Petroleum Rock Mechanics

Petroleum Rock Mechanics

Drilling Operations and Well Design

1st Edition - May 26, 2011

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  • Authors: Bernt Aadnoy, Reza Looyeh
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123855473

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Description

Petroleum Rock Mechanics: Drilling Operations and Well Design covers the fundamentals of solid mechanics and petroleum rock mechanics and their application to oil and gas-related drilling operations and well design. More specifically, it examines the role of formation, strength of rock materials, and wellbore mechanics, along with the impact of in-situ stress changes on wellbore and borehole behavior. Practical examples with solutions and a comprehensive glossary of terminologies are provided. Equations are incorporated into well-known failure criteria to predict stresses and to analyze a range of failure scenarios throughout drilling, well operation, and well completion processes. The book also discusses stress and strain components, principal and deviatoric stresses and strains, materials behavior, the theories of elasticity and inelasticity, probabilistic analysis of stress data, the tensile and shear strength of rocks, wellbore stability, and fracture and collapse behavior for both single and multi-lateral wells. Both inexperienced university students and experienced engineers will find this book extremely useful.

Key Features

  • Clearly applies rock mechanics to on and off shore oil and gas drilling
  • Step by Step approach to the analyze wellbore instabilities
  • Provides worked out examples with solutions to everyday problems

Readership

Reservoir Engineers, Production Engineer, Drilling Engineers, Exploration Geophysicists

Table of Contents

  • Dedication

    Preface

    Acknowledgements

    About the authors

    List of symbols

    Chapter 1. Stress/Strain Definitions and Components

    1.1. General concept

    1.2. Definition of stress

    1.3. Stress components

    1.4. Definition of strain

    1.5. Strain components

    Chapter 2. Stress and Strain Transformation

    2.1. Introduction

    2.2. Transformation principles

    2.3. Two-dimensional stress transformation

    2.4. Stress transformation in space

    2.5. Tensor of stress components

    2.6. Strain transformation in space

    Chapter 3. Principal and Deviatoric Stresses and Strains

    3.1. Introduction

    3.2. Principal stresses

    3.3. Average and deviatoric stresses

    3.4. General interpretation of principal stresses

    3.5. Two-dimensional stress analysis

    3.6. Properties of strain

    Chapter 4. Theory of Elasticity

    4.1. Introduction

    4.2. Materials behavior

    4.3. Hooke's law

    4.4. Hooke's law in shear

    4.5. Analysis of structures

    4.6. Theory of inelasticity

    4.7. Constitutive relation for rocks

    Chapter 5. Failure Criteria

    5.1. Introduction

    5.2. Failure criteria for rock materials

    5.3. The von mises failure criterion

    5.4. Mohr-coulomb failure criterion

    5.5. The griffith failure criterion

    5.6. Hoek-brown failure criterion

    5.7. Druker-prager failure criterion

    5.8. Mogi-coulomb failure criterion

    Chapter 6. Introduction to Petroleum Rock Mechanics

    6.1. Introduction

    6.2. Definition and classification of rocks

    6.3. Petroleum rock mechanics

    6.4. Why study stress in rocks?

    6.5. Units of measurement

    Chapter 7. Porous Rocks and Effective Stresses

    7.1. Introduction

    7.2. Anisotropy and inhomogeneity

    7.3. Anisotropic rocks, transversal isotropy

    7.4. Porous rock

    7.5. Formation pore pressure

    7.6. Effective stress

    7.7. Formation porosity and permeability

    Chapter 8. In-Situ Stress

    8.1. Introduction

    8.2. Definitions

    8.3. in-situ principal stresses

    8.4. Measurement and estimation of in-situ stresses

    8.5. Probabilistic analysis of stress data

    8.6. Bounds on in-situ stresses

    8.7. Stress directions from fracture traces

    Chapter 9. Rock Strength and Rock Failure

    9.1. Introduction

    9.2. Strength of rock material

    9.3. Empirical correlations

    9.4. Formation fracture gradient

    9.5. Laboratory testing of intact rocks

    9.6. Rock tensile strength

    9.7. Rock shear strength

    Chapter 10. Stresses Around a Wellbore

    10.1. Introduction

    10.2. State of stresses around a wellbore

    10.3. Properties of rock formation around a wellbore

    10.4. Equations governing stress analysis

    10.5. Analysis of stresses around a wellbore

    10.6. Isotropic solution

    10.7. Anisotropic solution

    Chapter 11. Wellbore Instability Analysis

    11.1. Introduction

    11.2. Analysis procedure

    11.3. Wellbore fracturing pressure

    11.4. Wellbore collapse pressure

    11.5. Instability analysis of multi-lateral boreholes

    11.6. Instability analysis of adjacent boreholes

    11.7. Instability analysis of underbalanced drilling

    11.8. Shallow fracturing

    11.9. General fracturing model

    11.10. Compaction analysis for high-pressure, high-temperature reservoirs

    11.11. Breakthrough of a relief well into a blowing well

    11.12. Fracture model for load history and temperature

    11.13. Effects of flow induced stresses

    11.14. Sand production modeling

    Chapter 12. Wellbore Instability Analysis Using Inversion Technique

    12.1. Introduction

    12.2. Definitions

    12.3. The inversion technique

    12.4. Geological aspects

    12.5. Analysis constraints

    12.6. Inversion from fracture data and image logs

    Chapter 13. Wellbore Instability Analysis Using Quantitative Risk Assessment

    13.1. Introduction

    13.2. Deterministic analysis versus probabilistic assessment

    13.3. Why probabilistic assessment?

    13.4. Quantitative risk assessment (QRA)

    13.5. Quantitative risk assessment of underbalanced drilling

    Chapter 14. The Effect of Mud Losses on Wellbore Stability

    14.1. Introduction

    14.2. Mud losses during drilling

    14.3. Interpretation of the leak-off tests

    14.4. Future developments for wellbore stability

    References

    Appendix A. Mechanical Properties of Rocks

    Appendix B. The Poisson's Ratio Effect

    Appendix C. Model for the Stress Bridge

    Appendix D. Glossary Of Terms

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 376
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Gulf Professional Publishing 2011
  • Published: May 26, 2011
  • Imprint: Gulf Professional Publishing
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123855473

About the Authors

Bernt Aadnoy

Bernt Sigve Aadnøy is a Professor of Petroleum Engineering at the University of Stavanger, specializing in all aspects of well engineering, including geomechanics. He is also an Adjunct Professor at NTNU—the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim. He worked for major operators in the oil industry from 1978 until 1994, when he transitioned to academia. Aadnøy has published more than 300 papers, holds 15 patents, and has authored or co-authored seven books, among them Modern Well Design, Petroleum Rock Mechanics, and Mechanics of Drilling. He was also one of the editors of the SPE book Advanced Drilling and Well Technology (Society of Petroleum Engineers). Aadnøy holds a BS degree in mechanical engineering from the University of Wyoming, an MS in control engineering from the University of Texas, and a PhD in petroleum rock mechanics from the Norwegian Institute of Technology. He was a recipient of the 1999 SPE International Drilling Engineering Award and is also a 2015 SPE/AIME Honorary Member and a 2015 SPE Distinguished Member. He was named SPE Professional of the Year 2018 in Norway.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Petroleum Engineering, University of Stavanger, Norway

Reza Looyeh

Reza Looyeh is a registered Chartered Engineer, a Fellow member of the Institute of Mechanical Engineeres (IMechE) in the UK, and a member of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). He holds a BSc in Mechanical Engineering from Tehran University, Iran (1989, Honors Degree), an MSc from Newcastle University, UK, in offshore engineering (1994), and PhD from Durham University, UK, in mechanical engineering (1999). He is presently a lead mechanical engineer at Chebron Pembroke Refinery in the UK, a position he has held since 2006. Dr. Looyeh has over 25 technical publications on a variety of topics and is a member of the Engineering Equipment and Material User's Association (EEMUA), Piping Systems Committee (PSC), and Materails Technology Committee (MTC), as well as an industrial advisor to IMechE for the oil and gas sector.

Affiliations and Expertise

Lead Engineer, Chevron Limited, Pembroke Refinery, UK

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