

Seminar

Self-inductance

Henry

Effect of Core: Core Materials

Magnetic Charge and Discharge of Inductor-Resistor Combination

AC on Inductor: Impedance

Transformer

AC on Transformer

Matching

Saturation: Effect of Frequency

Practical

Plot of LC Charge and Discharge Curves

Resistance and Impedance of an Inductor

Transformer Secondary Voltage When Primary Current is Varied

Operation of Transformer on AC

8 Transistor Amplifier

Seminar

Semiconductors; The PN Junction

The Transistor

Transfer Characteristic, Output Characteristic

The Transistor Amplifier, Temperature Stability

Heat Sinks

Selection of Transistor Types

Practical

Measurement of Transfer Characteristic of a Transistor

Experimental Amplifier; Setting of Operating Conditions

Temperature Stability, Gain

Transistor Tester

9 Valve Amplifier

Seminar

Thermionic Diode, Triode

Transfer Characteristic, Plate Characteristic

Valve parameters

Triode Amplifier

Bias

Resistance Coupling, Direct Coupling

Pentodes

Selection of Valve Types

Practical

Transfer Characteristic of 12AU7 Triode

Plate Characteristic and Parameters, Load Line

Triode Amplifier

Bias and Coupling

Gain and DC levels

Valve Tester

10 Power Supplies

Seminar

Types of Power Rectifier Circuit

Ripple, Filtering

Regulation Curves

Practical

Wiring of Positive Voltage Doubler Rectifier in Power Supply

Plotting of Regulation Curves

Waveforms in Half-Wave Rectifier Supply

11 Regulated Power Supplies

Seminar

Need for Regulation

VR Tube Regulation, Series Valve Regulation, Zener Diode Regulation, Series Transistor Regulation

Practical (Two Days will be Required)

Wiring of Negative Rectifier in Power Supply, VR Regulation

Wiring of Positive Regulator

Test of Regulation of Complete Supply

12 Cathode Ray Tube

Seminar

Structure of CRT

Precautions

EHT Supply, Bleed Network

Electrostatic and Magnetic Deflection

Magnetic Shielding

X Deflection, Y Deflection, Both Simultaneously

Sensitivity; Use as DC and AC Voltmeter

Practical

Construction of Oscilloscope EHT Supply and of Bleed Network; Formation of Spot

Magnetic Deflection, Effect of Shield

Electrostatic Deflection with Battery in X Direction, and in Y Direction

Waveforms in LC Oscillator Plate Circuit and in Very Low-Frequency Parallel Resonant Circuit

13 Balanced Output Amplifier

Seminar

Requirements for a CRT Driver Amplifier

Use of Balanced Amplifier

Astigmatism

Practical

Construction of Horizontal and Vertical Driver Amplifiers in Oscilloscope

Astigmatism Control

Lissajous Figures

14 Cathode Follower, Emitter Follower

Seminar

General Description

The Cathode Follower; Deduction of DC Characteristics

Gain

Limits of Linear Operation

Bias Methods

The Emitter Follower

Cascaded Emitter Followers

Practical

Plot of Characteristics of 12AU7 Cathode Follower

Measurement of Gain and Output Resistance

Plot of Characteristics of Emitter Follower

Inclusion of DC 12AU7 Cathode Followers in Oscilloscope X and Y Amplifiers

15 Time Base Generation

Seminar

Function of a Time Base; Sawtooth Generation

Bootstrap Capacitance Multiplication

Transistor Time Bases

Practical

Time Base with Cathode Follower Alone

CF as a Bootstrap; Capacitance Multiplication

Installation of Time Base and Push-Button Reset; Testing and Calibration

16 Astable Multivibrator

Seminar

Transistor as a Switch, Valve as a Switch

Multivibrator—Types and Applications

Operation of Transistor Astable Multivibrator

Pulse Duration

Differentiating Circuit

Practical

Experimental Astable Multivibrator; Examination of Waveforms

17 Monostable Multivibrator

Seminar

Transistor Monostable Multivibrator

Triggering

Valve Monostable Multivibrator

Triggering

Practical

Experimental Monostable Multivibrator; Examination of Waveforms Produced

Installation of Monostable Multivibrator, Trigger Injector and Gate Valve in Oscilloscope Under Construction

18 Bistable Multivibrator

Seminar

Transistor Bistable Multivibrator

Triggering

Scale-of-Two Circuit

Beam Control Switch

Valve Bistable Multivibrator

Practical

Experimental Bistable Multivibrator, and Examination of Waveforms Produced

Scale-of-Two Circuit

Installation of Beam Control Switch in the Oscilloscope Under Construction

19 High-Frequency Response

Seminar

Low-Pass RC Filter

Transmission, Cut-Off Frequency

Decibels

Cascaded Filters

High-Frequency Response of Amplifier

Transient Response, Rise Time

Practical

Transmission of Low-Pass RC Filter

Transient Response

High-Frequency Response of Oscilloscope, Effect of Input Gain Control

High-Frequency Response of ECG

20 Low-Frequency Response

Seminar

High-Pass RC Filter

Transmission, Cut-Off Frequency

Low-Frequency Response of Amplifier

Transient Response, Percentage Sag

Differentiating Circuit

Response Requirement for Bioelectric Signals

Practical

Transmission of High-Pass RC Filter

Transient Response

Low-Frequency Response of Transistor Amplifier

Low-Frequency Response of ECG

21 Recording from Tissue

Seminar

Electrode Systems

Recording from a Bulk Medium

Concept of Rejection

Differential Amplifiers

In-Phase and Out-of-Phase Gain

Adjustment of Rejection

Practical

Construction of Biological Preamplifier, Excluding Filters

Recording of ECG

22 Tissue Stimulation

Seminar

Strength-Duration Curves

Tissue Resistance, Electrode Pastes

Stimulating Waveforms

Stimulus Isolation Units

Cardiac Defibrillators

Practical

Addition of Filters to Biological Preamplifier, and Measurement of Response

Recording of ECG, and Effect of Incorrect Frequency Response

23 Geiger Counter, Ratemeter

Seminar

Detection of Beta and Gamma Radiation

Operation of Geiger Tube

Paralysis Time and Background Corrections

Diode Pump Ratemeter

EHT supplies

Practical

Construction of Portable Geiger Counter and Power Supply

Diode Pump Circuit

Typical Rules for a Radiochemical Laboratory

24 Scintillation Counter, Scaler

Seminar

Scintillation Counter and Preamplifier

Linear Amplifier

Schmitt Discriminator

Pulse Height Analysis

Sealers

Statistics of Counting

Practical

Construction and Calibration of Schmitt Discriminator

Statistics of Counting

25 Regulated Systems

Seminar

Nature of a Regulated System; Heated Water Bath as Example

Unregulated System Behavior

Effect of Addition of On-Off Control; Independence of Environment

Proportional Control

Damping

Practical

Properties of Heated Water Bath

Effect of Excessive Heating Power

Physiological Regulated System

Regulated System Including Operator and Machine

26 Transducers

Seminar

Displacement: Potentiometer, Differential Transformer, Variable Inductor or Condenser, Photoelectric

Velocity: Moving Coil, Flowmeters

Force: Resistance Strain Gauge, Piezoelectric, Valve

Blood Pressure Measurement: Frequency Response

Tabulation of Transducer Types

Practical

Construction of LVDT

Construction of Moiré Graticules

Demonstration of Available Transducers

27 Transmission and Storage of Data

Seminar

Communication Theory: Application to Assimilation of Data by an Observer

Storage Devices: Potentiometric Recorder, Pen Recorder, Film (Moving and Stationary), Tape, Memory Devices

Averaging to Improve Signal-to-Noise Ratio

Tabulation of Storage Systems

Practical

Display of Vectocardiogram on Oscilloscope (Two Preamplifiers)

Measurements on Available Data Storage Devices

28 Some Biological Analytical Methods

Seminar

Sodium, Potassium, Calcium Ions

Chloride Ion

Gas Analysis: pO2,pCO2, Nitrogen

pH Measurement, Extension to pNa, pK

Practical

CO2 and O2 Analysis of Respiratory Samples

Flame Spectrophotometer; Estimation of Sodium and Potassium in Plasma Sample

Electrometric Estimation of Chloride

Standardization and Use of pH Meter

Index

Details

No. of pages:
216
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Pergamon 1966
Published:
Imprint:
Pergamon
eBook ISBN:
9781483180885

About the Author

D. J. Dewhurst