Petrochemical Machinery Insights - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128092729, 9780128112465

Petrochemical Machinery Insights

1st Edition

Authors: Heinz Bloch
eBook ISBN: 9780128112465
Paperback ISBN: 9780128092729
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 20th September 2016
Page Count: 784
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Description

Petrochemical Machinery Insights is a priceless collection of solutions and advice from Heinz Bloch on a broad range of equipment management themes, from wear to warranty issues, organizational problems and oil mist lubrication, and professional growth and pre-purchase of machinery.

The author draws on his industry experience to hone in on important problems that do not get addressed in other books, providing actionable details that engineers can use. Mechanical, reliability, and process engineers will find this book the next best thing to having Heinz Bloch on speed dial.

Key Features

  • Focuses on pieces of hard-won experience from the industry that are rarely included in other books
  • Presents not just a guide to technical problems, but also to crucial themes in management and organization
  • Includes an informal and honest style, making author Heinz Bloch's 40 years of experience accessible to a broad audience of readers
  • Contains a uniting theme that successful asset management requires the separation of application and implementation details

Readership

Mechanical engineers, reliability engineers, process engineers

Table of Contents

  • Dedication
  • List of Figures
  • List of Figure Credits
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • Introduction
  • Subject Category 1: Agitators
    • Abstract
    • Chapter 1.1: Your Agitator Just Failed: What Now?
      • Introduction
      • Consistency Is One of the Keys to Performance
  • Subject Category 2: Alignment
    • Abstract
    • Chapter 2.1: Alignment Choices have Consequences
      • Introduction
      • Alignment Rule of Thumb Explained
    • Chapter 2.2: Pump Alignment Reduces Power Demand
      • Introduction
      • Lambley's Work Summarized
  • Subject Category 3: Asset Management
    • Abstract
    • Chapter 3.1: Alignment Specifics Contribute to Effective Asset Management
      • Introduction
      • An Equipment Alignment Problem Points to the Need to Upgrade
    • Chapter 3.2: Dealing With Asset Management and Life Extension
      • Introduction
      • Charter and Plant Data Explained
      • Piping and Foundations Affect Remaining Life
      • Compressors: All of the Above Are Important
  • Subject Category 4: Bearings
    • Abstract
    • Chapter 4.1: Picking the Right Oil Viscosity for Your Machines
      • Introduction
      • Learning From a Recent Case History
    • Chapter 4.2: Bearing Styles and Configurations
      • Introduction
      • Bearing Types
      • Bearing Cage Material
    • Chapter 4.3: Optimized Lubricant Application for Rolling Element Bearings
      • Introduction
      • Rankings Examined
    • Chapter 4.4: Pump Bearings and Allowable Temperatures
      • Introduction
      • Rolling Element Versus Plain Bearings
    • Chapter 4.5: Ranking Bearings and Lube Application Methods for Process Pumps and Drivers
      • Introduction
      • Making Choices
      • Oil Versus Grease
      • Oil Lubrication Experience
      • Constant-Level Lubricators
      • Vulnerability of Oil Rings
      • Brief Overview of Grease Lubrication
      • Shields Versus No Shields in Electric Motor Bearings
    • Chapter 4.6: Bearing Housing Protector Seals and the Value of Reducing Lube Oil Contamination Risk
      • Introduction
      • Rotating Labyrinth Seals
      • Justifying the Cost of Modern Bearing Housing Protector Seals
  • Subject Category 5: Blowers
    • Abstract
    • Chapter 5.1: Modern Blowers Can Be Reliable
      • Introduction
      • How Best-of-Class Performers Groom Project Expertise
      • Practicing Reliability Thinking and Checking Things Out
    • Chapter 5.2: Positive Displacement Blowers With Bearings Using Both Pure and Purge Oil Mist Lubrication
      • Introduction
      • Cooperation Is Essential to Success
      • The Quest for Case Histories
  • Subject Category 6: Compressors, General
    • Abstract
    • Chapter 6.1: Upgrade Your Compressor Antisurge Control Valves
      • Improvements Are Possible
      • On-Line Monitoring and Diagnostics
      • Improved Valve Packing Systems
    • Chapter 6.2: Consider Single-Point Responsibility for Compressors
      • Introduction
      • Agreement Needed on “Train Responsibility”
      • Exceptions to the Rule
      • Focusing on the Bright Side
    • Chapter 6.3: Toroidal Chamber Rotary Compressors
      • Introduction
      • Operating Principle
      • Application Summary
    • Chapter 6.4: Vent Gas Compressor Selection
      • Introduction
      • Emphasis Often Differs
      • Experience Checks are Important
      • Follow-Up is Needed
  • Subject Category 7: Cooling Tower Fans and Drives
    • Abstract
    • Chapter 7.1: Consider Innovative Cooling Tower Fan Motor and Drive Technology
      • Introduction
      • The Search for a Better Solution
      • A Mature Product
  • Subject Category 8: Couplings
    • Abstract
    • Chapter 8.1: Coupling Types and Styles
      • Introduction
      • Flexing Elements Made From Elastomer Materials
      • Obtain User Feedback
      • Installation and Hub Removal
  • Subject Category 9: Dry Gas Seals
    • Abstract
    • Chapter 9.1: Advances in Dry Gas Seal Technology for Compressors
      • How Dry Gas Seals Function
      • Minimizing the Risk of Sealing Problems
      • Seal Safety and Reliability
      • Combining OEM and Repair Expertise
      • Making Technically Sound Choices
      • Making Economically Sound Choices
      • Testing Capabilities are Important
      • DGS Technology Advances Through Global Repair Services
      • The DGS Repair Process
      • Replacement and Rebuilding Steps
      • Duration and Documentation
  • Subject Category 10: Dynamic Compressors
    • Abstract
    • Chapter 10.1: Three- to Eight-Stage Integral Gear-Driven Centrifugal Process Gas Compressor Overview
    • Subject Category 11: Electric Motor Life
      • Abstract
      • Chapter 11.1: Monitoring Electric Motor Vibration and Optimizing Motor Bearing Lubricant Application
        • Introduction
        • Commendations for a Case History Admirably Tabulated
        • Treat Root Causes, Not Symptoms
        • Evidence of Outdated Lubrication Technology
      • Chapter 11.2: Electric Motors and Mechanical Efficiency
        • Introduction
        • Synthetics for Motors
        • Quantifying the Energy Savings Potential
      • Chapter 11.3: Smart Motor Lubrication Saves Energy
        • Introduction
        • Long and Successful History
        • Quantifying the Energy Savings Potential
      • Chapter 11.4: Oil Mist and Electric Motor Windings
        • Introduction
        • History
    • Subject Category 12: Foundation and Grouting Systems
      • Abstract
      • Chapter 12.1: Consider Pregrouted Pump Baseplates and New Grout Systems
        • Introduction
        • Concrete Foundation Preparation
        • New Grout Forming Technique
        • Field Installation Cost Comparison
      • Chapter 12.2: Field Erection and Installation Specifications for Special Purpose Machinery
        • Introduction
        • Commonalities Observed
      • Chapter 12.3: How Pump Installation Differs From the Way Pumps Were Shipped to Your Plant
        • Introduction
        • Mounted for Shipping
        • As Shipped Condition Is Not Yet Ready for Installation
    • Subject Category 13: Gasket Designs
      • Abstract
      • Chapter 13.1: Assessing Advances in Gasket Designs
        • Introduction
        • Kammprofile Gaskets
    • Subject Category 14: Gear and General Bearing Housing Protection
      • Abstract
      • Chapter 14.1: Sealing Gearboxes Against Water Intrusion
        • Introduction
        • Lip Seals and Other Solutions
        • Dual-Face Magnetic Bearing Protector Seals Still Important
        • Early History of Magnetic Bearing Housing Protector Seals
        • Operating and Application Limits Explained
        • Technical Reports on Magnetic Seal Experience
        • Testing Proves Compliance
        • Lift and Wear of Advanced Bearing Protectors
      • Chapter 14.2: Why Bearing Housing Protector Seals are Needed
        • Introduction
        • Bearing Housing Issues
    • Subject Category 15: Grounding Technology
      • Abstract
      • Chapter 15.1: Grounding Ring Technology for Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs)
        • Introduction
        • Fundamentals of Shaft Grounding Rings (SGRs)
        • Circumferential Rows of Fibers
        • Selection Strategy
    • Subject Category 16: Innovation Versus Unnecessary Developments
      • Abstract
      • Chapter 16.1: Innovations that are Duplications of Effort
        • Introduction
        • Good Innovations
      • Chapter 16.2: Process Innovations that Pose Dangers
        • Introduction
      • Chapter 16.3: Involve Innovators in Fluid Machinery Upgrading
        • Introduction
    • Subject Category 17: Lubrication
      • Abstract
      • Chapter 17.1: Resolving Grease Lubrication Controversies
        • Introduction
        • Capillary Action Explained
        • Relubrication is Intended for Shielded Bearings
        • Experience-Related Data of Interest
        • Bearing Replacement Statistics
        • Rankings Update
      • Chapter 17.2: Purposeful Grease Specifications Essential to Saving Money
        • Introduction
        • Cold Temperature Performance of Greases
        • Specify What Works and Insist on Getting It
        • Engineers and Managers Must Take an Active Interest
      • Chapter 17.3: Lubrication Misunderstood
        • Introduction
        • Synthetic Lube Solvency Action Removes Sludge
        • Don't Synthetics Attack Paint?
        • Standardization and Lifetime Lubrication
        • Check Out Your Priority Concerns
      • Chapter 17.4: How High-Performance Oils and Greases Extend the Application Range for Sealed Bearings
        • Main Focus
        • New Developments
        • Composition of Standard Perfluoropolyether (PFPE) Lubricants
        • Examining Cost Versus Benefit
      • Chapter 17.5: Auditing Your Lubrication Practices
        • Introduction
        • Typical Findings
        • Deficient Field Follow-Up
      • Chapter 17.6: Lubricating Slow-Speed Rolling Element Bearings
        • Introduction
        • Speed Matters in Bearings
      • Chapter 17.7: How the Best Lubricant Providers Add Value
        • Introduction
        • New Lubricant Formulations of Interest
        • A 2015 Update
      • Chapter 17.8: Expansion Chamber Sizing
        • Introduction
        • Construction Features
        • Examining the Premise is Always a Good First Step
        • What is the Pressure Increase With a Constant Volume?
    • Subject Category 18: Maintenance
      • Abstract
      • Chapter 18.1: No Fast Path to Maintenance Brilliance
        • Introduction
        • Designing a Maintenance Strategy
      • Chapter 18.2: Maintenance Best Practices Involving Pumps
        • Introduction
        • More on the Pump Example
        • Precursor Activities
        • Project Engineering Mindful of Future Maintenance
        • Ruling Out the Blaming of Others
        • Seeking Input from SMEs
        • Owners’ Involvement Needed
        • Deming Was Correct
      • Chapter 18.3: Confused about Reliability-Centered Maintenance?
        • Introduction
        • RCM Questions
        • What Fails?
        • Theory and Practice
      • Chapter 18.4: Use Selective PM and PdM for Your Compressors
        • Introduction
        • Laying the Groundwork
        • Preventive (PM) and Predictive Maintenance (PdM) Explained
        • Compressor Maintenance in Best Practices Plants
        • Emergency Repairs Should be Minimized
        • Effectiveness of Selective Preventive Maintenance
        • Know Your Existing Program
        • Maintenance Improvement and Program Objectives
      • Chapter 18.5: Substantive Change Needed
        • Introduction
        • Symbolic Activity
        • So, Where's the Problem?
        • Updating Maintenance Personnel's Thinking
        • How Best-of-Class Performers Excel
      • Chapter 18.6: Was That a Failure or “Just a Repair”?
        • Introduction
        • Distinguishing Benchmarks
        • Counting Maintenance Interventions
      • Chapter 18.7: How Small Deviations Compromise Reliability in Pumps
        • Introduction
        • Distress Sequence
      • Chapter 18.8: Deviations Add Up to Become Exponential Failure Risks in Compressors
        • Introduction
        • An Industry Example
        • Lessons Learned
    • Subject Category 19: Management and Organizational Leadership
      • Abstract
      • Chapter 19.1: Management's Role in Achieving and Sustaining Reliability Focus
        • Introduction
        • Do You Know Your Pump MTBF?
        • Training and Communications
        • Thoughtful Action Is Desperately Needed
      • Chapter 19.2: First Priority: Pick the Ripe, Low-Hanging Fruit
        • Introduction
        • The Unglamorous Basics
        • Choose the Right Priorities and Methods
        • Data Collector Devices Have Merit
        • Working on the Reliability Process
      • Chapter 19.3: Delegating Responsibility Brings Benefits
        • Introduction
        • How a Manager Views Pareto's Rule
        • Delegating
        • Delegation Is a Desired Custom
        • Three Good Reasons for Training Others
        • The Four-Step Approach to Delegating
      • Chapter 19.4: Challenges Facing Managers in Industry
        • Introduction
        • Three Groups of People
        • The Rest of the Story
        • Approaches to Problem Solving
        • Problem and Solutions
        • An Inadequate Reward System
        • Solutions
      • Chapter 19.5: Organizing for Continuous Improvement
        • Introduction
        • Technical Service vs. Technical Support
        • New Project Coverage Explained
      • Chapter 19.6: Managing Our Time
        • Introduction
        • Goal Setting Starts Early in the Day
        • Planning One's Day
        • Beware of Paper Shuffling
        • Set Realistic Priorities
        • Distinguish Between “Urgent” and “Important”
        • The 80/20 Rule
        • Enjoy the Benefits
      • Chapter 19.7: How Flawed Reward Systems Cost You Dearly
        • Introduction
        • A Noticeable Gap
        • What Makes You a “Reliability Professional”?
        • Start by Distinguishing Between Maintenance and Reliability Positions
        • Subject Matter Experts Are Performing a Reliability Function
        • Certification and Membership in Professional Associations
        • Grooming and Mentoring
    • Subject Category 20: Materials Technology
      • Abstract
      • Chapter 20.1: High-Performance Polymeric Wear Materials
        • Introduction
        • Avoiding Pump Seizures
      • Chapter 20.2: FRMP and High-Pressure Fluoropolymer Throttle Bushings
        • Introduction
        • Center Stage and Throttle Bushings
      • Chapter 20.3: Consider Casting Salvaging Methods
        • Introduction
      • Chapter 20.4: Straightening Carbon Steel Shafts
        • Introduction
        • Do This First
        • Straightening Carbon Steel Shafts
    • Subject Category 21: Mechanical Seals
      • Abstract
      • Chapter 21.1: Reconciling Requirements in API-682 Dual-Seal Design Configurations
        • Dual-Seal Arrangements
        • Back-to-Back Versus Face-to-Face Configurations
        • Advantages of Face-to-Back Configurations
        • Disadvantages of Conventional Face-to-Back Configurations
        • Deflector Baffles and Superior Pumping Rings
        • More Developments in Pusher Seal Technology
        • CFD Flow Path and Deflector Analysis
      • Chapter 21.2: More About Pumping Ring Designs for Dual Mechanical Seals
        • Introduction
      • Chapter 21.3: Unusual Flush Plans for Mechanical Seals
        • Introduction
      • Chapter 21.4: Cost Savings With Advantageous Mechanical Seals and API Seal Flush Plans
      • Chapter 21.5: Consider Mutually Beneficial Strategic Mechanical Seal Partnerships Only
        • Introduction
        • Benefit Summary
        • Objectives of Mutually Beneficial Agreements
        • Scope of Supply Defined
        • Inventory Buyback
        • Obligations and Responsibilities of the Owner
        • Obligations and Responsibilities of the Supplier
        • Success Oversight Committee and Designated Arbiter
        • Compensation for Products and Services
        • Terms and Termination
      • Chapter 21.6: Repetitive Pump Seal Failures Can Cause Disasters
        • Introduction
        • Lessons for Those Willing to Learn
      • Chapter 21.7: Diamond-Coated Seal Face Technology
        • Introduction
        • Where You Can Find the Details
        • Investigating Diamond-Like Seal Face Coatings (DLCs)
        • Investigating PA-CVD Process Coatings
        • Investigating Polycrystalline Diamond-Like (PCD) Coatings
        • Compelling Results and What They Mean
        • Expectations Versus In-Depth Considerations
        • Conclusions
      • Chapter 21.8: Converting From Gland Packing in a Boiler Feed Pump: A Case Study
        • Introduction
        • Conversion Cost and Savings
        • Conclusion
    • Subject Category 22: Non-OEM Repairs Combine Effective Upgrade Strategies
      • Abstract
      • Chapter 22.1: Competent Repair Shops and Some Upgrade Options that Extend Pump Uptime
        • Finding a CPRS
        • Competent Pump Repair Shop Facility Assessment
        • How the CPRS Must Assist With Pump Repair Scope Definition
        • An Upgrade Example: Wear Materials for Improved Energy Efficiency of Pumps
        • Recommended Radial Gap Guidelines for Large Process Pumps
        • Case History Dealing With an Ingersoll Rand Model 6CHT 9-Stage Boiler Feedwater Pump
        • Shop Repair Procedures and Restoration Guidelines are Needed Even by a CPRS
        • Spare Parts Availability and Procurement Decisions
        • Consult Repair and Restoration Guidelines Before Deciding Where to Purchase
        • Conclusion
      • Chapter 22.2: Upgrading as an Aftermarket Parts Alternative for Process Pumps
        • Introduction
        • Involving the CPRS in Spare Parts Decisions
      • Chapter 22.3: Non-OEM “Billet-to-Final-Test” Capabilities
        • Introduction
        • Sand Printing Opens New Possibilities
      • Chapter 22.4: Repurposing Major Process Pumps
        • Introduction
      • Chapter 22.5: How to Capture and Apply More Pump Expertise
        • Introduction
        • Spare Parts “Pooling Arrangements” Can Be Beneficial
        • Assessing and Assisting in Defining Spare Parts Quantity
        • You Still Work With Pump Manufacturers in New Construction
        • Neither Cheap Pumps Nor Uncooperative Repair Shops are Wise Choices
        • Use Supplemental Specifications
        • Don't Just Repair: Upgrade!
        • Assessing and Assisting in Defining Spare Parts Quantity
      • Chapter 22.6: Spare Parts Availability and the Need for Non-OEM Options
        • Introduction
        • Bearing Replacement Statistics
        • Random Failures Demand Ready Availability of Good Options
    • Subject Category 23: Oil Mist Lubrication and Preservation
      • Abstract
      • Chapter 23.1: Oil-Mist Systems for Plant-Wide Lubrication of General Purpose Machinery
        • Introduction
        • Oil Mist Is Easily Controlled and Applied
        • System and Mist Flow Description
        • Where and How Oil Mist Is Widely Used
        • Environmental and Health Concerns Fully Addressed
        • Experience with Modern Oil-Mist Systems
        • Emphasis on Pure (Dry-Sump) Oil Mist
      • Chapter 23.2: Oil Mist as a Preservation Strategy and What to Do if No Oil-Mist Preservation Was in Place
        • Introduction
        • Issues Without Protection
        • Oil-Mist Protection Statistics
        • What if There Was No Such Protection?
        • How Oil Mist Works in Preservation Systems
        • Nitrogen for Storage Protection
      • Chapter 23.3: Closed Oil-Mist Systems and an Update on Maintenance Cost Avoidance
        • Introduction
        • Oil Sampling Recommendations
        • “Old-Style Open” and “New-Style Closed” Oil-Mist Application
      • Chapter 23.4: Oil-Mist Lubrication Reliability Statistics
        • Acknowledgments
        • Introduction
        • Why Oil Mist Excels as a Lube Application Method
        • Workers' Health Guidelines
        • Favorable Experience Ascertained
        • Reliability Reaffirmed
        • What—If Anything—Can Shut Down an Oil-Mist System?
    • Subject Category 24: Oil Ring Issues
      • Abstract
      • Chapter 24.1: Grooved and Other Oil Rings: Claims and Counterclaims
        • Introduction
        • Why Claims Can Be Contradictory
        • Grooved Oil Rings Generally Outperform Flat Oil Rings
        • Contoured Oil Rings
        • Why Slinger Rings May Not Be Your Best Choice
        • Alternatives to Slinger Rings
      • Chapter 24.2: When Not to Use Oil Rings
        • Introduction
        • Interested in Better Pumps
    • Subject Category 25: Operation and the Operator Function
      • Abstract
      • Chapter 25.1: The Operator's Role in Achieving Equipment Reliability
        • Introduction
        • Surveillance Is an Operator Task
        • “Best-Practices” Surveillance and Other Misunderstandings Cleared Up
        • Misunderstandings Involving Engineering and Specifications
        • Where Only a Competent Operator Can Avoid Machinery Failure
      • Chapter 25.2: Consider Procedure Cards, Technical Books, and Maintenance Conferences
        • Introduction
        • Why Use Checklists
      • Chapter 25.3: Reassess Your Pump Start-Up and Shutdown Procedures
        • Introduction
        • No One Rule Fits All
        • Review and Update Your Procedures
      • Chapter 25.4: Pump Switching: What's Best Practice?
        • Introduction
        • Rulings Often Deserve Updating
      • Chapter 25.5: More Than Procedures are Needed
        • Introduction
        • Distinction Between Plants
    • Subject Category 26: Organizational Issues
      • Abstract
      • Chapter 26.1: Organizing to be Reliability-Focused
        • Introduction
        • Role Statements and Training Plans Essential for Progress
        • Mentoring, Resources, and Networking
      • Chapter 26.2: Ten Sure Steps to Substandard Reliability Performance
        • Introduction
        • Why Some Fall Short of Reaching Their Goals
      • Chapter 26.3: How to Turn ODR-OPPM Into a Worthwhile Initiative
        • Introduction
        • Formalizing ODR
        • Who Implements ODR
        • Considering Fixes
        • Advice to Those Contemplating ODR/OPPM
      • Chapter 26.4: Reliability Implementation Is an Organizational Issue
        • Introduction
        • Case 1: Why Are They Still Using Cooling Water on Pumps?
        • Case 2: Upgrading Is the User-Customer's Job
        • Case 3: OEMs Want Your Spare Parts Business
      • Chapter 26.5: Counting Interventions Instead of MTBF: An Organizational Issue
        • Introduction
        • MTBF Tracking Can Be Subverted
        • Thinking “Out of the Box”
      • Chapter 26.6: Thinking Independently: An Organizational Issue
        • Introduction
        • How Thinking Independently Can Add Much Value
        • Reach Out for the Opportunity
      • Chapter 26.7: More About Unreliability, Global Procurement, and You
        • Introduction
        • Coping With Global Procurement and Heading in the Right Direction
        • Shunning Cheap Temporary Fixes
    • Subject Category 27: Packaged Machinery
      • Abstract
      • Chapter 27.1: Upgrading Fan Bearings
        • Introduction
        • Status of Reliability Thinking
        • Upgrading Starts With API Standards
    • Subject Category 28: Piping and Related Components
      • Abstract
      • Chapter 28.1: Configure Pump Suction Piping Carefully
        • Function of Suction Piping
        • Hydraulic Considerations for Suction Piping
        • Lengths of Horizontal Pipe Runs
      • Chapter 28.2: Pump Suction Strainer Issues
        • Introduction
      • Chapter 28.3: Flexible Connectors for Pumps: Points and Counterpoints
        • Introduction
        • Why Not to Use Flexible Piping
      • Chapter 28.4: Pipe Supports and Spring Hangers
        • Introduction
        • Installation
      • Chapter 28.5: Remembering Flixborough
        • Introduction
        • Feasibility Versus Desirability
        • Learning From the Flixborough Disaster
        • Read, and Try to Get the Full Picture
    • Subject Category 29: Professional Growth
      • Abstract
      • Chapter 29.1: Reliability Professionals and How They Are Perceived by Others
        • Introduction
        • Too Much Noise, not Enough Engineering
        • Buying Cheap will Impoverish Many
    • Subject Category 30: Pumps and Associated Issues
      • Abstract
      • Chapter 30.1: Suction Specific Speed Choices have Consequences
        • Introduction
        • Defining Nsss
        • Trend Curves of Interest
        • What Guideline to Use
      • Chapter 30.2: One Pump Fire per 1000 Pump Repairs
        • Introduction
        • Failure Statistics Tell the Story
      • Chapter 30.3: Not Ready for 29-Year-Old Pump Packing
        • Introduction
        • Packing Not Best Practice for Firewater Pumps
      • Chapter 30.4: Understanding Filter Beta Ratio and Beta Efficiency
        • Introduction
        • An Example Illustrates the Concept
      • Chapter 30.5: Why Breaking the Cycle of Process Pump Repairs is Important
        • Introduction
        • Cost of Failures
        • Payback (ROI) is Usually Very Rapid
        • Staying Within Defined Pump Operating Range
        • Disallow Deviations From Best Available Technology
        • Pressure Equalization
        • Disallow Unneeded Cooling
        • More on Lubrication and Bearing Distress
        • Liquid Oil Lubrication
        • Two Different DN Rules Explained
        • The Trouble With Oil Rings and Constant-Level Lubricators
        • Constant-Level Lubricators
        • Ranking the Different Lube Application Practices
        • Conclusions and Summary
        • Demand Better Pumps and Pay for Value
      • Chapter 30.6: Periodic Switching: Caution with Parallel Operation of Pumps
        • Introduction
        • Installed Spares
        • Pump Curves and Their Importance
      • Chapter 30.7: Consider Disk-like Impellers for Viscous Fluids
        • Introduction
        • Unusual or Difficult Services
      • Chapter 30.8: Why Pump Shaft Failures Happen
        • Introduction
        • What Can Cause Shafts to Fail
        • Impellers and Reverse Rotation
        • Reasons for Reverse Rotation
        • Know the Impeller Fastening Method
        • Shaft Deflection Induces Fatigue Failures
        • Motor Torque and Shaft Stresses
        • All Mechanical Parts Failures Attributable to “FRETT”
      • Chapter 30.9: Consider Recessed Impeller Pumps
        • Introduction
        • Suitability Explored
        • How Recessed Impeller Pumps Often Differ
      • Chapter 30.10: Auditing Vertical Pump Mechanical Reliability
        • Introduction
        • Assessing the Overall Design
        • Paying Attention to Lubrication
      • Chapter 30.11: Upgrading the Mechanical Design of Vertical Multistage Centrifugal Pumps in Low-Temperature Service
        • Introduction
      • Chapter 30.12: Recognizing the Pitfalls of Pumping at Part Load or in Parallel
        • Introduction
        • Defect Elimination More Valuable Than Defect Detection
        • No Two Pumps Are Fully Identical
        • Know All About Operating Pumps in Parallel
        • Efficiency Is Worth Real Money
        • Neglecting Risk Is Negligent in a Return-On-Investment Calculation
        • What To Do to Avoid Undue Risk
        • Experience at a Major Utility Buttresses Our Point
        • Conclusion and Advice
      • Chapter 30.13: Buying Better Pumps
        • Introduction
        • Predictive Maintenance Tools
    • Subject Category 31: Reciprocating Compressors
      • Abstract
      • Chapter 31.1: Reciprocating Compressors with Floating Pistons
        • Introduction to Nonlubricated Compressors
        • Operating Principle Explained
        • Experience and Key Advantages
      • Chapter 31.2: Upgrading Compressor Piston Rods
        • Introduction
        • Documenting Your Repair Procedure
      • Chapter 31.3: Gaining Flexibility With Special Liners for Reciprocating Compressor Cylinders
        • Introduction
        • Design Overview
      • Chapter 31.4: Interpreting API Standard 618 for Reciprocating Compressors
        • Introduction
        • Are There Discrepancies?
        • Common Practice Explained
        • The Automobile Analogy
        • Always Examine Experience
      • Chapter 31.5: Upgrade Kits and Service Bulletins
        • Introduction
        • Abstracts Provide an Overview
        • Details Disclose Particulars
        • Special Service Organizations
    • Subject Category 32: Reliable Plants and Machines Benefit From MQA
      • Abstract
      • Chapter 32.1: Reliable Because of Up-Front Investment in “MQA”
        • Introduction
        • Up-Front Investment in Reliability Is the Better Way
        • Good Plants and the Audit and Review Process
        • Don't Take Risks With Reliability
        • Successful Interfacing Assures Uptime Goals are Met
        • Flow Sheets and Specifications
      • Chapter 32.2: Buy From Knowledgeable and Cooperative Pump Vendors
        • Introduction
        • Equipment Selection Demands Forethought
        • Cheap Pumps are Rarely a Wise Choice
        • Use Supplemental Specifications
      • Chapter 32.3: Selection of Better Equipment Starts With Understanding Available Upgrade Options
        • Introduction
        • How Best-of-Class Performers Do It
      • Chapter 32.4: Unreliability, Engineers, and Lawyers
        • Introduction
        • Background
        • Surviving a Deposition
        • The Human Factor
      • Chapter 32.5: How to Trim-Cut Closed Pump Impellers
        • Introduction
        • Trimming Using “Field Wisdom”
      • Chapter 32.6: Equipment Life Extension Involves Upgrades
        • Introduction
        • Examples of What to Upgrade
      • Chapter 32.7: Top Ways to Improve Pump Life
        • Introduction
        • Know About Better Bearings and Bearing Protectors
        • Superior Bearing Housing Protector Seals Will Surprise You in Some Pumps
        • Insist on Safest Possible Mechanical Seal Test Protocols
        • Ascertain Safety and Reliability
    • Subject Category 33: Repair Quality and Statistics
      • Abstract
      • Chapter 33.1: Reasonable Pump Life Assessed from Published Statistics and Proprietary Consulting Access
        • Examining Pump Repair Records and MTBF
        • Other Studies of Pump Statistics
        • Target Pump and Component Lifetimes
      • Chapter 33.2: How to Improve Equipment Repair Quality
        • Introduction
        • Spelling Out the Goals
        • How Working With a CPRS Makes Sense
    • Subject Category 34: Resource Utilization
      • Abstract
      • Chapter 34.1: Notes from a Consulting Assignment
        • Introduction
      • Chapter 34.2: Consider the Most Effective Approach to Data Collection
        • Introduction
        • Why Operators Collect Data
      • Chapter 34.3: Why Users Must Update Design Contractors' Understanding
        • Introduction
        • Protecting the Client's Interest
        • Does the EPC Need Technology Updates?
        • Mechanical Seal Optimization
        • Lessons Learned
      • Chapter 34.4: What to Consider When It's No Longer Safe to Work at Your Workplace
        • Acknowledgment
        • Introduction
        • A Frustrated Maintenance Manager
    • Subject Category 35: Root Cause Failure Analysis
      • Abstract
      • Chapter 35.1: When Does a Good Practice Become a Bad Practice
        • Introduction
        • Method Explained
        • Examples of Ineffective RCFA Results
        • When a “Good Practice” Is Really a “Bad Practice”
      • Chapter 35.2: Avoiding Failures of Three-Dimensional Compressor Impellers
        • Introduction
        • Two-Dimensional versus Three-Dimensional Impeller Blading
        • Careful Design Needed
        • Failure Analysis Step No. 1: The “Seven-Root-Cause Category” Approach
        • Failure Analysis Step No. 2: “FRETT”
        • Step No. 3: Validation or Relating Analytic Models to Field Experience
      • Chapter 35.3: Repetitive Pump Seal Failures Can Cause Disasters
        • Introduction
        • Lessons for those Willing to Learn
    • Subject Category 36: Run-Length Determination
      • Abstract
      • Chapter 36.1: How Can Remaining Run-Length Potential be Determined?
        • Introduction
    • Subject Category 37: Screw Compressors and MQA
      • Abstract
      • Chapter 37.1: Machinery Quality Assessment (MQA) Needed on Twin-Screw Compressors
        • Introduction
    • Subject Category 38: Specifications and Standards
      • Abstract
      • Chapter 38.1: Standards and Disclaimers
        • Introduction
        • Typical Scope of Standards
        • Disclaimers in Standards
        • Where Does This Leave You?
      • Chapter 38.2: Expanding the Scope of Industry Specifications: Include Installation Specifications in Addenda
        • Introduction
        • Specifications and Addenda
    • Subject Category 39: Steam Turbines and Steam Traps
      • Abstract
      • Chapter 39.1: Selecting Steam Turbines in a “Lean” Environment
        • Introduction
        • Detailed Investigation Needed
        • Don't Get Caught by the “Lean and Mean” Craze
        • Consider Sweeping Upgrades to General Purpose Steam Turbines [API-611]
      • Chapter 39.2: Steam Turbine Overspeed Protection Retrofits
        • Introduction
        • Multilevel Password Ensures Security
        • Self-diagnostics: Supervisory Module
        • Flexibility
        • API/ISO Compliance
      • Chapter 39.3: Consider Bearing Protection for Small Steam Turbines
        • Introduction
        • Leakage Events
      • Chapter 39.4: Consider “Water Washing” for Steam Turbines
        • Introduction
        • Classification of Deposits
        • Methods of Water Washing
      • Chapter 39.5: Steam Trap Technology Worth Understanding
        • Introduction
        • Profitability Is a Factor
        • Monitoring Concept
    • Subject Category 40: Suction Strainers for Fluid Machinery
      • Abstract
      • Chapter 40.1: Pump Suction Strainers
        • Introduction
        • Sizing of Strainers
        • Eccentric Reducers and Straight Runs of Pipe at Pump Suction
    • Subject Category 41: Tooling and Scaffolding
      • Abstract
      • Chapter 41.1: Consider Suspended Access Scaffolding
        • Introduction
        • Versatility and Strength
    • Subject Category 42: Training Strategies for Success
      • Abstract
      • Chapter 42.1: Finding Answers to Library and Training Dilemmas
        • Introduction
        • Avoid Haphazard Pursuits
        • Literature Details
        • Comments on Library Trends
        • Merging Training and Networking
      • Chapter 42.2: Attend User Symposia for Continuous Improvement
        • Introduction
        • Who Meets at Conferences and Symposia and Why They Meet
        • What Pump Failures Really Cost Your Plant
        • Pump Mean Times Between Failure (MTBF) Vary Widely
        • Emerging Technology Worth Tracking
      • Chapter 42.3: Fact-Checking after Attending Reliability Conferences
        • Introduction
        • Popular Beliefs Are Not Always Correct
        • True Versus False, as Validated at User's Conferences
      • Chapter 42.4: Why Continuing Education Budgets are Dropped First
        • Introduction
        • Consider the Savings Potential
        • Adult Training at Local Colleges
      • Chapter 42.5: Early Data Collection Facilitates Future Analysis
        • Introduction
        • Examining Facts First
        • Books as Tutors
        • Manufacturers and Suppliers as Tutors
      • Chapter 42.6: Studying the Best-of-Class Training and Organizing Lineup
        • Introduction
        • Sound Organizational Setup Needed
        • Operator Involvement in Reliability Efforts
        • Keys to a Productive Reliability Workforce
        • Deming's Method Streamlined and Adapted to Our Time
        • Role Statements Mandatory for Progress
        • Adequate and Appropriate Training
        • The Training Roadmap
        • Focus on Shared Responsibility and Verified Self-Motivation
        • Recognition and Reward
        • Dual Career Paths
        • Empathy, the Overlooked Contributor to Asset Preservation
      • Chapter 42.7: Membership in Technical Societies
        • Introduction
        • What Memberships Accomplish
        • Conversations Regarding Value-Adding
      • Chapter 42.8: Leaders Allocate Time for Technology Updates
        • Introduction
        • Opportune Times
      • Chapter 42.9: Acquire a Marketable Skill
        • Introduction
        • Reading Skills and Quoting from Mark Twain
        • Know What a Good Book can Do for You
        • Know the Definition of “Engineer”
        • Success as an Engineer: There Are Choices to Be Made
        • The Engineer and on-the-Job Training
        • Shared Learning and Specialization Are Important
        • The Job Interview and Beyond
        • Specific Steps in the Training and Learning Process
        • Reading Trade Journals
        • Technical Books: One Page a Day, or 200 Pages per Year
        • Training Through “Shirt-Sleeve Seminars”
        • Favorable Results Anticipated
    • Subject Category 43: Turboexpanders
      • Abstract
      • Chapter 43.1: A Turboexpander Overview
        • Introduction
        • Turboexpanders for Energy Conversion
    • Subject Category 44: V-Belt Drives
      • Abstract
      • Chapter 44.1: Factors Often Overlooked in V-Belt Applications
        • Introduction
        • Multiple Belts
    • Subject Category 45: Vibration Technology
      • Abstract
      • Chapter 45.1: Machine Condition Inspection Systems
        • Introduction
        • Why Data Collection Should be an Operator Function
        • How Machine Condition Inspection Systems Work
      • Chapter 45.2: Field-Installed Vibration Amplitudes for Centrifugal Pumps
        • Introduction
        • Causes of Excessive Vibration
        • Bearing Life versus Vibration
      • Chapter 45.3: Vibration Limits: Similar but no Consensus
        • Main Focus
        • Differences Between ISO Guidelines and US Practices
        • Recommended Values and Settings
      • Chapter 45.4: Vibration Limits for Gas Turbines
        • Introduction
        • Do Turbine Size and Duty Matter?
        • Comparing Standards Against Experience
      • Chapter 45.5: Asset Condition Monitoring With Ultrasound
        • Introduction
        • What Is “Ultrasound”
        • Developments Since 2010
      • Chapter 45.6: Justification for Machine Condition Monitoring
        • Introduction
        • What to Monitor and Why
        • Valve Pocket Temperatures
    • Subject Category 46: Warranties
      • Abstract
      • Chapter 46.1: Consider Amended Warranties
        • Introduction
        • The Case of the Integrally Geared Compressor
        • The Case of the Reciprocating Pump
        • The Case of No Warranties on Centrifugal Pumps
    • Subject Category 47: Water Hammer
      • Abstract
      • Chapter 47.1: Consider the Destructive Force of Water Hammer
        • Introduction
        • Factors Affecting Water Hammer
        • Simplified Screening Calculations
    • Postscript/Epilogue: Despite Gaining “Insights”, Industry Will Always Face Challenges
      • Problem, Causes, and Solutions
      • Facts versus Opinions
      • Risk-and-Reward Systems
      • Problem and Solution
      • Our Bias
    • Glossary
    • Appendix I: CPRS Assessment Scoring Matrix
    • Appendix II: The Essential Reliability Library
    • Index

    Details

    No. of pages:
    784
    Language:
    English
    Copyright:
    © Butterworth-Heinemann 2017
    Published:
    Imprint:
    Butterworth-Heinemann
    eBook ISBN:
    9780128112465
    Paperback ISBN:
    9780128092729

    About the Author

    Heinz Bloch

    Heinz Bloch

    Heinz P Bloch is the owner and principal of Process Machinery Consulting Co, and has been the reliability editor of Hydrocarbon Processing Magazine since 1990. He is the author or co-author of over 650 technical papers or articles, and 19 full text books. He was a founding member of Texas A&M University’s International Pump Users Symposium.

    Affiliations and Expertise

    Process Machinery Consulting, Westminster, Colorado, USA