COVID-19 Update: We are currently shipping orders daily. However, due to transit disruptions in some geographies, deliveries may be delayed. To provide all customers with timely access to content, we are offering 50% off Science and Technology Print & eBook bundle options. Terms & conditions.
Particles and Waves in Electron Optics and Microscopy - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128048146, 9780128052303

Particles and Waves in Electron Optics and Microscopy, Volume 194

1st Edition

Serial Editor: Peter Hawkes
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128048146
eBook ISBN: 9780128052303
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 27th May 2016
Page Count: 358
Sales tax will be calculated at check-out Price includes VAT/GST
Price includes VAT/GST

Institutional Subscription

Secure Checkout

Personal information is secured with SSL technology.

Free Shipping

Free global shipping
No minimum order.

Table of Contents

  • Dedication
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • Future Contributions
  • Acknowledgments
    • Credits
  • Plan of the Book
  • Chapter One: Complements of Geometrical Light Optics
    • Abstract
    • 1 Geometry of the Rays
    • 2 Geometry of the Surfaces
    • 3 Comments and Notes
  • Chapter Two: Complements of Wave Optics
    • Abstract
    • 1 Mathematical Preliminaries
    • 2 Elements of Diffraction Theory: Propagation
    • 3 Elements of Diffraction Theory: Interaction
    • 4 Kirchhoff Diffraction from a Half-plane and Comparison with the Sommerfeld Solution
    • 5 Comments and Notes
  • Chapter Three: Particle Theory of Image Formation
    • Abstract
    • 1 Elementary Considerations
    • 2 Expressions for the Electric and Magnetic Fields
    • 3 Electron Focusing in Cylindrical Coordinates
    • 4 Image Formation: The General Case
    • 5 Motion in Perpendicular and Crossed Fields
  • Chapter Four: Electromagnetic Lenses
    • Abstract
    • 1 Electrostatic Lenses
    • 2 Magnetic Lenses
    • 3 Quadrupole Lenses
    • 4 Comments and Notes
  • Chapter Five: Electron, Particles, or Waves?
    • Abstract
    • 1 The Electron Biprism
    • 2 Experimental Results with the Electron Biprism
    • 3 Buildup of the Biprism Fresnel Interference Fringes by Single Electrons
    • 4 Experiments with Nanoslits
    • 5 Buildup of the Two-Slit Fraunhofer Interference Fringes by Single Electrons
    • 6 Comments and Notes
  • Chapter Six: The Wavefunction of the Paraxial Electrons
    • Abstract
    • 1 The Schrödinger Equation
    • 2 The Eikonal Approximation
    • 3 Electron–Specimen Interaction: The Phase Object Approximation
    • 4 The Multislice Approximation
    • 5 Comparison Between the Two Approaches
    • 6 Comments and Notes
  • Chapter Seven: Fourier Optics
    • Abstract
    • 1 Relationship Between the Wavefunctions in the Object and Image Planes
    • 2 A Note on the Dirac δ Function
    • 3 Effect of an Aperture on the Image
    • 4 Influence of the Aperture on the Image of a Periodic Object
    • 5 Evolution of the Wavefunction in a Thin Lens
    • 6 From Wave to Particle Mechanics
    • 7 Comments and Notes
  • Chapter Eight: Other Interference Experiments
    • Abstract
    • 1 Multiple Beam Experiments
    • 2 Interference of Probability Amplitudes
    • 3 The Magnetic Aharonov–Bohm Effect
    • 4 The Electrostatic Aharonov–Bohm Effect
    • 5 Comments and Notes
  • Chapter Nine: Interpretation of the Experimental Results
    • Abstract
    • 1 The Wavefunction in the Observation Plane
    • 2 Spherical Wave Theorems
    • 3 Slits
    • 4 Electron Biprism
    • 5 Interference of the Probability Amplitudes
    • 6 Interpretation of the Aharonov–Bohm Effects
    • 7 Linear Charge Distributions
    • 8 Comments and Notes
  • Chapter Ten: Off-Axis Electron Holography: A Short Introduction
    • Abstract
    • 1 Gabor's Idea
    • 2 Electron Holography: Early State of the Art
    • 3 Electron Holography of Long-Range Electromagnetic Fields
    • 4 Simulation of the Holographic Process for a Magnetized Bar
    • 5 Comments and Notes
  • Chapter Eleven: Waveoptical Analysis of the Spherical Aberration
    • Abstract
    • 1 Beyond the Paraxial Approximation
    • 2 Phase Object Approximation with Spherical Input Waves
    • 3 Equation for the Spherical Aberration Coefficient
    • 4 The Wide-Angle Parabolic Wave Equation
    • 5 Solution of the Wide-Angle Parabolic Equation
    • 6 Comparison with the Classical Results
    • 7 The Scherzer Theorem for Magnetic Lenses
    • 8 Amplitude Transfer Theory
    • 9 The Point Transfer Function
    • 10 Phase Contrast in the STEM
    • 11 Comments and Notes
  • Chapter Twelve: Epilogue
  • Appendix: Calculation of the Definite Integrals Appearing in the R–S Formula
  • Bibliography
  • Contents of Volumes 151-193
  • Index


Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics merges two long-running serials, Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics and Advances in Optical and Electron Microscopy. The series features extended articles on the physics of electron devices (especially semiconductor devices), particle optics at high and low energies, microlithography, image science, digital image processing, electromagnetic wave propagation, electron microscopy, and the computing methods used in all these domains.

Key Features

  • Contains contributions from leading authorities on the subject matter
  • Informs and updates all the latest developments in the field of imaging and electron physics
  • Provides practitioners interested in microscopy, optics, image processing, mathematical morphology, electromagnetic fields, electron, and ion emission with a valuable resource
  • Features extended articles on the physics of electron devices (especially semiconductor devices), particle optics at high and low energies, microlithography, image science, and digital image processing


Physicists, electrical engineers and applied mathematicians in all branches of image processing and microscopy as well as electron physics in general.


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 2016
27th May 2016
Academic Press
Hardcover ISBN:
eBook ISBN:

Ratings and Reviews

About the Serial Editor

Peter Hawkes

Peter Hawkes

Peter Hawkes graduated from the University of Cambridge and subsequently obtained his PhD in the Electron Microscopy Section of the Cavendish Laboratory. He remained there for several years, working on electron optics and digital image processing before taking up a research position in the CNRS Laboratory of Electron Optics (now CEMES-CNRS) in Toulouse, of which he was Director in 1987. During the Cambridge years, he was a Research Fellow of Peterhouse and a Senior Research fellow of Churchill College. He has published extensively, both books and scientific journal articles, and is a member of the editorial boards of Ultramicroscopy and the Journal of Microscopy. He was the founder-president of the European Microscopy Society, CNRS Silver Medallist in 1983 and is a Fellow of the Optical Society of America and of the Microscopy Society of America (Distinguished Scientist, Physics, 2015), Fellow of the Royal Microscopical Society and Honorary Member of the French Microscopy Society. In 1982, he was awarded the ScD degree by the University of Cambridge.

In 1982, he took over editorship of the Advances in Electronics & Electron Physics (now Advances in Imaging & Electron Physics) from Claire Marton (widow of the first editor, Bill Marton) and followed Marton's example in maintaining a wide range of subject matter. He added mathematical morphology to the topics regularly covered; Jean Serra and Gerhard Ritter are among those who have contributed.

In 1980, he joined Professor Wollnik (Giessen University) and Karl Brown (SLAC) in organising the first international conference on charged-particle optics, designed to bring together opticians from the worlds of electron optics, accelerator optics and spectrometer optics. This was so successful that similar meetings have been held at four-year intervals from 1986 to the present day. Peter Hawkes organised the 1990 meeting in Toulouse and has been a member of the organising committee of all the meetings. He has also participated in the organization of other microscopy-related congresses, notably EMAG in the UK and some of the International and European Congresses on electron microscopy as well as three Pfefferkorn conferences.

He is very interested in the history of optics and microscopy, and recently wrote long historical articles on the correction of electron lens aberrations, the first based on a lecture delivered at a meeting of the Royal Society. He likewise sponsored biographical articles for the Advances on such major figures as Ernst Ruska (Nobel Prize 1986), Helmut Ruska, Bodo von Borries, Jan Le Poole and Dennis Gabor (Nobel Prize, 1971). Two substantial volumes of the series were devoted to 'The Beginnings of Electron Microscopy' and 'The Growth of Electron Microscopy'. and others have covered 'Cold Field Emission Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy' and 'Aberration-corrected Electron Microscopy', with contributions by all the main personalities of the subject.

Affiliations and Expertise

Laboratoire d'Optique Electronique du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CEMES), Toulouse, France