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Oxidative Stress - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780126427608, 9781483289113

Oxidative Stress

1st Edition

Editor: Helmut Sies
eBook ISBN: 9781483289113
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1985
Page Count: 507
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Oxidative Stress is intended as an in-depth account of knowledge and problems in the field of oxygen-related damage in biological systems. The topics range from an assessment of molecular events in in vitro model systems to complex problems in clinical medicine. Organized into two parts with a total of 18 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to oxidative stress, elucidating specific topics on reactive oxygen species, detoxification system, and nature of oxidative damage. The first part focuses on models used with cells and tissues in the study of oxidative stress, whereas the second part describes the processes elicited by oxidative stress.

Table of Contents



1 Oxidative Stress: Introductory Remarks

I. Introduction

II. Reactive Oxygen Species

III. Detoxication Systems: Antioxidant Defense

IV. Nature of Oxidative Damage

V. Processes Elicited by Oxidative Stress

VI. Cellular and Medical Aspects


I Models Used with Cells and Tissues

2 Radiolysis of DNA and Model Systems in the Presence of Oxygen

I. Introduction

II. General Aspects of Peroxyl Radical Chemistry

III. Model Systems

IV. Strand Breakage in DNA and Polynucleotides in the Presence of Oxygen

V. Base Damage in DNA

VI. The Oxygen Effect


3 Organic Peroxy Free Radicals as Ultimate Agents in Oxygen Toxicity

I. Introduction

II. Organic Free Radical Generation in Aqueous Solution: Simplicity of Cobalt Gamma-Ray and Pulse Radiolysis Techniques

III. Reaction of Organic Free Radicals with Oxygen

IV. Fate of Peroxy Free Radicals RO2•: Transformation to O2•-

V. Rapid Reaction of RO2• but Not R• or O2•- with NADH

VI. Rapid Reaction of RO2• but Not R• with Antioxidants, Unsaturated Fatty Acids, Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and Amino Acids

VII. Inactivation of a Virus by a Peroxy Radical: Protection by Some Anti-Inflammatory Drugs

VIII. Inactivation of Lysozyme by CCl3O2•

IX. Inactivation of Alcohol Dehydrogenase by Peroxy Radicals (RO2•) Generally but Not O2•-

X. Protection of ADH by Antioxidants and SOD

XI. Concluding Remarks


4 Hydroperoxides and Thiol Oxidants in the Study of Oxidative Stress in Intact Cells and Organs

I. Introduction

II. t-Butyl Hydroperoxide as a Model Hydroperoxide

III. Hepatic Processes Initiated by t-Butyl Hydroperoxide

IV. Diamide as a Useful Thiol Oxidant

V. Some Processes Studied with Diamide

VI. Concluding Remarks


5 Quinone-Induced Oxidative Injury to Cells and Tissues

I. Introduction

II. Redox Cycling of Quinones and the Generation of Active Oxygen Species

III. Role of Redox Cycling in Quinone Cytotoxicity

IV. Potential Inhibition of Superoxide Dismutase by Quinones

V. Quinones as Antioxidants

VI. Quinones as Mutagens and Carcinogens

VII. Quinones as Toxic Metabolites

6 Nitrosoureas

I. Introduction

II. Chemistry of the Nitrosoureas

III. Active Site-Directed Carbamylation of Glutathione Reductase

IV. Protective Role of Glutathione against Chemically Mediated Cellular Injury

V. Oxidative Stress by Inactivation of Glutathione Reductase

VI. Conclusions


7 Antimalarials

I. Introduction

II. A Background to Malaria

III. Present Antimalarial Drugs: A Synopsis

IV. Vulnerability of Malaria Parasites to Free-Radical-Induced Oxidative Stress

V. Divicine and Isouramil, Naturally Occurring Antimalarials That Act through Oxidative Stress

VI. Possibility That Some Existing Antimalarials Might Act through Oxidative Stress

VII. New Approaches


8 The Role of Oxygen Concentration in Oxidative Stress: Hypoxic and Hyperoxic Models

I. Introduction

II. Overview: Models of Oxidative Injury

III. O2 Supply

IV. Patterns of Response of O2-Dependent Systems

V. O2 Dependence of Specific Systems

VI. Conclusions


9 The Role of Dietary Components in Oxidative Stress in Tissues

I. Factors Affecting Lipid Peroxidation

II. Incorporation of Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids into Membranes and Their Effects on Lipid Peroxidation

III. Metal Catalysts in the Diet

IV. Dietary Pro-Oxidants (Ascorbic Acid)

V. Dietary Antioxidants

VI. Summary


II Processes Elicited by Oxidative Stress

10 Ca2+ Movements Induced by Hydroperoxides in Mitochondria

I. Introduction

II. Ca2+ Release Studies

III. Hydroperoxides as Regulators of Ca2+ Homeostasis


11 Mixed Disulfides: Biological Functions and Increase in Oxidative Stress

I. Introduction

II. Physiological Role of Mixed Disulfides

III. Mixed Disulfides and Oxidative Stress

IV. Conclusions


12 Lipid Peroxidation: Mechanisms, Analysis, Enzymology and Biological Relevance

I. Introduction

II. Mechanisms

III. Analysis

IV. Enzymology

V. Biological Relevance

VI. Conclusions


13 Oxidative Stress and Formation of Excited Species

I. Introduction

II. Induced Oxidative Stress and Photoemission

III. Enzymatic Reactions and Excited States

IV. Antioxidants

V. Conclusions


14 Red Cell Oxidative Damage

I. Introduction

II. Cellular Changes in Oxidative Damage .

III. Models of Oxidative Damage in Red Cells

IV. Methemoglobin, Glucose Metabolism, and Oxidative Damage

V. Conclusion


15 Oxidative Stress in Human Neutrophilic Granulocytes: Host Defense and Self-Defense

I. Introduction

II. Oxygen Metabolites Generated by Neutrophils.

III. Oxidative Stress in Neutrophils

IV. Oxidative Stress by Neutrophils

V. General Conclusions


16 Oxidative Stress in the Nervous System

I. Introduction

II. Hydrogen Peroxide Production in the Nervous System

III. Enzymatic Protective Mechanisms in the Nervous System

IV. Neurotoxic Properties of 6-Hydroxydopamine and 6-Aminodopamine

V. Superoxide and Peroxide Production by Neurotoxins

VI. Hydroxyl Radical Production by Neurotoxins

VII. Protection against Neurotoxins by Endogenous Catecholamines (Superoxide Scavenging)

VIII. Protection against Neurotoxins by Exogenous Scavengers of the Hydroxyl Radical

IX. Neuronal Production of Hydroxyl Radicals Mediated by Monoamine Oxidase

X. Parkinson's Disease: A Working Hypothesis

XI. Stroke

XII. Conclusions


17 Oxygen-Centered Free Radicals as Mediators of Inflammation

I. Host Defense and Inflammation: A Biased Selection of Historical Landmarks

II. Activation of Phagocytes

III. The Contributions of Oxygen-Centered Radicals to Various Aspects of Inflammation

IV. Therapeutic Perspectives


18 Tumor Promotion in Skin: Are Active Oxygen Species Involved?

I. Introduction

II. Initiation

III. Promotion

IV. Mechanistic Aspects of Promotion

V. The Wound Response, a Key Element for an Understanding of Tumor Promotion




No. of pages:
© Academic Press 1985
28th January 1985
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

Helmut Sies

Helmut Sies, MD, PhD (hon), studied medicine at the universities of Tübingen, Munich, and Paris. He was the professor and chair of the Institute for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology I at Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, Germany, where he is now professor emeritus. He is a member of the German National Academy of Sciences Leopoldina and was the president of the North Rhine-Westphalian Academy of Sciences and Arts. He was named ‘Redox Pioneer’; was the president of the Society for Free Radical Research International (SFRRI). Helmut Sies introduced the concept of “Oxidative Stress” in 1985, and was the first to reveal hydrogen peroxide as a normal constituent of aerobic cell metabolism. His research interests comprise redox biology, oxidants, antioxidants, micronutrients.

Affiliations and Expertise

Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, Germany

Ratings and Reviews