Osmotic and Ionic Regulation in Animals

Osmotic and Ionic Regulation in Animals

International Series of Monographs on Pure and Applied Biology

1st Edition - January 1, 1964

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  • Authors: W. T. W. Potts, Gwyneth Parry
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483140483

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Osmotic and Ionic Regulation in Animals focuses on the processes involved in osmoregulation. The book first discusses general considerations of osmoregulation in animals, including the distinction of body fluids, definitions, and properties of solutions and membranes. The text also looks at the different types of excretory organs, including the differentiation of the excretory organs of mollusks, crustaceans, and vertebrates; protonephridia; and excretion in insects. The selection also describes the ionic regulation in marine animals. Topics include the selective advantages of ionic regulation; mechanisms of ionic regulation; and composition of tissues. The text also discusses osmotic regulation in brackish and freshwater animals. The book also focuses on osmotic regulation in terrestrial animals, including salt gain and loss, secretions, water loss and uptake, and osmotic pressure and composition of blood. The text is a good source of information for readers interested in osmoregulation.

Table of Contents

  • Contents



    Chapter I. Some General Aspects of Osmo-Regulation in Animals

    I. Introduction

    II. Body Fluids

    (a) Whole Blood

    (b) Plasma

    (c) Serum

    (d) Lymph

    (e) Extracellular and Intracellular Fluid

    III. Definitions

    (a) Quantities and Concentrations; Molar and Molal

    (b) Tonicity and Osmoticity

    (c) Permeability

    IV. The Properties of Solutions and Membranes

    (a) Cell Membranes and Body Walls

    (b) Osmosis and Diffusion

    (c) Permeability To Heavy Water

    (d) Activity Coefficients

    (e Energy Required to Move Solvents and Solutes Against Concentration Graidents

    (f) Donnan Equilibria

    (g) Active Transport of Ions

    (h) Active Transport of Water

    (i) Jon Binding By Proteins

    Chapter II. Excretory Organ

    I. Introduction To The Different Types

    II. Ultrafiltration Systems

    (a) General

    (b) Vertebrates

    (c) Invertebrates

    III. Protonephridia

    IV. Contractile Vacuoles

    V. Excretion in Insects: Malpighian Tubes

    Chapter III: Ionic Regulations in Marine Animals

    I. Introduction

    II. Survey

    (a) Crustaceans

    (b) Arachnids

    (c) Mollusks

    (d) Annelids

    (e) Chordates

    (f) Echinoderms

    (g) Coelenterates

    III. The Selective Advantages Of Ionic Regulation

    IV. Macallum's Hypothesis

    V. Mechanisms of Ionic Regulation

    (a) Permeability Of The Body Walls

    (b) Effects Of Protein In The Body Fluids

    (c) Excretion And Ionic Regulation

    (d) Uptake Of Salts And Water

    VI. Composition of the Tissues

    Chapter IV. Osmotic Regulation in Brackish Waters

    I. Introduction and A Definition of Brackish Water

    II. Blood Concentrations of Brackish Water Animals

    III. Mechanisms of Osmotic Regulation

    (a) Solute Loss

    (b) Water Uptake

    IV. Specific Examples

    (a) Brackish Water Crabs

    (b) Nereis and Perinereis

    (c) Procerodes (Gunda)

    V. Composition of The tissues

    (a) Crustaceans

    (b) Molluscs

    (c) Annelids

    Chapter V. Osmotic Regulation in Fresh Water

    I. Introduction

    II. Freshwater Animals

    (a) Osmotic Pressure of The Blood

    (b) Composition of the Blood

    III. Osmotic Regulation in Freshwater Animals

    (a) Kate of Urine Production And Permeability to Water

    (b) Concentration of The Mine And Renal Salt Loss

    (c) Extrarenal Salt Loss

    IV. Active Uptake of Salts

    (i) Astacus

    (ii) Other Crustaceans

    (iii) Asellus

    (iv) Aedes

    (v) Si Alts

    (vi) Frog

    V. Tissues of Freshwater Animals

    VI. Freshwater Eggs and Embryos

    Chapter VI. Osmotic Regulation in Terrestrial Animals

    I. Introduction

    II. Osmotic Pressure of The Blood

    III. The Composition of The Blood

    IV. Water Loss

    (a) General

    (b) Respiration and Evaporation

    (c) Nitrogen Excretion

    (d) Faeces

    (e) Thermoregulation

    (f) Summary

    V. Water Uptake

    VI. Salt Gain and Loss

    VII. Some Other Body Fluids

    (a) Cerebrospinal Fluid

    (b) The Eye Fluids

    (c) Perilymph and Endolymph

    VIII. Secretions

    (a) Tears

    (b) Pancreatic Juice

    (c) Saliva

    (d) Sweat

    (e) Gastric Juice

    (f) Bile

    (g) Milk

    IX. The Internal Salt and Water Balance

    (a) Water Absorption in the Gut

    (b) Other Internal Movements

    X. The Composition of the Tissues

    (a) Vertebrate Tissues

    (a) Invertebrate Tissues

    XI. Ion Fluxes Through the Tissues

    XII. Terrestrial Eggs and Embryos

    Chapter VII. Hypo-Osmotic Regulators

    I. Introduction

    II. Osmotic Pressure and Composition of the Blood

    (a) Concentration

    (b) Composition

    III. Salt and Water Balance

    (a) Marine Teleosts

    (b) Elasmobranchs

    (c) Lampreys

    (d Tetrapods

    (e) Insects

    (f) Artemia Salina

    (g) Palaemonid Prawns

    (h) Crabs

    (i) Summary

    IV. Other Body Fluids

    V. Tissues

    Eggs and Embryos

    Chapter VIII. Respiration and Electrolyte Regulation

    Chapter IX. The Control of Electrolyte Metabolism

    I. Vertebrates

    (a) Introduction

    (b) Water Balance

    (c) Salt Excretion

    (d) The Control of Water and Salt Uptake

    II. Invertebrates


    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 438
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1964
  • Published: January 1, 1964
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483140483

About the Authors

W. T. W. Potts

Gwyneth Parry

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