Pattern Recognition by Humans and Machines - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780126314038, 9781483220109

Pattern Recognition by Humans and Machines

1st Edition

Speech Perception

Editors: Eileen C. Schwab Howard C. Nusbaum
eBook ISBN: 9781483220109
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1986
Page Count: 336
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Description

Pattern Recognition by Humans and Machines, Volume 1: Speech Perception covers perception from the perspectives of cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, and brain theory. The book discusses on the research, theory, and the principal issues of speech perception; the auditory and phonetic coding of speech; and the role of the lexicon in speech perception. The text also describes the role of attention and active processing in speech perception; the suprasegmental in very large vocabulary word recognition; and the adaptive self-organization of serial order in behavior. The cognitive science and the study of cognition and language are also considered. Psychologists will find the book invaluable.

Table of Contents


Preface

Contents of Volume 2

1. Speech Perception: Research, Theory, and the Principal Issues

I. Introduction

II. The Principal Issues

III. Interaction of Knowledge Sources

IV. Models of Speech Sound Perception

V. Approaches to Auditory Word Recognition

VI. Summary and Conclusions

References

2. Auditory and Phonetic Coding Of Speech

I. Introduction

II. The Problem of Perceptual Constancy

III. A Framework for a Model of Speech Perception

IV. A Process Model

References

3. The Role of the Lexicon in Speech Perception

I. The Musing

II. The Facts

III. The Answer

References

4. The Role of Attention and Active Processing in Speech Perception

I. Introduction

II. Control Structures in Perception

III. Capacity Limitations in Speech Perception

IV. Toward an Active Theory of Speech Perception

V. Conclusions

References

5. Suprasegmentals in Very Large Vocabulary Word Recognition

I. Introduction

II. Analysis of Large Vocabularies

III. Suprasegmental Knowledge Sources in Recognition

IV. Conclusions

References

6. The Adaptive Self-Organization of Serial Order in Behavior: Speech, Language, and Motor Control

I. Introduction: Principles of Self-organization in Models of Serial Order: Performance Models versus Self-organizing Models

II. Models of Lateral Inhibition, Temporal Order, Letter Recognition, Spreading Activation, Associative Learning, Categorical Perception, and Memory Search: Some Problem Areas

III. Associative Learning by Neural Networks: Interactions between STM and LTM

IV. LTM Unit Is a Spatial Pattern: Sampling and Factorization

V. Outstar Learning: Factorizing Coherent Pattern from Chaotic Activity

VI. Sensory Expectancies, Motor Synergies, and Temporal Order Information

VII. Ritualistic Learning of Serial Behavior: Avalanches

VIII. Decoupling Order and Rhythm: Nonspecific Arousal as a Velocity Command

IX. Reaction Time and Performance Speed-Up

X. Hierarchical Chunking and the Learning of Serial Order

XI. Self-organization of Plans: The Goal Paradox

XII. Temporal Order Information in LTM

XIII. Read-out and Self-inhibition of Ordered STM Traces

XIV. The Problem of STM-LTM Order Reversal

XV. Serial Learning

XVI. Rhythm Generators and Rehearsal Waves

XVII. Shunting Competitive Dynamics in Pattern Processing and STM: Automatic Self-tuning by Parallel Interactions

XVIII. Choice, Contrast Enhancement, Limited STM Capacity, and Quenching Threshold

XIX. Limited Capacity without a Buffer: Automaticity versus Competition

XX. Hill Climbing and the Rich Get Richer

XXI. Instar Learning: Adaptive Filtering and Chunking

XXII. Spatial Gradients, Stimulus Generalization, and Categorical Perception

XXIII. The Progressive Sharpening of Memory: Tuning Prewired Perceptual Categories

XXIV. Stabilizing the Coding of Large Vocabularies: Top-Down Expectancies and STM Reset by Unexpected Events

XXV. Expectancy Matching and Adaptive Resonance

XXVI. The Processing of Novel Events: Pattern Completion versus Search of Associative Memory

XXVII. Recognition, Automaticity, Primes, and Capacity

XXVIII. Anchors, Auditory Contrast, and Selective Adaptation

XXIX. Training of Attentional Set and Perceptual Categories

XXX. Circular Reactions, Babbling, and the Development of Auditory-Articulatory Space

XXXI. Analysis-by-Synthesis and the Imitation of Novel Events

XXXII. A Moving Picture of Continuously Interpolated Terminal Motor Maps: Coarticulation and Articulatory Undershoot

XXXIII. A Context-Sensitive STM Code for Event Sequences

XXXIV. Stable Unitization and Temporal Order Information in STM: The LTM Invariance Principle

XXXV. Transient Memory Span, Grouping, and Intensity-Time Tradeoffs

XXXVI. Backward Effects and Effects of Rate on Recall Order

XXXVII. Seeking the Most Predictive Representation: All Letters and Words Are Lists

XXXVIII. Spatial Frequency Analysis of Temporal Patterns by a Masking Field: Word Length and Superiority

XXXIX. The Temporal Chunking Problem

XL. The Masking Field: Joining Temporal Order to Differential Masking via an Adaptive Filter

XLI. The Principle of Self-similarity and the Magic Number 7

XLII. Developmental Equilibration of the Adaptive Filter and Its Target Masking Field

XLIII. The Self-similar Growth Rule and the Opposites Attract Rule

XLIV. Automatic Parsing, Learned Superiority Effects, and Serial Position Effects during Pattern Completion

XLV. Gray Chips or Great Ships

XLVI. Sensory Recognition versus Motor Recall: Network Lesions and Amnesias

XLVII. Four Types of Rhythm: Their Reaction Times and Arousal Sources

XLVIII. Concluding Remarks

Appendix: Dynamical Equations

References

7. Cognitive Science and the Study of Cognition and Language

I. Introduction

II. On What Is Stored: The Concept of a Symbol

III. Requirements on Representations: Atomism Revisited

IV. Structure in Linguistics and Artificial Intelligence

V. Conclusion: Information Processing and Its Acculturation

References

Index


Details

No. of pages:
336
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1986
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483220109

About the Editor

Eileen C. Schwab

Howard C. Nusbaum