Photosynthesis, Photorespiration, And Plant Productivity

Photosynthesis, Photorespiration, And Plant Productivity

1st Edition - January 28, 1971

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  • Editor: Israel Zelitch
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323154116

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Description

Photosynthesis, Photorespiration, and Plant Productivity provides a basis for understanding the main factors concerned with regulating plant productivity in plant communities. The book describes photosynthesis and other processes that affect the productivity of plants from the standpoint of enzyme chemistry, chloroplasts, leaf cells, and single leaves. Comprised of nine chapters, the book covers the biochemical and photochemical aspects of photosynthesis; respiration associated with photosynthetic tissues; and photosynthesis and plant productivity in single leaves and in stands. It provides illustrated and diagrammatic discussion and presents the concepts in outlined form to help readers understand the concepts efficiently. Moreover, this book explores the rates of enzymatic reactions and the detailed structure and function of chloroplasts and other organelles and their variability. It explains the mechanism of photosynthetic electron transport and phosphorylation and the importance of diffusive resistances to carbon dioxide assimilation, especially the role of stomata. It also discusses the importance of dark respiration in diminishing productivity; the differences in net photosynthesis that occur between many species and varieties; and the influence of climate to photosynthetic reactions. The book is an excellent reference for teachers, as well as undergraduate and graduate students in biology, plant physiology, and agriculture. Research professionals working on the disciplines of plant production and food supply will also find this book invaluable.

Table of Contents


  • Preface

    Acknowledgments

    Conversion Units

    Section I Biochemical and Photochemical Aspects of Photosynthesis

    Chapter 1. Morphology of Leaf Cells

    A. The Cuticle and Surface Waxes

    B. Epidermal Cells

    C. The Cell Wall

    D. Membrane Barrier Systems

    E. The Vacuole

    F. Cytoplasmic Organelles

    Chapter 2. Chloroplasts and Their Various Activities

    A. Variations in Chloroplast Structure

    B. Isolation of Chloroplasts

    C. Chemical Composition of Chloroplasts

    D. Chlorophyll

    E. Chloroplast Genetics

    F. Enzymes Associated with Protein and Lipid Metabolism

    Chapter 3. Photochemistry and Photosynthetic Electron Transport

    A. Photochemistry

    B. Cytochromes of Chloroplasts

    C. The Hill Reaction

    D. Photosynthetic Electron Transport

    E. Photosynthetic Phosphorylation

    Chapter 4. Biochemical Pathways of C02 Fixation in Photosynthesis

    A. Earlier Hypotheses

    B. Use of Radioactive Carbon as Tracer

    C The Photosynthetic Carbon Reduction Cycle

    D. Photosynthesis in Isolated Chloroplasts

    E. Ribulose Diphosphate Carboxylase

    F. Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase and the C4-Dicarboxylic Acid Pathway

    G. Ferredoxin-Linked Carboxylations

    H. Carboxylation Reaction Yielding Glycolate

    I. Pyridine Nucleotide-Linked Carboxylations

    J. The Warburg Hypothesis

    K. The Products of Photosynthesis

    L. Crassulacean-Type Metabolism

    M. Compartmentation and Movement of Metabolites with Leaf Cells

    Section II Respiration Associated with Photosynthetic Tissues

    Chapter 5. Dark Respiration and Photorespiration

    A. Oxygen Uptake and C02 Evolution by Dark Respiration

    B. Factors Affecting Photorespiration

    C. Oxygen Uptake in the Light Measured with 18O2

    D. Effect of Photorespiration on Inhibition by Oxygen of Net CO2 Assimilation

    E. Post-Illumination CO2 Outburst

    F. Extrapolation of Net Photosynthesis to "Zero" CO2 Concentration

    G. Dilution of 14CO2 Specific Activity in the Ambient Atmosphere

    H. Photorespiration in CO2-Free Air and with 14C-Labeled Tissues

    I. The C02 Compensation Point

    J. Differences in Light Respiration within a Species

    Chapter 6. Glycolate Metabolism and the Mechanism of Photorespiration

    A. Biosynthesis of Glycolate

    B. Glycolate Oxidase

    C. Inhibition of Glycolate Oxidase

    D. The Glycolate Pathway of Carbohydrate Synthesis and Related Reactions

    E. The Mechanism and Control of Photorespiration

    Section III Photosynthesis and Plant Productivity in Single Leaves and in Stands

    Chapter 7. Photosynthesis as a Diffusion Process in Single Leaves

    A. Fick's Law and Ohm's Law

    B. The Leaf Boundary Layer Resistance

    C. Control of Stomatal Opening

    D. Stomatal Diffusive Resistance

    E. Internal Physical Resistances and Carboxylation Resistance (Ro, Ri, Rc)

    Chapter 8. Environmental and Physiological Control of Net Photosynthesis in Single Leaves

    A. Variation in Net Photosynthesis between and within Species

    B. Effect of Irradiance

    C. Influence of CO2 Concentration

    D. Dependence on Temperature

    E. Inhibition by O2 (Warburg Effect)

    F. Leaf Hydration

    G. Biochemical Control and Translocation

    H. Other Controlling Factors

    Chapter 9. Relation of Photosynthesis, Total Respiration, and Other Factors to Control of Productivity in Stands

    A. Correlation of Net Photosynthesis with Productivity

    B. Variations in Available Irradiation

    C. Relation of Stage of Plant Development to Productivity

    D. Diffusion Resistances and CO2 Concentrations and Gradients in Stands

    E. Regulation of Dark Respiration and Photorespiration

    F. Simulating the Activities of Stands with Computers

    Bibliography

    Subject Index






Product details

  • No. of pages: 362
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1971
  • Published: January 28, 1971
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323154116

About the Editor

Israel Zelitch

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