Osmotic and Ionic Regulation in Animals - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080135984, 9781483140483

Osmotic and Ionic Regulation in Animals

1st Edition

International Series of Monographs on Pure and Applied Biology

Authors: W. T. W. Potts Gwyneth Parry
eBook ISBN: 9781483140483
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1964
Page Count: 438
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Osmotic and Ionic Regulation in Animals focuses on the processes involved in osmoregulation. The book first discusses general considerations of osmoregulation in animals, including the distinction of body fluids, definitions, and properties of solutions and membranes. The text also looks at the different types of excretory organs, including the differentiation of the excretory organs of mollusks, crustaceans, and vertebrates; protonephridia; and excretion in insects. The selection also describes the ionic regulation in marine animals. Topics include the selective advantages of ionic regulation; mechanisms of ionic regulation; and composition of tissues. The text also discusses osmotic regulation in brackish and freshwater animals. The book also focuses on osmotic regulation in terrestrial animals, including salt gain and loss, secretions, water loss and uptake, and osmotic pressure and composition of blood. The text is a good source of information for readers interested in osmoregulation.

Table of Contents




Chapter I. Some General Aspects of Osmo-Regulation in Animals

I. Introduction

II. Body Fluids

(a) Whole Blood

(b) Plasma

(c) Serum

(d) Lymph

(e) Extracellular and Intracellular Fluid

III. Definitions

(a) Quantities and Concentrations; Molar and Molal

(b) Tonicity and Osmoticity

(c) Permeability

IV. The Properties of Solutions and Membranes

(a) Cell Membranes and Body Walls

(b) Osmosis and Diffusion

(c) Permeability To Heavy Water

(d) Activity Coefficients

(e Energy Required to Move Solvents and Solutes Against Concentration Graidents

(f) Donnan Equilibria

(g) Active Transport of Ions

(h) Active Transport of Water

(i) Jon Binding By Proteins

Chapter II. Excretory Organ

I. Introduction To The Different Types

II. Ultrafiltration Systems

(a) General

(b) Vertebrates

(c) Invertebrates

III. Protonephridia

IV. Contractile Vacuoles

V. Excretion in Insects: Malpighian Tubes

Chapter III: Ionic Regulations in Marine Animals

I. Introduction

II. Survey

(a) Crustaceans

(b) Arachnids

(c) Mollusks

(d) Annelids

(e) Chordates

(f) Echinoderms

(g) Coelenterates

III. The Selective Advantages Of Ionic Regulation

IV. Macallum's Hypothesis

V. Mechanisms of Ionic Regulation

(a) Permeability Of The Body Walls

(b) Effects Of Protein In The Body Fluids

(c) Excretion And Ionic Regulation

(d) Uptake Of Salts And Water

VI. Composition of the Tissues

Chapter IV. Osmotic Regulation in Brackish Waters

I. Introduction and A Definition of Brackish Water

II. Blood Concentrations of Brackish Water Animals

III. Mechanisms of Osmotic Regulation

(a) Solute Loss

(b) Water Uptake

IV. Specific Examples

(a) Brackish Water Crabs

(b) Nereis and Perinereis

(c) Procerodes (Gunda)

V. Composition of The tissues

(a) Crustaceans

(b) Molluscs

(c) Annelids

Chapter V. Osmotic Regulation in Fresh Water

I. Introduction

II. Freshwater Animals

(a) Osmotic Pressure of The Blood

(b) Composition of the Blood

III. Osmotic Regulation in Freshwater Animals

(a) Kate of Urine Production And Permeability to Water

(b) Concentration of The Mine And Renal Salt Loss

(c) Extrarenal Salt Loss

IV. Active Uptake of Salts

(i) Astacus

(ii) Other Crustaceans

(iii) Asellus

(iv) Aedes

(v) Si Alts

(vi) Frog

V. Tissues of Freshwater Animals

VI. Freshwater Eggs and Embryos

Chapter VI. Osmotic Regulation in Terrestrial Animals

I. Introduction

II. Osmotic Pressure of The Blood

III. The Composition of The Blood

IV. Water Loss

(a) General

(b) Respiration and Evaporation

(c) Nitrogen Excretion

(d) Faeces

(e) Thermoregulation

(f) Summary

V. Water Uptake

VI. Salt Gain and Loss

VII. Some Other Body Fluids

(a) Cerebrospinal Fluid

(b) The Eye Fluids

(c) Perilymph and Endolymph

VIII. Secretions

(a) Tears

(b) Pancreatic Juice

(c) Saliva

(d) Sweat

(e) Gastric Juice

(f) Bile

(g) Milk

IX. The Internal Salt and Water Balance

(a) Water Absorption in the Gut

(b) Other Internal Movements

X. The Composition of the Tissues

(a) Vertebrate Tissues

(a) Invertebrate Tissues

XI. Ion Fluxes Through the Tissues

XII. Terrestrial Eggs and Embryos

Chapter VII. Hypo-Osmotic Regulators

I. Introduction

II. Osmotic Pressure and Composition of the Blood

(a) Concentration

(b) Composition

III. Salt and Water Balance

(a) Marine Teleosts

(b) Elasmobranchs

(c) Lampreys

(d Tetrapods

(e) Insects

(f) Artemia Salina

(g) Palaemonid Prawns

(h) Crabs

(i) Summary

IV. Other Body Fluids

V. Tissues

Eggs and Embryos

Chapter VIII. Respiration and Electrolyte Regulation

Chapter IX. The Control of Electrolyte Metabolism

I. Vertebrates

(a) Introduction

(b) Water Balance

(c) Salt Excretion

(d) The Control of Water and Salt Uptake

II. Invertebrates


Author Index

Subject Index


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© Pergamon 1964
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About the Author

W. T. W. Potts

Gwyneth Parry

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