Oxidative Stress

Oxidative Stress

1st Edition - January 28, 1985

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  • Editor: Helmut Sies
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483289113

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Oxidative Stress is intended as an in-depth account of knowledge and problems in the field of oxygen-related damage in biological systems. The topics range from an assessment of molecular events in in vitro model systems to complex problems in clinical medicine. Organized into two parts with a total of 18 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to oxidative stress, elucidating specific topics on reactive oxygen species, detoxification system, and nature of oxidative damage. The first part focuses on models used with cells and tissues in the study of oxidative stress, whereas the second part describes the processes elicited by oxidative stress.

Table of Contents

  • Contributors


    1 Oxidative Stress: Introductory Remarks

    I. Introduction

    II. Reactive Oxygen Species

    III. Detoxication Systems: Antioxidant Defense

    IV. Nature of Oxidative Damage

    V. Processes Elicited by Oxidative Stress

    VI. Cellular and Medical Aspects


    I Models Used with Cells and Tissues

    2 Radiolysis of DNA and Model Systems in the Presence of Oxygen

    I. Introduction

    II. General Aspects of Peroxyl Radical Chemistry

    III. Model Systems

    IV. Strand Breakage in DNA and Polynucleotides in the Presence of Oxygen

    V. Base Damage in DNA

    VI. The Oxygen Effect


    3 Organic Peroxy Free Radicals as Ultimate Agents in Oxygen Toxicity

    I. Introduction

    II. Organic Free Radical Generation in Aqueous Solution: Simplicity of Cobalt Gamma-Ray and Pulse Radiolysis Techniques

    III. Reaction of Organic Free Radicals with Oxygen

    IV. Fate of Peroxy Free Radicals RO2•: Transformation to O2•-

    V. Rapid Reaction of RO2• but Not R• or O2•- with NADH

    VI. Rapid Reaction of RO2• but Not R• with Antioxidants, Unsaturated Fatty Acids, Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and Amino Acids

    VII. Inactivation of a Virus by a Peroxy Radical: Protection by Some Anti-Inflammatory Drugs

    VIII. Inactivation of Lysozyme by CCl3O2•

    IX. Inactivation of Alcohol Dehydrogenase by Peroxy Radicals (RO2•) Generally but Not O2•-

    X. Protection of ADH by Antioxidants and SOD

    XI. Concluding Remarks


    4 Hydroperoxides and Thiol Oxidants in the Study of Oxidative Stress in Intact Cells and Organs

    I. Introduction

    II. t-Butyl Hydroperoxide as a Model Hydroperoxide

    III. Hepatic Processes Initiated by t-Butyl Hydroperoxide

    IV. Diamide as a Useful Thiol Oxidant

    V. Some Processes Studied with Diamide

    VI. Concluding Remarks


    5 Quinone-Induced Oxidative Injury to Cells and Tissues

    I. Introduction

    II. Redox Cycling of Quinones and the Generation of Active Oxygen Species

    III. Role of Redox Cycling in Quinone Cytotoxicity

    IV. Potential Inhibition of Superoxide Dismutase by Quinones

    V. Quinones as Antioxidants

    VI. Quinones as Mutagens and Carcinogens

    VII. Quinones as Toxic Metabolites

    6 Nitrosoureas

    I. Introduction

    II. Chemistry of the Nitrosoureas

    III. Active Site-Directed Carbamylation of Glutathione Reductase

    IV. Protective Role of Glutathione against Chemically Mediated Cellular Injury

    V. Oxidative Stress by Inactivation of Glutathione Reductase

    VI. Conclusions


    7 Antimalarials

    I. Introduction

    II. A Background to Malaria

    III. Present Antimalarial Drugs: A Synopsis

    IV. Vulnerability of Malaria Parasites to Free-Radical-Induced Oxidative Stress

    V. Divicine and Isouramil, Naturally Occurring Antimalarials That Act through Oxidative Stress

    VI. Possibility That Some Existing Antimalarials Might Act through Oxidative Stress

    VII. New Approaches


    8 The Role of Oxygen Concentration in Oxidative Stress: Hypoxic and Hyperoxic Models

    I. Introduction

    II. Overview: Models of Oxidative Injury

    III. O2 Supply

    IV. Patterns of Response of O2-Dependent Systems

    V. O2 Dependence of Specific Systems

    VI. Conclusions


    9 The Role of Dietary Components in Oxidative Stress in Tissues

    I. Factors Affecting Lipid Peroxidation

    II. Incorporation of Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids into Membranes and Their Effects on Lipid Peroxidation

    III. Metal Catalysts in the Diet

    IV. Dietary Pro-Oxidants (Ascorbic Acid)

    V. Dietary Antioxidants

    VI. Summary


    II Processes Elicited by Oxidative Stress

    10 Ca2+ Movements Induced by Hydroperoxides in Mitochondria

    I. Introduction

    II. Ca2+ Release Studies

    III. Hydroperoxides as Regulators of Ca2+ Homeostasis


    11 Mixed Disulfides: Biological Functions and Increase in Oxidative Stress

    I. Introduction

    II. Physiological Role of Mixed Disulfides

    III. Mixed Disulfides and Oxidative Stress

    IV. Conclusions


    12 Lipid Peroxidation: Mechanisms, Analysis, Enzymology and Biological Relevance

    I. Introduction

    II. Mechanisms

    III. Analysis

    IV. Enzymology

    V. Biological Relevance

    VI. Conclusions


    13 Oxidative Stress and Formation of Excited Species

    I. Introduction

    II. Induced Oxidative Stress and Photoemission

    III. Enzymatic Reactions and Excited States

    IV. Antioxidants

    V. Conclusions


    14 Red Cell Oxidative Damage

    I. Introduction

    II. Cellular Changes in Oxidative Damage .

    III. Models of Oxidative Damage in Red Cells

    IV. Methemoglobin, Glucose Metabolism, and Oxidative Damage

    V. Conclusion


    15 Oxidative Stress in Human Neutrophilic Granulocytes: Host Defense and Self-Defense

    I. Introduction

    II. Oxygen Metabolites Generated by Neutrophils.

    III. Oxidative Stress in Neutrophils

    IV. Oxidative Stress by Neutrophils

    V. General Conclusions


    16 Oxidative Stress in the Nervous System

    I. Introduction

    II. Hydrogen Peroxide Production in the Nervous System

    III. Enzymatic Protective Mechanisms in the Nervous System

    IV. Neurotoxic Properties of 6-Hydroxydopamine and 6-Aminodopamine

    V. Superoxide and Peroxide Production by Neurotoxins

    VI. Hydroxyl Radical Production by Neurotoxins

    VII. Protection against Neurotoxins by Endogenous Catecholamines (Superoxide Scavenging)

    VIII. Protection against Neurotoxins by Exogenous Scavengers of the Hydroxyl Radical

    IX. Neuronal Production of Hydroxyl Radicals Mediated by Monoamine Oxidase

    X. Parkinson's Disease: A Working Hypothesis

    XI. Stroke

    XII. Conclusions


    17 Oxygen-Centered Free Radicals as Mediators of Inflammation

    I. Host Defense and Inflammation: A Biased Selection of Historical Landmarks

    II. Activation of Phagocytes

    III. The Contributions of Oxygen-Centered Radicals to Various Aspects of Inflammation

    IV. Therapeutic Perspectives


    18 Tumor Promotion in Skin: Are Active Oxygen Species Involved?

    I. Introduction

    II. Initiation

    III. Promotion

    IV. Mechanistic Aspects of Promotion

    V. The Wound Response, a Key Element for an Understanding of Tumor Promotion



Product details

  • No. of pages: 507
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1985
  • Published: January 28, 1985
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483289113

About the Editor

Helmut Sies

Helmut Sies, MD, PhD (hon), studied medicine at the universities of Tübingen, Munich, and Paris. He was the professor and chair of the Institute for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology I at Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, Germany, where he is now professor emeritus. He is a member of the German National Academy of Sciences Leopoldina and was the president of the North Rhine-Westphalian Academy of Sciences and Arts. He was named ‘Redox Pioneer’; was the president of the Society for Free Radical Research International (SFRRI). Helmut Sies introduced the concept of “Oxidative Stress” in 1985, and was the first to reveal hydrogen peroxide as a normal constituent of aerobic cell metabolism. His research interests comprise redox biology, oxidants, antioxidants, micronutrients.

Affiliations and Expertise

Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, Germany

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