Origins of Clinical Chemistry  - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780125975803, 9780323152921

Origins of Clinical Chemistry

1st Edition

The Evolution of Protein Analysis

Authors: Louis Rosenfeld
eBook ISBN: 9780323152921
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1982
Page Count: 384
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Origins of Clinical Chemistry: The Evolution of Protein Analysis covers the history of the application of analytical methods to the plasma protein analysis. This book is divided into 20 chapters that consider the relationship between the limitation of technical accuracy and clinical interpretation.

The introductory chapters provide an overview of the concept and issues in protein chemistry, as well as the history of organic chemistry. The succeeding chapters deal with the classification, detection, fractionation, and analysis of proteins. Considerable chapters are devoted to various analytical techniques for protein analysis, including colorimetry, photometry, Svedberg technique, ultracentrifuging, zone electrophoresis, immunohistochemical methods, and radioimmunoassay. The remaining chapters examine the detection and analysis of proteins in several body fluids, such as urine and cerebrospinal fluid.

This book will be of great value to clinical, analytical, and organic chemists, as well as to protein scientists and researchers.

Table of Contents




1. Protein: Concept and Controversy

I. Protein: The Ubiquitous Molecule

II. Metabolism of Protein

III. The Development of Protein Chemistry

IV. The Word and the Concept

V. The Protein Theory of Mulder

VI. Liebig's Analyses

VII. Mulder's Conflict with Liebig

VIII. Liebig's Laboratory at Giessen

IX. Dumas

2. The Colloidal State

I. The Tyndall Effect

II. The Ultramicroscope

III. Different Worlds of Matter

IV. The Size of Colloidal Particles

3. The Origins of Organic Chemistry

I. The Vital Force

II. The Chemical Nature of Organic Compounds

III. The Discovery of Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Hydrogen

IV. Lavoisier

V. The Diversity of Organic Compounds

VI. Wöhler's Synthesis of Urea

VII. The New Organic Chemistry

VIII. Discovery of the Amino Acids

IX. Chemical Techniques for Separating Amino Acids

X. The Vast Diversity of Protein Structure

XI. Protein Structure: The Fischer-Hofmeister Theory

XII. Molecular Size of Proteins

4. The Kjeldahl Method for Nitrogen

I. Introduction

II. The Dumas Method for Nitrogen

III. The Carlsberg Laboratory

IV. Development of the Kjeldahl Method

V. Impact of the Kjeldahl Method

VI. Modifications and Improvements

VII. Application of the Method to Combined Nitrogen

VIII. Description of the Procedure

IX. Current Status

X. Kjeldahl Analysis of Plasma Proteins

5. Classification of Proteins

I. Introduction

II. Simple Proteins

III. Conjugated Proteins

IV. Derived Proteins

V. The Basis of Plasma Protein Analysis

6. Detection of Protein

I. Introduction

II. Criteria of Purity

III. Analysis of Protein

7. Protein Fractionation

I. Introduction

II. Early Distinctions between Albumin and Globulin

III. The Precipitating Action of Ammonium Sulfate

IV. The Precipitating Action of Sodium Sulfate

V. Howe's Method for Fractionating Serum Proteins

VI. Advantages and Disadvantages of Howe's Method

VII. Inhomogeneity of Salt-Precipitated Fractions

VIII. Discrepancy between Electrophoresis and Salt Precipitation Methods

IX. Modification and Improvement of Howe's Method

X. Precipitation of Globulin with Sodium Sulfite

XI. Protein Precipitation with Phosphate Buffers

XII. Precipitating Action of Heavy Metals and Alkaloidal Reagents

XIII. Precipitation with Organic Solvents

8. Nonspecific Tests and Procedures

I. Determination of Physical Properties of Protein Solutions

II. The Turbidity Procedures

9. Colorimetry and Photometry

I. Introduction

II. Colorimetry

III. Nephelometry

IV. Turbidimetry

V. Photometric Colorimetry

VI. The Biuret Reaction

VII. Phenol Reaction for Tyrosine

VIII. Ultraviolet Absorbance (250-300 nm)

IX. Far Ultraviolet Absorbance (200-250 nm)

X. Biuret: The Popular Choice

XI. Albumin-Specific Dye Binding

XII. Direct Colorimetric Analysis of Globulin

XIII. Analysis of γ-Globulin

XIV. Normal Serum Protein Values

10. Svedberg and the Ultracentrifuge

I. Introduction

II. Early Work of Svedberg

III. The Optical Centrifuge

IV. Construction of the "Ultra-Centrifuge"

V. Determining the Molecular Weight of Proteins

VI. Physical Parameters Affecting the Analysis

VII. The Oil-Turbine Ultracentrifuge

VIII. Monodisperse Systems

IX. Improvements in Design

X. The Optical System

XI. Later Designs of the Ultracentrifuge

XII. The Existence of Proteins as Uniform Molecules

XIII. Sedimentation Coefficient

XIV. Limitation of Clinical Applications

XV. Other Applications

11. Tiselius and the Moving Boundary Electrophoresis

I. Historical Introduction

II. Early Experiments

III. Modern Era of Protein Electrophoresis

IV. Electrokinetic Phenomena of Protein Solutions

V. Electrophoretic Techniques

VI. A New Electrophoresis Instrument

VII. The Moving Boundary Pattern

VIII. Practical Disadvantages of Moving Boundary Electrophoresis

IX. Nonclinical Applications

X. Retrospect

12. Zone Electrophoresis on Paper

I. Historical Introduction

II. Early Investigations with Support Media

III. The Introduction of Paper Support for Protein Electrophoresis

IV. Types of Apparatus

V. Electrode Vessels

VI. Characteristics of Electrophoresis on Support Media

13. Quantitation on Paper with Protein Dye

I. Introduction

II. Dye Elution

III. Optical Problems of Direct Scanning

IV. Direct Scanning

V. TheAnalytrol

VI. The Empirical Nature of Protein Staining

VII. Development of the Bromphenol Blue Staining Procedure

VIII. The Versatility of Zone Electrophoresis

IX. Quantitation and the Variability of Dye Uptake

14. Other Stabilized Media for Zone Electrophoresis

I. Cellulose Acetate Electrophoresis

II. Agar Gel

III. Agarose Gel

IV. High-Resolution Electrophoresis

V. Automation of Electrophoresis

15. Immunochemistry of Proteins

I. Principles

II. Immunochemical Methods of Analysis

III. Limitations of Immunological Methods

IV. Instrumentation

V. Early Clinical Applications

VI. The Accelerating Effect of Hydrophilic Polymers

VII. Discrete Sample Analysis

16. Proteins in Urine

I. Early History

II. Original Observation of Bence Jones Protein

III. Chemical Identity of Bence Jones Proteins

IV. The Heat Test

V. Electrophoretic Detection of the "M" Component

VI. Transient Proteinuria

VII. Renal Mechanism of Proteinuria

VIII. Components of Urinary Proteins

IX. Determination of Protein in Urine

X. Technology of the Future

17. Proteins in Cerebrospinal Fluid

I. Discovery of Spinal Fluid

II. Protein Content of Spinal Fluid

III. Flocculation Tests

IV. Quantitative Tests for Protein

18. The Fibrinogen to Fibrin Transformation

I. The Coagulation of Blood

II. Fibrinogen Analysis

III. Fibrinogen in Health and Disease

19. Radioimmunoassay

I. Radioimmunoassay

II. Alternative Markers

20. In Summation




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© Academic Press 1982
Academic Press
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About the Author

Louis Rosenfeld

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