Photochemistry of Air Pollution

Photochemistry of Air Pollution

1st Edition - January 1, 1961

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  • Author: Philip Leighton
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323156455

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Photochemistry of Air Pollution provides information pertinent to air pollution and atmospheric chemistry. This book discusses the photochemical reactions produced by sunlight may convert relatively harmless pollutants into substances that constitute a nuisance, create possible health hazard, and cause economic problem to humans. Organized into 10 chapters, this book starts with an overview of the problem of air pollution, particularly photochemical smog. This text then discusses the factors that collectively determine the amount and spectral distribution of the radiation entering a surface layer of the atmosphere. Other chapters compare the specific absorption rates of several absorbers that are present in the air during periods of photochemical smog, including oxygen, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ketones, peroxides, and particulate matter. The final chapter deals with the process of formation of the substances responsible for the physiological effects of eye irritation and plant damage. This book is a valuable resource for photochemists and air pollution scientists.

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    Chapter I. Introduction

    1. Photochemical Smog

    2. The Elementary Nature of Photochemical Reactions

    3. Definition of the Problem

    Chapter II. Solar Radiation and Its Absorption

    1. Factors to Be Considered

    2. Solar Radiation Outside the Atmosphere

    3. Air Mass and Solar Zenith Angle

    4. Atmospheric Transmission

    5. Molecular Scattering

    6. Particulate Diffusion

    7. Absorption by Atmospheric Ozone

    8. Direct and Sky Radiation

    9. Path Lengths of Solar Radiation in the Lower Atmosphere

    10. Absorption Rates and Actinic Irradiance

    11. Remarks on Absorption Coefficients

    12. Diffusion Within the Polluted Layer

    13. Surface Reflection

    14. Clouds

    15. Discussion

    Chapter III. Absorption Rates and Primary Photochemical Processes

    1. General Considerations

    2. Absorbing Species in Polluted Air

    3. Oxygen

    4. Ozone

    5. Nitrogen Dioxide

    6. Sulfur Dioxide

    7. Nitric Acid and Alkyl Nitrates

    8. Nitrous Acid, Alkyl Nitrites, and Nitro Compounds

    9. Aldehydes and Ketones

    10. Peroxides

    11. Acyl and Peroxyacyl Nitrites and Nitrates

    12. Reactions Following Absorption by Particulate Matter

    13. Other Absorbers

    14. Summary

    Chapter IV. The Kinetics of Photochemical Secondary Reactions in Air

    1. Applicability of Laboratory Data

    2. Rate Constants and Units

    3. Extrapolation of Rate Constant Data

    4. Frequency Factor and Collision Yields

    5. Third Body Reactions

    6. Stationary States

    7. Estimates of Significance Based on Rate

    8. Reactions to Be Considered

    Chapter V. Reactions of Oxygen Atoms

    1. The Production of Oxygen Atoms in Polluted Air

    2. The Reaction of Oxygen Atoms with Molecular Oxygen

    3. The Concentration of Oxygen Atoms in Polluted Air

    4. The Reaction of Oxygen Atoms with Ozone

    5. The Recombination of Oxygen Atoms

    6. The Reaction of Oxygen Atoms with Molecular Nitrogen

    7. The Reactions of Oxygen Atoms with Nitric Oxide and Nitrogen Dioxide

    8. The Reactions of Oxygen Atoms with Hydrocarbons

    9. Other Reactions of Oxygen Atoms

    10. Summary of Oxygen Atom Reactions

    Chapter VI. Reactions of Ozone

    1. The Thermal Decomposition of Ozone in Air

    2. The Reaction of Ozone with Nitric Oxide

    3. The Reaction of Ozone with Nitrogen Dioxide

    4. The Reactions of Ozone with Olefin Hydrocarbons

    5. Reactions of Ozone with Hydrocarbons Other than Olefins

    6. Reactions of Ozone with Aldehydes and Ketones

    7. Summary of Ozone Reactions

    Chapter VII. Reactions and Equilibria of the Oxides and Oxy Acids of Nitrogen

    1. The Reaction of Nitric Oxide with Molecular Oxygen

    2. Association Reactions

    3. Reactions of Nitrogen Trioxide

    4. Reactions Involving Water

    5. Reactions Involving Hydrocarbons

    6. Other Reactions

    7. Summary of Reactions of Oxides and Oxy Acids of Nitrogen

    Chapter VIII. Free Radical Reactions

    1. The Formation of Free Radicals in Polluted Air

    2. Reactions of Alkyl Radicals

    3. Reactions of Formyl and Acyl Radicals

    4. Reactions of Peroxyalkyl Radicals

    5. Reactions of Peroxyacyl and Acylate Radicals

    6. Reactions of Alkoxyl Radicals

    7. Reactions of Hydroxyl and Hydroperoxyl Radicals

    8. Summary of Free Radical Reactions

    Chapter IX. Reactions of Sulfur Dioxide

    1. The Photooxidation of Sulfur Dioxide in Air

    2. The Photochemical Reaction of Sulfur Dioxide with Hydrocarbons

    3. The Photolysis of Mixtures of Sulfur Dioxide, Nitric Oxide-Nitrogen Dioxide, and Hydrocarbons in Air

    4. Sulfur Dioxide and Particulate Formation

    Chapter X. General Discussion

    1. The Photochemistry of Mixtures of Nitric Oxide or Nitrogen Dioxide with Hydrocarbons in Air

    2. Concentration Changes Produced by Irradiation of Polluted Air

    3. Eye Irritants and Phytotoxicants

    4. Summary


    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 312
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1961
  • Published: January 1, 1961
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323156455

About the Author

Philip Leighton

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