Pattern Recognition by Humans and Machines

Pattern Recognition by Humans and Machines

Speech Perception

1st Edition - January 28, 1986

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  • Editors: Eileen C. Schwab, Howard C. Nusbaum
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483220109

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Pattern Recognition by Humans and Machines, Volume 1: Speech Perception covers perception from the perspectives of cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, and brain theory. The book discusses on the research, theory, and the principal issues of speech perception; the auditory and phonetic coding of speech; and the role of the lexicon in speech perception. The text also describes the role of attention and active processing in speech perception; the suprasegmental in very large vocabulary word recognition; and the adaptive self-organization of serial order in behavior. The cognitive science and the study of cognition and language are also considered. Psychologists will find the book invaluable.

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    Contents of Volume 2

    1. Speech Perception: Research, Theory, and the Principal Issues

    I. Introduction

    II. The Principal Issues

    III. Interaction of Knowledge Sources

    IV. Models of Speech Sound Perception

    V. Approaches to Auditory Word Recognition

    VI. Summary and Conclusions


    2. Auditory and Phonetic Coding Of Speech

    I. Introduction

    II. The Problem of Perceptual Constancy

    III. A Framework for a Model of Speech Perception

    IV. A Process Model


    3. The Role of the Lexicon in Speech Perception

    I. The Musing

    II. The Facts

    III. The Answer


    4. The Role of Attention and Active Processing in Speech Perception

    I. Introduction

    II. Control Structures in Perception

    III. Capacity Limitations in Speech Perception

    IV. Toward an Active Theory of Speech Perception

    V. Conclusions


    5. Suprasegmentals in Very Large Vocabulary Word Recognition

    I. Introduction

    II. Analysis of Large Vocabularies

    III. Suprasegmental Knowledge Sources in Recognition

    IV. Conclusions


    6. The Adaptive Self-Organization of Serial Order in Behavior: Speech, Language, and Motor Control

    I. Introduction: Principles of Self-organization in Models of Serial Order: Performance Models versus Self-organizing Models

    II. Models of Lateral Inhibition, Temporal Order, Letter Recognition, Spreading Activation, Associative Learning, Categorical Perception, and Memory Search: Some Problem Areas

    III. Associative Learning by Neural Networks: Interactions between STM and LTM

    IV. LTM Unit Is a Spatial Pattern: Sampling and Factorization

    V. Outstar Learning: Factorizing Coherent Pattern from Chaotic Activity

    VI. Sensory Expectancies, Motor Synergies, and Temporal Order Information

    VII. Ritualistic Learning of Serial Behavior: Avalanches

    VIII. Decoupling Order and Rhythm: Nonspecific Arousal as a Velocity Command

    IX. Reaction Time and Performance Speed-Up

    X. Hierarchical Chunking and the Learning of Serial Order

    XI. Self-organization of Plans: The Goal Paradox

    XII. Temporal Order Information in LTM

    XIII. Read-out and Self-inhibition of Ordered STM Traces

    XIV. The Problem of STM-LTM Order Reversal

    XV. Serial Learning

    XVI. Rhythm Generators and Rehearsal Waves

    XVII. Shunting Competitive Dynamics in Pattern Processing and STM: Automatic Self-tuning by Parallel Interactions

    XVIII. Choice, Contrast Enhancement, Limited STM Capacity, and Quenching Threshold

    XIX. Limited Capacity without a Buffer: Automaticity versus Competition

    XX. Hill Climbing and the Rich Get Richer

    XXI. Instar Learning: Adaptive Filtering and Chunking

    XXII. Spatial Gradients, Stimulus Generalization, and Categorical Perception

    XXIII. The Progressive Sharpening of Memory: Tuning Prewired Perceptual Categories

    XXIV. Stabilizing the Coding of Large Vocabularies: Top-Down Expectancies and STM Reset by Unexpected Events

    XXV. Expectancy Matching and Adaptive Resonance

    XXVI. The Processing of Novel Events: Pattern Completion versus Search of Associative Memory

    XXVII. Recognition, Automaticity, Primes, and Capacity

    XXVIII. Anchors, Auditory Contrast, and Selective Adaptation

    XXIX. Training of Attentional Set and Perceptual Categories

    XXX. Circular Reactions, Babbling, and the Development of Auditory-Articulatory Space

    XXXI. Analysis-by-Synthesis and the Imitation of Novel Events

    XXXII. A Moving Picture of Continuously Interpolated Terminal Motor Maps: Coarticulation and Articulatory Undershoot

    XXXIII. A Context-Sensitive STM Code for Event Sequences

    XXXIV. Stable Unitization and Temporal Order Information in STM: The LTM Invariance Principle

    XXXV. Transient Memory Span, Grouping, and Intensity-Time Tradeoffs

    XXXVI. Backward Effects and Effects of Rate on Recall Order

    XXXVII. Seeking the Most Predictive Representation: All Letters and Words Are Lists

    XXXVIII. Spatial Frequency Analysis of Temporal Patterns by a Masking Field: Word Length and Superiority

    XXXIX. The Temporal Chunking Problem

    XL. The Masking Field: Joining Temporal Order to Differential Masking via an Adaptive Filter

    XLI. The Principle of Self-similarity and the Magic Number 7

    XLII. Developmental Equilibration of the Adaptive Filter and Its Target Masking Field

    XLIII. The Self-similar Growth Rule and the Opposites Attract Rule

    XLIV. Automatic Parsing, Learned Superiority Effects, and Serial Position Effects during Pattern Completion

    XLV. Gray Chips or Great Ships

    XLVI. Sensory Recognition versus Motor Recall: Network Lesions and Amnesias

    XLVII. Four Types of Rhythm: Their Reaction Times and Arousal Sources

    XLVIII. Concluding Remarks

    Appendix: Dynamical Equations


    7. Cognitive Science and the Study of Cognition and Language

    I. Introduction

    II. On What Is Stored: The Concept of a Symbol

    III. Requirements on Representations: Atomism Revisited

    IV. Structure in Linguistics and Artificial Intelligence

    V. Conclusion: Information Processing and Its Acculturation



Product details

  • No. of pages: 336
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1986
  • Published: January 28, 1986
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483220109

About the Editors

Eileen C. Schwab

Howard C. Nusbaum

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