Origins of the Earth, Moon, and Life

Origins of the Earth, Moon, and Life

An Interdisciplinary Approach

1st Edition - January 27, 2017

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  • Author: Akio Makishima
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128120590
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128120583

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Origins of the Earth, Moon, and Life: An Interdisciplinary Approach presents state-of-the-art knowledge that is based on theories, experiments, observations, calculations, and analytical data from five astro-sciences, astronomy, astrobiology, astrogeology, astrophysics, and cosmochemistry. Beginning with the origin of elements, and moving on to cover the formation of the early Solar System, the giant impact model of the Earth and Moon, the oldest records of life, and the possibility of life on other planets in the Solar System, this interdisciplinary reference provides a complex understanding of the planets and the formation of life. Synthesizing concepts from all branches of astro-sciences into one, the book is a valuable reference for researchers in astrogeology, astrophysics, cosmochemistry, astrobiology, astronomy, and other space science fields, helping users better understand the intersection of these sciences.

Key Features

  • Includes extensive figures and tables to enhance key concepts
  • Uses callout boxes throughout to provide context and deeper explanations
  • Presents up-to-date information on the universe, stars, planets, moons, and life in the solar system
  • Combines knowledge from the fields of astrogeology, astrophysics, cosmochemistry, astrobiology, and astronomy, helping readers understand the origins of the Earth, the moon, and life in our solar system


Researchers in astrogeology, astrophysics, cosmochemistry, astrobiology, astronomy, and other space science fields

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1. Origin of Elements

    • 1.1. Origin of Protons (Hydrogen Atoms)
    • 1.2. Types of Radioactive Decays
    • 1.3. Three Forces Sustain a Star in a Fine Balance
    • 1.4. Element Synthesis in Stars
    • 1.5. Element Syntheses in Other Processes
    • 1.6. Type Ia Supernova
    • 1.7. The Oldest Galaxy Ever Found
    • 1.8. The Oldest Star Found So Far
    • 1.9. Element Syntheses by a Short-Duration γ-Ray Burst

    Chapter 2. Formation of the Proto-Earth in the Solar Nebula

    • 2.1. Evolution of Molecular Clouds to the Solar Nebula
    • 2.2. From the Presolar Nebula to the Solar System
    • 2.3. Age Dating by Radioactive Isotopes
    • 2.4. Model Age
    • 2.5. Extinct Nuclides
    • 2.6. The 182Hf–182W Isotope System
    • 2.7. Mass Spectrometry
    • 2.8. Formation of Gas Giant Planets and Asteroids: The Nice Model
    • 2.9. The Late Heavy Bombardment in the Nice Model
    • 2.10. The Grand Tack Model: The Resonance of Jupiter and Saturn
    • 2.11. Formation of Inner Planets in the Grand Tack Model
    • 2.12. Inconsistency Between Our Solar System and Exosolar Systems Found by the Kepler Program
    • 2.13. Observation of Planets and Asteroid Belts

    Chapter 3. The Giant Impact Made the Present Earth–Moon System

    • 3.1. Introduction
    • 3.2. History of a Giant Impact Model
    • 3.3. Apollo Program: Landing on the Moon and Sampling Moon Rocks
    • 3.4. Similarity Between Chemical Compositions of the Moon and Earth’s Mantle
    • 3.5. Constraints From High Field Strength Element
    • 3.6. Mass Fractionation of Oxygen Isotopic Ratio of 18O/16O
    • 3.7. Mass Fractionation of Three Oxygen Isotope Ratios
    • 3.8. Constraints From Stable Isotope Ratios for the Origin of the Present Earth and Moon
    • 3.9. Astrophysical Models for the Giant Impact

    Chapter 4. What Is the Late Veneer, and Why Is It Necessary?

    • 4.1. Introduction
    • 4.2. Constraints From Highly Siderophile Elements and Platinum Group Elements
    • 4.3. Constraints for the Late Veneer From W Isotopes
    • 4.4. Constraints on the Late Veneer From Oxygen Isotope Ratios
    • 4.5. Statistics

    Chapter 5. The Age of the Moon

    • 5.1. Introduction
    • 5.2. Age of FANs
    • 5.3. Zircon Ages
    • 5.4. Age of KREEP Rocks
    • 5.5. Age of Mg-Suite Rocks
    • 5.6. Age of the Moon Mantle Differentiation by the 146Sm-142Nd Method
    • 5.7. Implication of the Lunar Age

    Chapter 6. Age of the Earth From Geological Records Remaining on the Earth Surface

    • 6.1. Introduction
    • 6.2. Core Formation Age From Hf–W Systematics
    • 6.3. U–Pb Age of the Earth
    • 6.4. Age of the Earth’s Atmosphere From I–Pu–Xe Systematics
    • 6.5. Application of 142Nd Isotope Systematics to the Oldest Crusts on Earth
    • 6.6. Oldest Zircon on Earth
    • 6.7. First Water on the Early Earth From Oxygen Isotopic Data of Zircon by HR-SIMS

    Chapter 7. Life on Mars From the Martian Meteorite?

    • 7.1. Introduction
    • 7.2. Fundamental Knowledge of Astrobiology
    • 7.3. Report for the Discovery of Life in the Martian Meteorite ALH84001
    • 7.4. Detailed Explanation in the Report of McKay et al. (1996)
    • 7.5. Life in the Martian Meteorite Was a Big Mistake!

    Chapter 8. The Hadean and Archaean Atmosphere and the Oldest Records of Life as Micro- or Chemofossils

    • 8.1. Introduction
    • 8.2. The Perspective of Atmospheric Evolution From the Hadean to the Archean Earth
    • 8.3. Transportation of Materials on the Archaean Earth by Late Heavy Bombardment
    • 8.4. Is the Apex Chert, From the Pilbara Area, Western Australia, the Oldest Microfossils?
    • 8.5. Carbon Isotopic Fractionation
    • 8.6. The Evidence of Life Older Than 3800Ma at the Isua Supracrustal Belt and Akilia Island, West Greenland
    • 8.7. 13C-Depleted Carbon Microparticles in >3700Ma Sea-Floor Sedimentary Rocks From West Greenland
    • 8.8. Questioning the Evidence for the Earth’s Oldest Fossils in Apex Cherts
    • 8.9. Objection to the Earliest Life on Akilia Island
    • 8.10. Back to the Isua Supracrustal Belt (ISB), Western Greenland
    • 8.11. Geological Evidence of Recycling of Altered Crust in the Hadean Eon
    • 8.12. Origin of Life Back to 4.1Billion Years Ago

    Chapter 9. How Did Initial Life-Related Molecules Appear on Earth?

    • 9.1. Introduction
    • 9.2. Classic Experiments
    • 9.3. Cosmic Origin of CHOs and CHONs
    • 9.4. Introduction to Impact-Shock Experiments for Syntheses of CHOs and CHONs
    • 9.5. Syntheses of CHOs by UV Irradiation on Interstellar Ices
    • 9.6. The Experiment Where the Icy Comet Hits Another Icy Comet in Space
    • 9.7. The Icy Planet and Icy Planet/Archean Earth Collisions
    • 9.8. The Ice Planet That Fell on Earth’s Ocean
    • 9.9. Summary for the Formation of CHOs and CHONs
    • 9.10. Selection of CHO and CHON Enantiomers
    • 9.11. Discovery of Chiral Molecule in Space

    Chapter 10. From Life-Related Molecules to Life

    • 10.1. Introduction
    • 10.2. Characterization of Present Life
    • 10.3. The Schematic Structure of the Eukaryote Cell
    • 10.4. The Protocell
    • 10.5. A Reproduction Model of the Protocell
    • 10.6. Hypothetical Evolution Steps of Life
    • 10.7. Assembly of Nucleic Acids Without Enzyme
    • 10.8. The Cytoplasm of the Protocell
    • 10.9. The Cell Cycle
    • 10.10. Road From Protocell to Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukaryota

    Chapter 11. Possibility of Life on Other Planetary Bodies in Our Solar System

    • 11.1. Introduction
    • 11.2. Mars
    • 11.3. The Dawn Mission for Asteroids 4 Vesta and 1 Ceres
    • 11.4. Four Contrasting Moons of Jupiter
    • 11.5. Moons of Saturn
    • 11.6. Pluto and Charon

    Chapter 12. Conclusions

Product details

  • No. of pages: 268
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2017
  • Published: January 27, 2017
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128120590
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128120583

About the Author

Akio Makishima

Akio Makishima is a Professor for the Institute for Planetary Materials at Okayama University. He obtained his Ph.D. from Tokyo University under supervision of Professor Akimasa Masuda. After three years in the Analytical Research Center of Nippon Steel Co. Ltd, he was appointed assistant professor and finally obtained professorship. His research interests deal primarily with planetary science and geochemistry. He has authored over 60 scientific publications and two books.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Institute for Planetary Materials, Okayama University, Japan

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  • Akio M. Wed Feb 07 2018

    Origins of the Earth, Moon,

    Origins of the Earth, Moon, and Life