Perspectives on Plant Competition

Perspectives on Plant Competition

1st Edition - February 28, 1990

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  • Editor: James Grace
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323148108

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Description

Perspectives on Plant Competition is mainly about addressing the many different perspectives in plant competition and finding a common ground among them. Its aim is that through this common ground, new theories can be created. Encompassing 20 chapters, this book is divided into three parts. Part I, Perspectives on the Determinants of Competitive Success, consists of eight chapters. This section deals mainly on the question of determination of competitive success. Different writers put forward various definitions of competition and competitive success to shed light on the question at hand. In the second part of this book, an opposing set of views regarding the consequences of competitive interactions for the plant community structure is provided. This section emphasizes the idea that competition is not the sole force in natural communities. Each chapter in this part focuses on a certain aspect of competition as seen in different communities – across and within habitats – and systems. Part III, which comprises of four chapters, focuses on the competition within the context of interaction of plants with organisms on the other trophic levels. The chapters set forth the idea that competition depends on the impacts of herbivores, parasites, and symbionts. The concluding part of the book greatly emphasizes the need to integrate the mechanisms of competition into the framework of the entire food web.

Table of Contents


  • Contributors

    Preface

    Part I Perspectives on the Determinants of Competitive Success

    1. Perspectives on Plant Competition: Some Introductory Remarks

    Text

    References

    2. Apparent versus "Real" Competition in Plants

    I. Introduction

    II. Methods for Demonstrating Competitive Mechanisms

    III. Evidence for Real versus Apparent Competition in Plants

    IV. Discussion

    V. Summary

    References

    3. Components of Resource Competition in Plant Communities

    I. Introduction

    II. Traits Related to Effect and Response

    III. Resource Effect / Response and Competitive Ability

    IV. Importance of Competition over Environmental Gradients

    V. Conclusions

    References

    4. On the Relationship between Plant Traits and Competitive Ability

    I. Introduction

    II. The Conflict between Grime's and Tilman's Theories

    III. The Meaning of Competitive Success

    IV. The Semantics of Populations versus Individuals

    V. Evolutionary Tradeoffs and Competitive Ability

    VI. Conclusions

    VII. Summary

    References

    5. The Application of Plant Population Dynamic Models to Understanding Plant Competition

    I. Introduction

    II. Plant Population Dynamic Models

    III. Neighborhood Models of Annual Plant Population Dynamics

    IV. General Discussion and Conclusions

    V. Summary

    References

    6. Competition and Nutrient Availability in Heathland and Grassland Ecosystems

    I. Introduction

    II. Vegetation Dynamics and the Growth of Single Plants

    III. The Nutrient Balance of the Plant

    IV. Competition between Perennial Plant Populations

    V. Competitive Ability and Nutrient Supply

    VI. The Trade-Off between Different Adaptive Features

    References

    7. Mechanisms of Plant Competition for Nutrients: The Elements of a Predictive Theory of Competition

    I. Introduction

    II. Plant Competition

    III. Mechanisms of Nutrient Competition

    IV. Plant Traits and Nutrient Competitive Ability

    V. Predicting the Outcome of Nutrient Competition

    VI. Abstraction versus Complexity

    VII. Appendix

    8. Allelopathy, Koch's Postulates, and the Neck Riddle

    I. Introduction

    II. Koch's Postulates: A Neck Riddle?

    III. Some Obligations in Allelopathic Research

    IV. Sand Pine Scrub: The Coastal Plain Chaparral?

    V. Summary

    References

    Part II The Role of Competition in Community Structure

    9. On the Effects of Competition: From Monocultures to Mixtures

    I. Introduction

    II. Competition within Monocultures

    III. Competition within Two - Species Mixtures of Plants

    IV. Forecasting the Dynamics of Monocultures and Mixtures

    V. Summary

    References

    10. Phytoplankton Nutrient Competition—from Laboratory to Lake

    I. Introduction

    II. Are Nutrients Limiting in Situ?

    III. Dominance of Algal Taxa in Relation to Nutrient Ratios

    IV. The Role of Competition in Assembling Lake's Species Pool

    V. Concluding Remarks

    VI. Summary

    References

    11. Community Theory and Competition in Vegetation

    I. Introduction

    II. Continuum Concept

    III. Species Response Patterns along Environmental Gradients

    IV. Discussion

    V. Summary

    References

    12. Plant-Plant Interactions in Successional Environments

    I. Introduction

    II. The Role of Interference in Successional Change

    III. Who Interacts with Whom in Successional Environments?

    IV. Experimental Investigations of the Role of Plant - Plant Interactions in Successional Change : A Case Study in Illinois Fields

    V. Plant-Plant Interactions and the Evolution of Response

    Breadth 253

    VI. Evidence for Differences in Responses among Species of the

    Same Community: Mechanisms for Reduction of Competition

    VII. The Opposing Forces of Convergence Divergence

    VIII. Plant-Plant Interactions as Selective Agents on the Genetic

    Structure of Populations of Early Successional Plants

    IX. Conclusions

    References

    13. Competitive Hierarchies and Centrifugal Organization in Plant Communities

    I. Introduction

    II. Evidence for Predictable Patterns in Plant Competition

    III. Large-Scale Patterns and Long-Term Goals

    IV. Summary

    References

    14. Disorderliness in Plant Communities: Comparisons, Causes, and Consequences

    I. Introduction

    II. Definitions

    III. Causes of Disorderliness

    IV. A Shift in Our Views of Plant Communities

    V. Measuring the Degree of Disorderliness

    VI. Disorderliness at the Community Level

    VII. Consequences for Communities

    VIII. Future Directions

    IX. Summary

    References

    15. The Role of Competition in Structuring Pasture Communities

    I. Introduction

    II. Between-Species Patterns

    III. Within-Species Patterns

    IV. Individual-Plant Patterns

    V. Conclusions

    VI. Summary

    References

    16. The Role of Competition in Agriculture

    I. Introduction

    II. Methods for Studying Plant Competition in Agriculture

    III. Process-Based Models for Competition in Agricultural Plant Communities

    IV. Summary

    References

    Part III The Impact of Herbivores, Parasites, and Symbionts on Competition

    17. The Mediation of Competition by Mycorrhizae in Successional and Patchy Environments

    I. Introduction

    II. Mycorrhizae in Successional Biomes

    III. Competition and Mycorrhizae in Field and Greenhouse Experiments

    IV. Hyphal Connections in Patchy Environments

    V. Other Considerations

    VI. Conclusions

    VII. Summary

    References

    18. The impact of Parasitic and Mutualistic Fungi on Competitive Interactions among Plants

    I. Introduction

    II. Mutualism and Parasitism

    III. Effects of Fungi on Plant Competition

    IV. Factors Affecting Infection Frequency

    V. Community Consequences

    VI. Conclusions and Future Research Directions

    References

    19. Herbivore Influences on Plant Performance and Competitive Interactions

    I. Introduction

    II. Herbivory in Models of Competition

    III. Herbivore Impact on Individual Plants

    IV. Herbivore Alteration of Population Dynamics and Resource Demand

    V. Spatial Variation in Herbivore Effect

    VI. Discussion

    VII. Summary

    References

    20. Predation, Herbivory, and Plant Strategies along Gradients of Primary Productivity

    I. Vegetation Processes in Benign and Stressful Environments: Variations on the Same Theme?

    II. Trophic Dynamics and Primary Productivity

    III. Grazing and the ESS Foliage Height of Plants

    IV. Grazing and the ESS Level of Plant Defenses

    V. Graminoid, Ericoid, and Dryas Strategies

    VI. Concluding Remarks

    VII. Summary

    References

    Index






Product details

  • No. of pages: 498
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1990
  • Published: February 28, 1990
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323148108

About the Editor

James Grace

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