Oxidative Damage to Plants - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780127999630, 9780128004609

Oxidative Damage to Plants

1st Edition

Antioxidant Networks and Signaling

Editors: Parvaiz Ahmad
Hardcover ISBN: 9780127999630
eBook ISBN: 9780128004609
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 24th February 2014
Page Count: 672
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With contributions that review research on this topic throughout the world, Oxidative Damage to Plants covers key areas of discovery, from the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROSs), their mechanisms, quenching of these ROSs through enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, and detailed aspects of such antioxidants as SOD and CAT.

Environmental stress is responsible for the generation of oxidative stress, which causes oxidative damage to biomolecules and hence reduces crop yield. To cope up with these problems, scientists have to fully understand the generation of reactive oxygen species, its impact on plants and how plants will be able to withstand these stresses.

Key Features

  • Provides invaluable information about the role of antioxidants in alleviating oxidative stress
  • Examines both the negative effects (senescence, impaired photosynthesis and necrosis) and positive effects (crucial role that superoxide plays against invading microbes) of ROS on plants
  • Features contributors from a variety of regions globally


Researchers, academics and students in plant ecophysiology, plant biochemistry, plant molecular biology, plant pathology, environmental sciences, and agronomy.

Table of Contents





List of Contributors

Chapter 1. Reactive Oxygen Species and Photosynthesis

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Photosynthesis: Light Reactions

1.3 Photosynthesis: Carbon reactions and Photorespiration

1.4 Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)

1.5 Protection of Photosynthetic Plants against Ros

1.6 Redox and ROS Signaling

1.7 ROS Metabolism in Photosynthesizing Organisms: From an Evolutionary Point of View

1.8 Conclusions


Chapter 2. Reactive Oxygen Species and Plant Hormones

2.1 Introduction

2.2 ROS in Plant Signaling

2.3 ROS and Hormone Signaling in Seed Germination

2.4 ROS, Hormones, and Abiotic Stresses

2.5 Conclusions



Chapter 3. Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants: An Overview

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Abiotic Stress Factors and Oxidative Stress

3.3 Antioxidative Responses, Stress Tolerance in Plants

3.4 SOD and Abiotic Stress Factors

3.5 Conclusions



Chapter 4. Catalase: A Versatile Antioxidant in Plants

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Oxidative Stress

4.3 H2O2 An Effective Ros Produced in Plants: Production and Toxicity

4.4 Antioxidant System Against H2O2

4.5 Catalase: A Potent Antioxidant in Plants

4.6 Conclusions



Chapter 5. Role of Glutathione in Abiotic Stress Tolerance

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Plants Under Various Abiotic Stresses

5.3 Tolerance to Abiotic Stresses

5.4 Glutathione

5.5 Changes of Glutathione Content in Various Plants Under Abiotic Stress

5.6 Conclusions


Chapter 6. Glutathione Metabolism in Plants under Environmental Stress

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Glutathione and Photo-Oxidative Stress

6.3 Glutathione and Heavy Metals

6.4 Detoxification of Toxic Substances

6.5 Glutathione-Mediated Tolerance in Plants

6.6 Glutathione Biosynthetic Pathway and Its Regulation

6.7 GSH Homeostasis-Transport

6.8 Conclusions



Chapter 7. Nonenzymatic Antioxidants in Plants

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Formation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in Abiotic Stress in Plants

7.3 Nonenzymatic Antioxidants in Plants

7.4 Role of Nonenzymatic Antioxidants Under Various Stresses

7.5 Conclusions


Chapter 8. Ascorbic Acid: A Potent Defender Against Environmental Stresses

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Chemistry

8.3 Biosynthesis of Ascorbic Acid

8.4 Regulatory Mechanism of Synthesis

8.5 Catabolism of Ascorbic Acid

8.6 Abiotic Stresses, Oxidative Damage and Antioxidants Including Ascorbic Acid

8.7 Functions of Ascorbic Acid

8.8 Role Of AsA in Defending Against the Abiotic Stresses

8.9 Transgenics for Ascorbate Metabolism Under Abiotic Stress

8.10 Transgenics for Ascorbic Acid

8.11 Conclusions


Chapter 9. Carotenoids Involved in Antioxidant System of Chloroplasts

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Chemical Structure of Carotenoids and their Antioxidant Properties

9.3 Photoprotective Role of β-Carotene in Photosynthetic Reaction Center

9.4 Photoprotective Role of Xanthophyll Cycle Pigments

9.5 Conclusions


Chapter 10. Lipophilic Molecules as a Part of Antioxidant System in Plants

10.1 Introduction

10.2 ROS Production Sites in Chloroplasts

10.3 Effect of Different Abiotic Factors on ROS Production and Oxidative Stress

10.4 Characterization of Structure, Biosynthesis and Function of Prenyllipids Occurring in Chloroplasts (Tocochromanols, Plastoquinol)

10.5 Antioxidant Function of Prenyllipids in Chloroplasts

10.6 Involvement of ROS and Lipophilic Antioxidants in Signaling Network

10.7 Conclusions


Chapter 11. Drought Stress Induced Oxidative Damage and Antioxidants in Plants

11.1 Introduction

11.2 ROS Generation in Cell

11.3 Nonenzymatic Antioxidants

11.4 Enzymatic Antioxidants

11.5 Proteomics Under Drought Stress

11.6 Conclusions


Chapter 12. Antioxidant Enzymes: Defense against High Temperature Stress

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Acclimative Response to Heat Stress

12.3 Reactive Oxygen Species and Oxidative Stress

12.4 Antioxidant Enzymes: Active Oxygen Species Defense Systems

12.5 Antioxidant Signaling: Unraveling the Tapestry of Networks

12.6 Conclusions


Chapter 13. Reactive Oxygen Species and Antioxidants in Response to Pathogens and Wounding

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Reactive Oxygen Species

13.3 Antioxidants in Response to Pathogen and Wounding

13.4 Enzymatic Antioxidants in Plant-Pathogen Interaction

13.5 Nonenzymatic Antioxidants

13.6 Conclusions


Chapter 14. Role of Ascorbate Peroxidase in Postharvest Treatments of Horticultural Crops

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Machinery

14.3 Characteristics of Ascorbate Peroxidase

14.4 The Role of Ascorbate Peroxidase

14.5 Environmental Stress and Postharvest Produce

14.6 Conclusions


Chapter 15. Mycorrhizal Association and ROS in Plants

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Ros Observation in Mycorrhizal Associations

15.3 Mycorrhizas and Ros Burst

15.4 Mycorrhizas and Antioxidant Enzymes

15.5 Mycorrhizas and Antioxidants

15.6 Conclusions



Chapter 16. Proline Protects Plants Against Abiotic Oxidative Stress: Biochemical and Molecular Mechanisms

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Pathways of Proline Biosynthesis and Degradation

16.3 Proline Accumulation and Abiotic Stress Tolerance

16.4 ROS Formation Under Abiotic Stress

16.5 ROS Scavenging and Detoxification

16.6 Function of Proline in Stress Resistance

16.7 Molecular Mechanisms of Quenching ROS by Proline Under Stress

16.8 Exogenous Proline Enhances Oxidative Stress Tolerance to Abiotic Stresses

16.9 Higher Endogenous Proline Accumulation and Abiotic Oxidative Stress Tolerance

16.10 Modulation of ROS and Methylglyoxal Detoxification Systems by Exogenous Proline Induces Oxidative Stress Tolerance

16.11 Proline-Accumulating Transgenic Plants and Abiotic Oxidative Stress Tolerance

16.12 Proline-Enhanced Tolerance to Abiotic Oxidative Stress

16.13 Proline Content as an Indicator for Breeding

16.14 Conclusions


Chapter 17. Trace Elements Tolerance Modulated by Antioxidant System in Plants

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Trace Elements and Plants

17.3 Trace Elements and Seed Germination

17.4 Trace Elements and Seedling Establishment

17.5 Conclusions


Chapter 18. Plant Signaling under Environmental Stress

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Stress and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling

18.3 Stress and Reactive Oxygen Species and Redox Signaling

18.4 Stress and Hormonal Signaling

18.5 Stress and Role of miRNAs and siRNAs

18.6 Stress and Plant Proteomics

18.7 Conclusions


Chapter 19. Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) Generation, Scavenging and Signaling in Plants

19.1 Introduction

19.2 The Generation of H2O2

19.3 Removal of H2O2

19.4 H2O2 as a Signaling Molecule

19.5 Conclusions


Chapter 20. Role of ROS as Signaling Molecules in Plants

20.1 Introduction

20.2 Ros Generation and Detoxifying in Plant Cells

20.3 Ros as Signaling Molecules

20.4 Conclusions




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About the Editor

Parvaiz Ahmad

Dr. Parvaiz Ahmad is the Senior Assistant Professor in Department of Botany at Sri Pratap College, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India. He completed his postgraduate education in Botany in 2000 at Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India. After receiving a Doctorate degree from the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Delhi, India, he joined the International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, New Delhi, in 2007. His main research area is Stress Physiology and Molecular Biology. He has published more than 35 research papers in peer-reviewed journals and 29 book chapters. He is also an Editor of 12 volumes (1 with Studium Press Pvt. India Ltd., New Delhi, India, 8 with Springer NY USA and 3 with Elsevier). He is a recipient of the Junior Research Fellowship and Senior Research Fellowship by CSIR, New Delhi, India. Dr. Parvaiz has been awarded the Young Scientist Award under the Fast Track scheme in 2007 by the Department of Science and Technology, of the Government of India. Dr. Parvaiz is actively engaged in studying the molecular and physio-biochemical responses of different agricultural and horticultural plants under environmental stress.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Kashmir, Jammu and Kashmir, India