Optical Radiometry for Ocean Climate Measurements - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124170117, 9780124169944

Optical Radiometry for Ocean Climate Measurements, Volume 47

1st Edition

Series Volume Editors: Giuseppe Zibordi Craig Donlon Albert Parr
eBook ISBN: 9780124169944
Hardcover ISBN: 9780124170117
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 17th November 2014
Page Count: 722
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Table of Contents

  • Experimental Methods in the Physical Sciences
  • List of Contributors
  • Volumes in Series
    • Experimental Methods in the Physical Sciences (Formerly Methods of Experimental Physics)
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • Chapter 1. Introduction to Optical Radiometry and Ocean Climate Measurements from Space
  • Chapter 1.1. Ocean Climate and Satellite Optical Radiometry
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Global Climate Observing System Requirements for ECVs and CDRs
    • 3. From Essential Climate Variables to Climate Data Records
    • 4. Conclusion
  • Chapter 1.2. Principles of Optical Radiometry and Measurement Uncertainty
    • 1. Basics of Radiometry
    • 2. Radiometric Standards and Scale Realizations
    • 3. The Measurement Equation
    • 4. Summary
  • Chapter 2. Satellite Radiometry
  • Chapter 2.1. Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Design Concepts and Performance Requirements
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Ocean Color Measurement Fundamentals and Related Science Objectives
    • 3. Evolution of Science Objectives and Sensor Requirements
    • 4. Performance Parameters and Specifications
    • 5. Sensor Engineering
    • 6. Summary
    • Acronyms
    • Symbols and Dimensions
    • 7. Appendix. Historical Sensors
  • Chapter 2.2. On Orbit Calibration of Ocean Color Reflective Solar Bands
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Solar Calibration
    • 3. Lunar Calibrations
    • 4. Spectral Calibration of Grating Instruments
    • 5. Vicarious Calibration
    • 6. On-orbit Calibration Uncertainties
    • 7. Comparison of Uncertainties Across Instruments
    • 8. Summary of On-orbit Calibration
  • Chapter 2.3. Thermal Infrared Satellite Radiometers: Design and Prelaunch Characterization
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Radiometer Design Principles
    • 3. Remote Sensing Systems
    • 4. Calibration Model
    • 5. On-Board Calibration
    • 6. Pre-launch Characterization and Calibration
    • 7. Conclusions
  • Chapter 2.4. Postlaunch Calibration and Stability: Thermal Infrared Satellite Radiometers
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. On-Board Calibration
    • 3. Comparisons with Reference Satellite Sensors
    • 4. Validating Geophysical Retrievals
    • 5. Discussion
    • 6. Conclusions
  • Chapter 3. In Situ Optical Radiometry
  • Chapter 3.1. In situ Optical Radiometry in the Visible and Near Infrared
    • 1. Introduction and History
    • 2. Field Radiometer Systems
    • 3. System Calibration
    • 4. Measurement Methods
    • 5. Errors and Uncertainty Estimates
    • 6. Applications
    • 7. Summary and Outlook
  • Chapter 3.2. Ship-Borne Thermal Infrared Radiometer Systems
    • 1. Introduction and Background
    • 2. TIR Measurement Theory
    • 3. TIR Field Radiometer Design
    • 4. Examples of FRM Ship-Borne TIR Radiometer Design and Deployments
    • 5. Future Directions
    • 6. Conclusions
  • Chapter 4. Theoretical Investigations
  • Chapter 4.1. Simulation of In Situ Visible Radiometric Measurements
    • 1. Overview
    • 2. The RTE and Its Solution Methods
    • 3. Simulations of In Situ Radiometric Measurement Perturbations
    • 4. Summary and Remarks
  • Chapter 4.2. Simulation of Satellite Visible, Near-Infrared, and Shortwave-Infrared Measurements
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Ocean–Atmospheric System
    • 3. Simulations
    • 4. Summary
    • Disclaimer
  • Chapter 4.3. Simulation and Inversion of Satellite Thermal Measurements
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Radiative Transfer Simulation for Thermal Remote Sensing
    • 3. Propagation of Thermal Radiation through Clear Sky
    • 4. Simulation of Interaction with Aerosol and Cloud
    • 5. Simulation of Surface Emission and Reflection
    • 6. Use of Simulations in Thermal Image Classification (Cloud Detection)
    • 7. Use of Simulations in Geophysical Inversion (Retrieval)
    • 8. Use of Simulations in Uncertainty Estimation
    • 9. Conclusion
  • Chapter 5. In Situ Measurement Strategies
  • Chapter 5.1. Requirements and Strategies for In situ Radiometry in Support of Satellite Ocean Color
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Overview of Past and Current Field-Related Radiometric Activities
    • 3. Requirements and Strategies for Future Satellite Ocean-Color Missions
    • 4. Summary and Way Forward
  • Chapter 5.2. Strategies for the Laboratory and Field Deployment of Ship-Borne Fiducial Reference Thermal Infrared Radiometers in Support of Satellite-Derived Sea Surface Temperature Climate Data Records
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Fiducial Reference Measurements for SST CDRS and Uncertainty Budgets
    • 3. Laboratory Intercalibration Experiments for FRM Ship-Borne Radiometers
    • 4. Ship-Borne Radiometer Field Intercomparison Exercises
    • 5. Protocols to Maintain the SI Traceability of FRM Ship-Borne TIR Radiometers for Satellite SST Validation
    • 6. Summary and Future Perspectives
  • Chapter 6. Assessment of Satellite Products for Climate Applications
  • Chapter 6.1. Assessment of Satellite Ocean Colour Radiometry and Derived Geophysical Products
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Validation of Satellite Products
    • 3. Comparison of Cross-Mission Data Products
    • 4. Conclusions
  • Chapter 6.2. Assessment of Long-Term Satellite Derived Sea Surface Temperature Records
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Background
    • 3. Assessment of Long-Term SST Datasets
    • 4. Summary and Recommendations
  • Index


This book presents the state-of-the-art of optical remote sensing applied for the generation of marine climate-quality data products, with contributions by international experts in the field. The chapters are logically grouped into six thematic parts, each introduced by a brief overview. The different parts include: i. requirements for the generation of climate data records from satellite ocean measurements and additionally basic radiometry principles addressing terminology, standards, measurement equation and uncertainties; ii. satellite visible and thermal infrared radiometry embracing instrument design, characterization and, pre- and post-launch calibration; iii. in situ visible and thermal infrared radiometry including overviews on basic principles, technology and measurements methods required to support satellite missions devoted to climate change investigations; iv. simulations as fundamental tools to support interpretation and analysis of both in situ and satellite radiometric measurements; v. strategies for in situ radiometry to satisfy mission requirements for the generation of climate data records; and finally, vi. methods for the assessment of satellite data products.

Fundamentals of measurement theory are taken through to implementation of practical ground based radiometers and their application to validate satellite data used to generate climate data records. This book presents practical solutions for those involved or contemplating the validation of optical climate measurements from satellite instruments.

Key Features

  • Exhaustive coverage of important topics
  • Fundamental and advanced discussions of many types of instruments
  • Emphasis on calibration and uncertainty analysis of results


Climate change investigators, oceanographers, students, teachers and scientists interested in state of the art ocean remote sensing for climate change investigations


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© Academic Press 2014
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
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About the Series Volume Editors

Giuseppe Zibordi Series Volume Editor

Dr. Zibordi received a Laurea in Physics from the University of Modena (Italy) and a Ph.D. in Oceanography from the University of Southampton (United Kingdom). He was a researcher at the Italian National Research Council in Modena from 1984 to 1992, where his work focused on quantitative remote sensing for coastal and polar regions. Since 1993 he is with the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Ispra (Italy), working on satellite ocean color development and validation activities. His research interests include remote sensing techniques for the determination of atmospheric and marine optical properties, and, methods for in situ optical measurements and for the radiometric calibration of optical instruments. Dr. Zibordi has authored or co-authored over 90 research articles in peer-reviewed international journals.

Affiliations and Expertise

Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy

Craig Donlon Series Volume Editor

Dr. Donlon received a B.Sc. First class (Hon) in 1989 from the University of Lancaster, UK and a Ph.D. in Oceanography from the University of Southampton, UK in 1994. He worked at the University of Colorado, USA as an Assistant Research Professor, at the European Commission Joint Research Centre Italy for 5 years in the Institute for Environment and Sustainability and at the Met Office UK for 5 years in the Operational Oceanography division. He was Director of the Group for High Resolution SST (GHRSST) 2000-2011. Since September 2008, Dr. Donlon has worked at the European Space Agency as the Principal Scientist for Oceans and Ice in the Mission Science Division of Earth Observation Programmes Directorate. He is the Mission Scientist for the Copernicus Sentinel-3 Satellite. Dr Donlon has published his research in over 70 journal articles in the scientific literature. His main interests include remote sensing of oceans, development and preparation of new satellite concepts and missions for oceanography, oceanographic application of satellite data, development of satellite climate data records of sea surface temperature, design of reference thermal infrared black body reference radiance sources, design, construction, software development, calibration and deployment of sea-going infrared radiometer systems for the validation of satellite SST data sets.

Affiliations and Expertise

European Space Agency/ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands

Albert Parr Series Volume Editor

Dr. Parr received an MS and PhD (1970) from the University of Chicago and was involved in research in synchrotron radiation research and development, spectroscopy, and ion chemistry at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). He joined the Optical Technology Division in 1986 and was active in developing new calibration and measurement strategies based upon the high accuracy cryogenic radiometer. This includes redefinition of the U.S. National SI units of the candela and lumen based upon measurements directly traceable to the cryogenic radiometer. Dr. Parr retired as Chief of the Optical Technology Division in 2007 and continues to consult on radiometric matters related to remote sensing in addition to editor work on the Elsevier series, Experimental Methods in the Physical Sciences. Dr. Parr has published extensively on his research and has over 100 articles in the scientific literature.

Affiliations and Expertise

Space Dynamics Lab (SDL) at Utah State University in Logan, UT, USA