Organicum - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780201055047, 9781483146287


1st Edition

Practical Handbook of Organic Chemistry

Authors: Heinz Becker Werner Berger Günter Domschke
eBook ISBN: 9781483146287
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1973
Page Count: 768
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Organicum: Practical Handbook of Organic Chemistry focuses on the theory, laboratory practice, and aspects of technical use related to organic chemistry.

This book discusses the standard apparatus for organic reactions, heating of inflammable liquids, performance of a simple distillation, and partition chromatography in separating columns. The time factor in organic chemical reactions, distribution of the electron density in organic molecules, and synthesis of ethers from alkoxides or phenoxides are also elaborated. This text likewise covers the mechanism of electrophilic aromatic substitution, quinones from aromatic hydrocarbons, and reduction of carbonyl compounds by means of complex hydrides. Other topics include the reaction with ammoniacal solution of a silver salt, preparation of the dimedone derivatives, and saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons.

This publication is suitable for chemists and researchers conducting work in organic chemistry.

Table of Contents

Preface to the First German Edition

Preface to the Fifth German Edition

Preface to the First English Edition

A. Introduction to Laboratory Technique

1. Means and Methods for the Performance of Organic Chemical Reactions

1.1. Types of Glass and Glass Joints

1.2. Vessels

1.3. Condensers

1.4. Standard Apparatus for Organic Reactions

1.5. Stirring and Shaking

1.6. Metering and Introduction of Gases

1.7. Heating and Cooling

1.8. Working Under Pressure

1.9. Working Under Reduced Pressure

1.10. Drying

2. Separating Processes

2.1. Filtration and Centrifuging

2.2. Crystallization

2.3. Distillation and Rectification

2.4. Sublimation

2.5. Extraction and Distribution or Partition

2.6. Adsorption and Adsorption Chromatography

3. The Determination of the Physical Properties of Organic Compounds

3.1. Melting Point

3.2. Boiling Point

3.3. Density

3.4. Refractometry

3.5. Polarimetry

3.6. Absorption Spectroscopy

4. Storage of Chemicals, Destruction of Dangerous Wastes

4.1. Storage of Chemicals

4.2. Wastes and their Destruction

5. Basic Equipment

6. Literature References

B. The Literature of Organic Chemistry; Report Writing

1. Reference Literature

2. Periodical Literature

3. Patent Literature

4. Handbooks, Collections of Methods, Progress Reports

5. Books of Tables

6. Textbooks

7. Report Writing

8. Literature Reference

C. Some General Principles

1. Classification of Organic Chemical Reactions

1.1. According to the Reaction Path

1.2. According to the Nature of the Bond Rearrangement

1.3. According to the Number of Molecules Involved in the Rate-Determining Steps of the Reactions

2. The Acid-Base Concept

3. The Time Factor in Organic Chemical Reactions

3.1. Successive Reactions

3.2. Competing Reactions

4. The Influence of Substituents on the Electron Density Distribution and on the Reactivity of Organic Molecules

4.1. The Distribution of the Electron Density in Organic Molecules

4.2. The Influence of Substituents on the Reactivity of Organic Compounds. The Hammett Equation

5. Literature References

6. Abbreviations

D. Organic Preparative Section

On the Use of Experimental Details and Tables

1. Radical Substitution

1.1. Production and Stability of Radicals

1.2. Reactions of Free Radicals. Radical Chain Reactions

1.3. Reactivity and Selectivity in Radical Substitutions

1.4. Detection of Radicals and Indications of Radical Reactions

1.5. Radical Halogenations

1.6. Oxidations with Molecular Oxygen

1.7. Other Radical Substitution Reactions

1.8. Literature References

2. Nucleophilic Substitution on a Saturated Carbon Atom

2.1. General Course and Molecularity of the Reaction

2.2. Factors Affecting the Course of Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions

2.3. Relationship Between Type of Substitution and Substitution Products

2.4. Nucleophilic Substitution in Alcohols and Ethers

2.5. Nucleophilic Substitution in Alkyl Halides and Sulphates and Alkanesulphonates

2.6. Literature References

3. Elimination with the Formation of Multiple C—C Bonds

3.1. Ionic Eliminations

3.2. Thermal cis-Eliminations

3.3. Literature References

4. Additions to Non-Activated Multiple C—C Bonds

4.1. Electrophilic Addition to Alkenes and Alkynes

4.2. Nucleophilic Addition

4.3. Radical Addition

4.4. Catalytic Hydrogénation

4.5. Literature References

5. Electrophilic and Nucleophilic Substitution in Aromatics

5.1. Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution

5.2. Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution

5.3. Literature References

6. Oxidation and Dehydrogenation

6.1. General Features

6.2. Oxidation of Methyl and Méthylène Groups

6.3. Oxidation of Primary and Secondary Alcohols and Aldehydes

6.4. Quinones by Oxidation

6.5. Oxidations with C—C Cleavage

6.6. Dehydrogenation of Hydrocarbons and Hydroaromatics

6.7. Literature References

7. Reactions of Carbonyl Compounds

7.1. Reactions of Carbonyl Compounds with Bases

7.2. Reactions of Carbonyl Compounds with C—H Acidic Compounds

7.3. Reactions of Carbonyl Compounds with Cryptobases

7.4. Reactions of Vinylogous Carbonyl Compounds

7.5. Literature References

8. Reactions of other Hetero-Analogous Carbonyl Compounds

8.1. Reduction of Nitro Compounds and Nitroso Compounds

8.2. Reactions of Nitrous Acid

8.3. Reactions of the Diazonium Salts

8.4. Some Reactions of Aliphatic Diazo Compounds

8.5. Reactions of Sulphonic Acid Derivatives

8.6. Literature References

9. Rearrangements

9.1. Nucleophilic 1,2-Rearrangements

9.2. Aromatic Rearrangements

9.3. Literature References

E. The Identification of Organic Substances

1. Preliminary Tests and Detection of Functional Groups

1.1. Preliminary Tests

1.2. Testing for Functional Groups

2. Preparation of Derivatives

2.1. Ethers

2.2. Aldehydes and Ketones

2.3. Alcohols

2.4. Amines

2.5. Amino-Acids

2.6. Carboxylic Acids

2.7. Amides and Nitriles

2.8. Carboxylic Acid Esters

2.9. Halogenohydrocarbons

2.10. Hydrocarbons

2.11. Nitro and Nitroso Compounds

2.12. Thiols and Thiophenols

2.13. Phenols

2.14. Sulphonic Acids

3. Separation of Mixtures

4. Problems for Practice

5. Literature References

6. Tables for the Characterization of Organic Compounds

F. Properties, Purification, and Preparation of Important Reagents, Solvents, and Auxiliaries (Reagent Appendix)

G. The Toxieity of Important Chemicals

Appendix to Organicum

Review of Common Methods for the Preparation of Important Classes of Compounds (Method Index)



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© Pergamon 1973
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About the Author

Heinz Becker

Werner Berger

Günter Domschke

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