Perspectives on Plant Competition  - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780122944529, 9780323148108

Perspectives on Plant Competition

1st Edition

Editors: James Grace
eBook ISBN: 9780323148108
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th February 1990
Page Count: 498
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Description

Perspectives on Plant Competition is mainly about addressing the many different perspectives in plant competition and finding a common ground among them. Its aim is that through this common ground, new theories can be created. Encompassing 20 chapters, this book is divided into three parts. Part I, Perspectives on the Determinants of Competitive Success, consists of eight chapters. This section deals mainly on the question of determination of competitive success. Different writers put forward various definitions of competition and competitive success to shed light on the question at hand. In the second part of this book, an opposing set of views regarding the consequences of competitive interactions for the plant community structure is provided. This section emphasizes the idea that competition is not the sole force in natural communities. Each chapter in this part focuses on a certain aspect of competition as seen in different communities – across and within habitats – and systems. Part III, which comprises of four chapters, focuses on the competition within the context of interaction of plants with organisms on the other trophic levels. The chapters set forth the idea that competition depends on the impacts of herbivores, parasites, and symbionts. The concluding part of the book greatly emphasizes the need to integrate the mechanisms of competition into the framework of the entire food web.

Table of Contents


Contributors

Preface

Part I Perspectives on the Determinants of Competitive Success

1. Perspectives on Plant Competition: Some Introductory Remarks

Text

References

2. Apparent versus "Real" Competition in Plants

I. Introduction

II. Methods for Demonstrating Competitive Mechanisms

III. Evidence for Real versus Apparent Competition in Plants

IV. Discussion

V. Summary

References

3. Components of Resource Competition in Plant Communities

I. Introduction

II. Traits Related to Effect and Response

III. Resource Effect / Response and Competitive Ability

IV. Importance of Competition over Environmental Gradients

V. Conclusions

References

4. On the Relationship between Plant Traits and Competitive Ability

I. Introduction

II. The Conflict between Grime's and Tilman's Theories

III. The Meaning of Competitive Success

IV. The Semantics of Populations versus Individuals

V. Evolutionary Tradeoffs and Competitive Ability

VI. Conclusions

VII. Summary

References

5. The Application of Plant Population Dynamic Models to Understanding Plant Competition

I. Introduction

II. Plant Population Dynamic Models

III. Neighborhood Models of Annual Plant Population Dynamics

IV. General Discussion and Conclusions

V. Summary

References

6. Competition and Nutrient Availability in Heathland and Grassland Ecosystems

I. Introduction

II. Vegetation Dynamics and the Growth of Single Plants

III. The Nutrient Balance of the Plant

IV. Competition between Perennial Plant Populations

V. Competitive Ability and Nutrient Supply

VI. The Trade-Off between Different Adaptive Features

References

7. Mechanisms of Plant Competition for Nutrients: The Elements of a Predictive Theory of Competition

I. Introduction

II. Plant Competition

III. Mechanisms of Nutrient Competition

IV. Plant Traits and Nutrient Competitive Ability

V. Predicting the Outcome of Nutrient Competition

VI. Abstraction versus Complexity

VII. Appendix

8. Allelopathy, Koch's Postulates, and the Neck Riddle

I. Introduction

II. Koch's Postulates: A Neck Riddle?

III. Some Obligations in Allelopathic Research

IV. Sand Pine Scrub: The Coastal Plain Chaparral?

V. Summary

References

Part II The Role of Competition in Community Structure

9. On the Effects of Competition: From Monocultures to Mixtures

I. Introduction

II. Competition within Monocultures

III. Competition within Two - Species Mixtures of Plants

IV. Forecasting the Dynamics of Monocultures and Mixtures

V. Summary

References

10. Phytoplankton Nutrient Competition—from Laboratory to Lake

I. Introduction

II. Are Nutrients Limiting in Situ?

III. Dominance of Algal Taxa in Relation to Nutrient Ratios

IV. The Role of Competition in Assembling Lake's Species Pool

V. Concluding Remarks

VI. Summary

References

11. Community Theory and Competition in Vegetation

I. Introduction

II. Continuum Concept

III. Species Response Patterns along Environmental Gradients

IV. Discussion

V. Summary

References

12. Plant-Plant Interactions in Successional Environments

I. Introduction

II. The Role of Interference in Successional Change

III. Who Interacts with Whom in Successional Environments?

IV. Experimental Investigations of the Role of Plant - Plant Interactions in Successional Change : A Case Study in Illinois Fields

V. Plant-Plant Interactions and the Evolution of Response

Breadth 253

VI. Evidence for Differences in Responses among Species of the

Same Community: Mechanisms for Reduction of Competition

VII. The Opposing Forces of Convergence Divergence

VIII. Plant-Plant Interactions as Selective Agents on the Genetic

Structure of Populations of Early Successional Plants

IX. Conclusions

References

13. Competitive Hierarchies and Centrifugal Organization in Plant Communities

I. Introduction

II. Evidence for Predictable Patterns in Plant Competition

III. Large-Scale Patterns and Long-Term Goals

IV. Summary

References

14. Disorderliness in Plant Communities: Comparisons, Causes, and Consequences

I. Introduction

II. Definitions

III. Causes of Disorderliness

IV. A Shift in Our Views of Plant Communities

V. Measuring the Degree of Disorderliness

VI. Disorderliness at the Community Level

VII. Consequences for Communities

VIII. Future Directions

IX. Summary

References

15. The Role of Competition in Structuring Pasture Communities

I. Introduction

II. Between-Species Patterns

III. Within-Species Patterns

IV. Individual-Plant Patterns

V. Conclusions

VI. Summary

References

16. The Role of Competition in Agriculture

I. Introduction

II. Methods for Studying Plant Competition in Agriculture

III. Process-Based Models for Competition in Agricultural Plant Communities

IV. Summary

References

Part III The Impact of Herbivores, Parasites, and Symbionts on Competition

17. The Mediation of Competition by Mycorrhizae in Successional and Patchy Environments

I. Introduction

II. Mycorrhizae in Successional Biomes

III. Competition and Mycorrhizae in Field and Greenhouse Experiments

IV. Hyphal Connections in Patchy Environments

V. Other Considerations

VI. Conclusions

VII. Summary

References

18. The impact of Parasitic and Mutualistic Fungi on Competitive Interactions among Plants

I. Introduction

II. Mutualism and Parasitism

III. Effects of Fungi on Plant Competition

IV. Factors Affecting Infection Frequency

V. Community Consequences

VI. Conclusions and Future Research Directions

References

19. Herbivore Influences on Plant Performance and Competitive Interactions

I. Introduction

II. Herbivory in Models of Competition

III. Herbivore Impact on Individual Plants

IV. Herbivore Alteration of Population Dynamics and Resource Demand

V. Spatial Variation in Herbivore Effect

VI. Discussion

VII. Summary

References

20. Predation, Herbivory, and Plant Strategies along Gradients of Primary Productivity

I. Vegetation Processes in Benign and Stressful Environments: Variations on the Same Theme?

II. Trophic Dynamics and Primary Productivity

III. Grazing and the ESS Foliage Height of Plants

IV. Grazing and the ESS Level of Plant Defenses

V. Graminoid, Ericoid, and Dryas Strategies

VI. Concluding Remarks

VII. Summary

References

Index






Details

No. of pages:
498
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1990
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323148108

About the Editor

James Grace